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  • 1.
    Donner, Erica
    et al.
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence and fate of priority substances in domestic greywater treatment and reuse systems2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 12, p. 2444-2451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of household sources may potentially contribute to contaminant loads in domestic greywater. The ability of greywater treatment systems to act as emission control barriers for household micropollutants, thereby providing environmental benefits in addition to potable water savings, have not been fully explored. This paper investigates the sources, presence and potential fate of a selection of xenobiotic micropollutants in on-site greywater treatment systems. All of the investigated compounds are listed under the European Water Framework Directive as either "Priority Substances" (PS) or "Priority Hazardous Substances" (PHS). Significant knowledge gaps are identified. A wide range of potential treatment trains are available for greywater treatment and reuse but treatment efficiency data for priority substances and other micropollutants is very limited. Geochemical modelling indicates that PS/PHS removal during treatment is likely to be predominantly due to sludge/solid phase adsorption, with only minor contributions to the water phase. Many PS/PHS are resistant to biodegradation and as the majority of automated greywater treatment plants periodically discharge sludge to the municipal sewerage system, greywater treatment is unlikely to act as a comprehensive PS/PHS emission barrier. Hence, it is important to ensure that other source control options (e.g. eco-labeling, substance substitution, and regulatory controls) for household items continue to be pursued, in order that PS/PHS emissions from these sources are effectively reduced and/or phased out as required under the demands of the European Water Framework Directive.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Madsen, Toke Sloth
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Greywater pollution variability and loadings2009In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 661-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small on-site greywater treatment and reuse plants are susceptible to high short-term variation in flow and pollutant concentrations. As demonstrated in this study of a bathroom greywater plant in Copenhagen, Denmark, the flow ranges from no-flow periods to high-flow periods reaching 34 l min−1. Concentrations of both macro- and micro-pollutants (organic matter and parabens) were found to range by several orders of magnitude in the influent, based on sampling every 20 min. Paraben degradation was proven to occur in the rotating biological contactor (RBC), while the remnant organic matter in the effluent was proved not to be readily degradable. Ammonium content, presumably from urine contamination, was found to undergo nitrification in the RBC. Mass flow (daily loads) for individual substances was calculated for several pollutants. Macropollutants were found to be generated in low numbers of grams per person per day, whereas the paraben loadings were below 1 mg per person per day. These data are highly relevant for comparing decentralised treatment options with existing end-of-pipe treatments, for feeding into risk assessments and for design purposes.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Smith, Morten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Characterisation of grey wastewater2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Characterisation of grey wastewater: xenobiotic organic compounds2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Presence of selected priority and personal care substances in an onsite bathroom greywater treatment facility2010In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, no 12, p. 2889-2898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, concerns about climate change and the inefficient use and ongoing pollution of water resources have increased the political motivation to encourage water recycling. This has led to the widespread introduction of water saving measures and to advances in the decentralised treatment and reuse of wastewater. In particular, the treatment and reuse of greywater has received attention, although important information such as greywater substance loadings is still only rarely available. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive the focus on controlling and phasing-out Priority/Priority Hazardous Substances (PS/PHS) is growing, and it is vital to know their sources and flows in order to generate sustainable emission control strategies. The main objective of this study was to quantify the concentrations and loads of PS/PHS and personal care substances in bathroom greywater, and to thereby assess the contribution of household activities to municipal wastewater loads for these substances. Nickel and mercury may be sourced substantially from household activities as it shown in the paper that bathroom greywater contributed a significant proportion of the overall load of these substances at the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Organic matter in the influent greywater was found to be principally associated with large particles (>8 µm), however it was the dissolved and small sized particles that were predominantly removed in the treatment.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Henze, Mogens
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Xenobiotic organic compounds in grey wastewater: a matter of concern?2001In: Frontiers in urban water management: deadlock or hope?: Proceedings to the Symposium Marseilles, France, 18-20 June 2001, Paris: Unesco, 2001, p. 84-91Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ledin, Anna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Organic micropollutants in sugar beets cultivated in sludge amended soil2015In: Book of abstracts: DTU's Sustain Conference 2015, Lyngby: Technical University of Denmark (DTU) , 2015, article id F-13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eilersen, Ann Marie
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Technical report writing: how to write a technical report2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Revitt, D. Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Ledin, Anna
    Lund University.
    Lundy, Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances2011In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 2109-2118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority Pollutants” (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECS) have been developed and tested on a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCCA) for selected European priority pollutants (PPs). The SHCCA approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to mitigate data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant.

  • 10.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK ; University of South Australia, Australia.
    Wickman, Tonie
    City of Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Banovec, Primož
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    A source classification framework supporting pollutant source mapping, pollutant release prediction, transport and load forecasting, and source control planning for urban environments2012In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1119-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Implementation of current European environmental legislation such as the Water Framework Directive requires access to comprehensive, well-structured pollutant source and release inventories. The aim of this work was to develop a Source Classification Framework (SCF) ideally suited for this purpose.

    Methods

    Existing source classification systems were examined by a multidisciplinary research team, and an optimised SCF was developed. The performance and usability of the SCF were tested using a selection of 25 chemicals listed as priority pollutants in Europe.

    Results

    The SCF is structured in the form of a relational database and incorporates both qualitative and quantitative source classification and release data. The system supports a wide range of pollution monitoring and management applications. The SCF functioned well in the performance test, which also revealed important gaps in priority pollutant release data.

    Conclusions

    The SCF provides a well-structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further optimisation and demonstration testing, the SCF has the potential to be fully implemented throughout Europe.

  • 11.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Donner, Erica
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Scholes (Lundy), Lian
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Revitt, Mike
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Seriki, Kemi
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Castillo, Luis
    Veolia Research and Innovation, France.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Stockholms Stad.
    Wickman, Tonie
    Stockholms Stad.
    Lecloux, André
    Envicat Consulting, Belgium.
    Atanasova, Natasha
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Kompare, Boris
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Banovec, Primos
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Options de contrôle à la source pour la réduction d'émissions de substances prioritaires en zone urbaine: [ Source control options for reducing emissions of priority pollutants ]2009In: Techniques Sciences Methodes, Genie Urbain Genie Rural, ISSN 0299-7258, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 77-87Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the ScorePP project is to develop comprehensive and appropriate source control strategies that authorities, cities, water utilities and the chemical industry can employ to reduce emissions of priority pollutants (PPs) into the receiving water environment in urban areas. Focus is on the 33 priority and priority hazardous substances and substance groups identified in the European Water Framework Directive. However, this list may be expanded to include emerging pollutants or reduced if appropriate model compounds can be identified. The initial work focuses on 67 substances, including substances identified in the proposed European environmental quality standard (EQS) directive as well as the defined example compounds and several organometallic derivatives. Information on inherent properties, environmental presence and fate, and legislative issues is made available in open database format, and a data management system combining chemical identification (CAS#), economic activity classifications (NACE) and NOSE-P emission source classifications has been developed as a basis for spatial characterisation of PP sources using GIS. Further work will focus on dynamic urban scale source-flux models, identifying emission patterns and optimising monitoring programmes in case studies and multi-criteria comparison of source control versus end-of-pipe mitigation options in relation to their economic, social and environmental impacts. Part of the project consists in acquiring data on PPs in case cities and to redistribute them within the project. This will allow to identify possible PPs sources in case cities, to map sources using GIS, understand the flow of some PPs and propose emission control strategies specific to each case city.

  • 12.
    Rauch, Wolfgang
    et al.
    University Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ledin, Anna
    The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Deletic, Ana
    Monash University, Australia.
    Hunt III, William F. (Bill)
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Stormwater in urban areas2012In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 6588-6588Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collection, storage and treatment of stormwater in urban areas has been one of the classical disciplines of sanitary and environmental engineering in the past. Waste and pollution transported by stormwater poses quantity and quality problems, is affecting public health and threatens the quality of the environment – most important surface water ecosystems. While traditional solutions have been mostly concerned with discharge and storage, quality issues gained increasing attention over the last years. Reason being both the pollution of the receiving water due to urban stormwater management and the potential use of stormwater as an alternative source of freshwater. This special issue of Water Research covers the most important issues related to management of stormwater in 26 articles. The objective is to give the reader an overview of the state of the art by presenting the most recent findings of high quality research within the new hot topics related to stormwater.

    The first part of this issue presents findings with relation to stormwater quality. The manuscripts deal with highway runoff, toxic substances, pathogens and priority pollutants. Results are given from monitoring campaigns (mostly from US, Europe and Australia) but also in the context of comprehensive literature reviews.

    The second half of the issue deals more broadly with a wider spectrum of topics. Papers are covering hydraulic aspects, filtration and clogging of stormwater facilities like swales, permeable pavement and biofilters. Another range of papers accounts for design principles of stormwater management, specifically focusing on sustainable solutions but also on the effect to pluvial flooding. Modeling, data treatment and uncertainty analysis with relation to stormwater concludes the special issue.

    The editors hope that by reading these papers major challenges will be visualized to the readers but also that there are promising solutions available to these challenges. We appreciate the valuable support of our colleagues who have devoted their time to review the manuscripts and thus ensure the quality of this issue. We also express sincere thanks to the staff of Water Research for their valuable editorial support.

  • 13.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Dynamic stormwater treatment unit model for micropollutants (STUMP) based on substance inherent properties2010In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 622-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling the removal of micropollutants (MPs) in stormwater treatment systems is essential in a context that is characterized by a general lack of measurements. This paper presents an innovative dynamic model for the prediction of the removal of MPs in stormwater treatment systems (Stormwater Treatment Unit model for Micro Pollutants—STUMP). The model, based on a conceptual model of two-compartment (water and sediment) serial Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactors (CSTRs), can predict the fate of MPs based on their inherent properties, which are often the only information available regarding this kind of substances. The flexible structure of the model can be applied to a wide range of treatment units and substances. Based on the most relevant removal processes (settling, volatilization, sorption, biodegradation, and abiotic degradation), the model allows the dynamic simulation of the MP behaviour in the different compartments of stormwater treatment systems. The model was tested for heavy metals (copper and zinc) and organic substances (benzene and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate). The results show that volatilization plays a big role for removal of benzene while the removal of substances with high sorption capacity is mainly driven by settling. The model was proven to be able to predict the importance of the various fate processes for selected substances with different inherent properties. A thorough assessment of the influence of the various fate process parameters will allow a reliable assessment of the treatment performances for a wide range of MPs.

  • 14.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Modelling the fate of organic micropollutants in stormwater ponds2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 13, p. 2597-2606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban water managers need to estimate the potential removal of organic micropollutants (MP) in stormwater treatment systems to support MP pollution control strategies. This study documents how the potential removal of organic MP in stormwater treatment systems can be quantified by using multimedia models. The fate of four different MP in a stormwater retention pond was simulated by applying two steady-state multimedia fate models (EPI Suite and SimpleBox) commonly applied in chemical risk assessment and a dynamic multimedia fate model (Stormwater Treatment Unit Model for Micro Pollutants — STUMP). The four simulated organic stormwater MP (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate — IPBC, benzene, glyphosate and pyrene) were selected according to their different urban sources and environmental fate. This ensures that the results can be extended to other relevant stormwater pollutants. All three models use substance inherent properties to calculate MP fate but differ in their ability to represent the small physical scale and high temporal variability of stormwater treatment systems. Therefore the three models generate different results. A Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) highlighted that settling/resuspension of particulate matter was themost sensitive process for the dynamic model. The uncertainty of the estimated MP fluxes can be reduced by calibrating the dynamic model against total suspended solids data. This reduction in uncertainty was more significant for the substances with strong tendency to sorb, i.e. glyphosate and pyrene and less significant for substances with a smaller tendency to sorb, i.e. IPBC and benzene. The results provide support to the elaboration of MP pollution control strategies by limiting the need for extensive and complex monitoring campaigns targeting the wide range of specific organic MP found in stormwater runoff.

  • 15.
    Vezzaro, Luca
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Eva
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Quantification of uncertainty in modelled partitioning and removal of heavy metals (Cu, Zn) in a stormwater retention pond and a biofilter2012In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 46, no 20, p. 6891-6903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) discharges from stormwater drainage systems require accurate estimation of the potential MP removal in stormwater treatment systems. However, the high uncertainty commonly affecting stormwater runoff quality modelling also influences stormwater treatment models. This study identified the major sources of uncertainty when estimating the removal of copper and zinc in a retention pond and a biofilter by using a conceptual dynamic model which estimates MP partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases as well as environmental fate based on substance-inherent properties. The two systems differ in their main removal processes (settling and filtration/sorption, respectively) and in the time resolution of the available measurements (composite samples and pollutographs). The most sensitive model factors, identified by using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA), were related to the physical characteristics of the simulated systems (flow and water losses) and to the fate processes related to Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The model prediction bounds were estimated by using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) technique. Composite samples and pollutographs produced similar prediction bounds for the pond and the biofilter, suggesting a limited influence of the temporal resolution of samples on the model prediction bounds. GLUE highlighted model structural uncertainty when modelling the biofilter, due to disregard of plant-driven evapotranspiration, underestimation of sorption and neglect of oversaturation with respect to minerals/salts. The results of this study however illustrate the potential for the application of conceptual dynamic fate models base on substanceinherent properties, in combination with available datasets and statistical methods, to estimate the MP removal in different stormwater treatment systems and compare with environmental quality standards targeting the dissolved MP fraction.

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