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  • 1.
    de la Brosse, Renaud
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Holt, KristofferGulf University of Science and Technology, Kuwait.
    Media and Journalism in an Age of Terrorism2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is not a litany of the many terrorist attacks that have occurred over the last five years, nor is it a value judgement on how the media have reported on these events. Its ambition is to question the issues at stake in emerging journalistic practices and to raise a number of subsequent ethical questions. In 2017 Linnaeus University took the initiative to organize an international conference focusing on journalism in a world of terrorism – terrorism in the world of journalism. Our aim was to understand what it means in 2018 to report on terrorism in different national contexts. The conference (held 9-10 May, Kalmar) offered a unique opportunity for academics and journalists to come together in order to share experiences, discuss and reflect on the numerous dilemmas journalism in the world of terrorism has to cope with. Accordingly, this book depicts the wide diversity of approaches as well as reports the richness of the dialogue between practitioners and researchers – which constitutes the overall originality of this joint venture project between the Department of Media and Journalism and the Media Institute Fojo. Indeed, conflicts and terrorism nowadays constitute a field of study particularly conducive to assessing the role of media in contemporary democratic societies. The same also applies for societies engaged in transition and democratic consolidation processes, which are simultaneously facing the threat of terrorism (as is, for example, the case of Tunisia, Niger, Algeria and Morocco – countries from which some of the participants came). Some key issues were particularly under scrutiny: How does terrorism affect the media and their coverage of these events? Are the media an integral part of the strategy of terror deployed by the main actors (lately almost exclusively from Islamist extremist groups)? To answer these crucial questions, academics and professionals certainly had to examine all facets of the existing links and interrelations between the terrorist phenomenon and the media. A common experience articulated by researchers and journalists alike is that conflicting crises, as well as terrorist attacks, will necessarily affect reporting because of their sensational manifestations – it is impossible to not tell the story even if it might add to the pain of victim countries.

  • 2.
    Haller, André
    et al.
    University of Bamberg, Germany.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Paradoxical populism: how PEGIDA relates to mainstream and alternative media2018In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 1665-1680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distrust of mainstream media expressed in the slogan ‘the liar press’ (‘Lügenpresse’) is often used as an example of a populist, anti-establishment attitude that is currently winning terrain throughout the Western world. In combination with the rise of alternative media (especially online), it poses a serious challenge for ‘old media’. But how do those who are most suspicious and critical relate to the mainstream media in their own media channels? In this article, we have compared the official Facebook pages of the PEGIDA movement in Germany and Austria, in order to describe their use of references to traditional/mainstream and alternative media. The results indicate that references to mainstream and alternative media are distributed almost equally. Furthermore, when there are references to mainstream media, they are generally of an affirmative nature. These findings are relevant for the debate about cyberbalcanization, echo chambers, filter bubbles and the impact of alternative media on public discourse.

  • 3.
    Haller, André
    et al.
    Bamberg university, Germany.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait.
    de la Brosse, Renaud
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    The 'other' alternatives:: Political right-wing alternative media2019In: Journal of alternative and community media, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of the Journal of Alternative and Community Media presents five articles that examine right-wing alternative media from different countries and contexts: Brazil, the United States, Germany and Finland. They focus on different aspects of a phenomenon that has come to the forefront of public debate in recent years, due to the many apparently successful alternative media enterprises that can be characterised as conservative, libertarian, populist or far to extreme right wing on a political scale. While there has been much (and often heated) public debate about this, researchers tend to lag behind when it comes to new trends, and a transient and rapidly changing media landscape. The articles in this special issue are therefore especially valuable, since they all provide empirically grounded perspectives on specific cases that illustrate different parts of a large puzzle that is in much need of illumination. This special issue is of use not just to communication research, but also to the public debate on disinformation on the internet.

  • 4.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Gulf University for Science and Technology (GUST), Kuwait.
    Alternative Media and the Notion of Anti-Systemness: Towards an Analytical Framework2018In: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of alternative media outlets focusing on criticizing immigration politics and mainstream media have emerged in Sweden in recent years. Although they have quite different ideological profiles, they share a clear and critical focus on immigration and mainstream journalistic representations of reality. Their message is that mainstream media conceal or distort information about negative societal and cultural consequences of immigration and that mainstream journalists have teamed up with the political elites and engage in witch-hunts of critics, while ignoring abuses by those in power. Such media outlets (especially online participatory media) need to be analyzed in the light of their position as self-perceived correctives of traditional media. There has been a remarkable surge of alternative media in Sweden with these traits in common during the past few years, and it is important to be able to discuss these media together as a phenomenon, while at the same time taking their differences into account. In relation to this, I argue that the notion of anti-systemness is useful in discussions of the impact these alternative media may (or may not) have on public discourse. In the article, I present a matrix that distinguishes between different types of anti-systemness: ideological anti-systemness and relational anti-systemness. The article therefore mainly presents a theoretical argument, rather than empirical findings, with the aim of pointing to a way forward for research about alternative media.

  • 5.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    ”Alternativmedier”?: En intervjustudie om mediekritik och mediemisstro2016In: Migrationen i medierna: Men det får en väl inte prata om? / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2016, p. 113-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University.
    Authentic Journalism?: A Critical Discussion about Existential  Authenticity in Journalism Ethics2012In: Journal of Mass Media Ethics, ISSN 0890-0523, E-ISSN 1532-7728, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 2-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity as an ideal is construed in general as an expression of existentialist unhappiness with the perceived dehumanization of man in modern society. Existential journalism can be seen as rejection of the demands of conformism and compromise of personal convictions that many journalists face. Ethically, existential journalism calls on journalists to live authentic lives, as private individuals as well as in their profession. This means to resist external pressures and to choose to follow a path that can be defended by the individual journalist’s inner conscience. Existential journalism, in general, has been more debated in the field of mass media ethics than authenticity. Authenticity is, however, a contested concept, and this essay applies a critical discussion about authenticity as an ethical guide to the field of journalism. Weaknesses in the idea of existential authenticity problematize the existential construal of authenticity as a route to heightened ethical awareness for contemporary journalists.

  • 7.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Citizen journalism on the Swedish horizon2016In: Presented at 2016 IAMCR Conference "Memory, Commemoration and Communication: Looking Back, Looking Forward" Leicester, UK, 27-31 July 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citizen journalism must be understood in relation to the context in which it occurs. In some parts of the world there might be a more directly felt need for a form of journalism, produced by non-journalists, than in other parts – much depending on the quality, freedom and general trustworthiness of traditional journalism. In Sweden, citizen journalism online has not yet risen to prominence – at least not to the extent that many hoped from a country with a high level of internet access and general good level of computer skills. This might be interpreted as a sign that Swedish traditional media so far has managed to provide journalism in a  (comparably) satisfactory manner, whereas the rise of citizen journalism in other parts might be related to greater needs for alternative sources of information. What is becoming a new factor though is a plethora of alternative media channels with a distinctly right wing, populist or even more radical right wing signature. Many of these alternative media place themselves, as the blog Motpol’s motto read: “to the right of the corridor of opinion”. Swedish mainstream media has been accused of promoting an extremely narrow “corridor of opinion”, and of deliberately covering up facts that do not fit a “politically correct” agenda. In response, alternative platforms for news and views have boomed in Sweden and also reach significant audiences. Many of these also describe themselves as citizen journalists. This development needs scholarly attention and it challenges established notions about how citizen journalism has been construed by scholars in the past – and what might come in the future. In the paper I present results from studies about citizen journalism in general in Sweden and also from an ongoing study about immigration critical and right-wing alternative media in Sweden (both interviews and content analysis). These results are then discussed in relation to existing definitions of citizen journalism.

  • 8.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Completely Different or Versions of the Same?: A comparison of mainstream media (MSM) and immigration-critical alternative media (ICAM) in Sweden2017In: The 67th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association: Communication Research and Practice, San Diego, 25-29 May, 2017, International communication association (ICA) , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many other european countries, alternative media with immigration-critical profiles have managed to establish themselves as new players in the media landscape in a way that challenges mainstream media (MSM) because their message is that MSM, seen as an integrated part of the political system, conceal or distort information that does not fit the “politically correct” agenda and/or that media discourse is constrained due to taboos upheld by journalists, especially in relation to anything related to immigration. Research on these immigration-critical alternative media (ICAM) is scarce and this paper presents results of a comparative quantitative content analysis, where articles from the most important ICAM is compared to articles from MSM. Through this comparison it is possible to characterize ICAM through the key points where they differ from MSM. The results suggest that they have a much narrower scope of topics (mainly politics, social issues, crime, war and conflicts) compared to MSM. They are also characterized by a much more negative tonality and critical perspective. Furthermore, the relationship between ICAM and MSM is studied through an analysis of how often ICAM refers and links to content in MSM. Over sixty precent of the ICAM articles contained references to MSM, suggesting a relationship of dependence, rather than just one of opposition. The results are discussed in relation to notions of filter bubbles, echo-chambers and cyberbalkanization.

  • 9.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University.
    Deltagarjournalistik i det digitala kaffehuset: En analys av Newsmill som kontext för deltagarjournalistik och debatt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sociala medier har på bara några år blivit ett centralt inslag medielandskapet. Medieforskningen har blivit något överrumplad av den snabba hastighet med vilken nya sociala medier dyker upp och blir etablerade – därför släpar forskningen efter med arbetet att utarbeta metoder, begrepp och modeller för att förstå nya mediefenomen och dess konsekvenser. Ett forskningsområde som dock varit tämligen omfattande ända sedan introduktionen av WWW, är hur internet påverkar demokratin, och i synnerhet hur nya interaktiva kommunikationsmöjligheter kan skapa nya förutsättningar för att aktivt involvera medborgare i den demokratiska processen genom att göra dem delaktiga i debatten på nya sätt. De sociala medierna och det som allmänt kallas ”web 2.0”, ”collaborative culture” och ”participatory culture” har tilldragit sig mycket uppmärksamhet och gett upphov till många förhoppningar om en demokratisering av ett offentligt samtal som i massmediernas tidsålder aldrig lyckades göra publiken delaktig. (Van Dijck & Nieborg, 2009; Bruns, 2008; Jenkins, 2006) Den forskning som gjorts på området har dock hittills präglats av ett trevande efter användbara metoder för att undersöka om det finns något fog för sådana förhoppningar. (Witschge, 2008)

    Newsmill är ett forum på internet som specialiserar sig på debatt och nyhetsartiklar skrivna av läsarna själva. Sajten sjösattes 2008 och har idag ett stort antal användare och har publicerat ett antal artiklar som även fått ett stort genomslag i de traditionella massmedierna.2  Som medborgarjournalistik (citizen journalism) i ett socialt medium är Newsmill intressant att studera, eftersom det är ett konkret exempel på ett socialt medium som skapar en offentlig mötesplats där såväl vanliga medborgare som etablerade debattörer och politiker publicerar egna texter och kommenterar andras på ett sätt som i flera avseenden verkar kunna främja dialog och offentligt användande av förnuftet mellan medborgare om gemensamma angelägenheter och därmed vara ett typexempel på hur web 2.0 skapar nya möjligheter för denna typ av kommunikation. 

  • 10.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Gunn Enli. Mediated Authenticity. How the Media Constructs Reality. New York: Peter Lang, 2015, 164 p., ISBN: 97814331148542016In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 131-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Journalistik bortom redaktionerna?2016In: Människorna, medierna och marknaden: Medieutredningens forskningsantologi om en demokrati i förändring Stockholm (SOU 2016:30) / [ed] Oscar Westlund, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2016, p. 403-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Media criticism and mistrust in Swedish anti-immigration alternative media2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with media criticism and mistrust among people active in immigration critical alternative media in Sweden. Characteristic of many far-right movements is a widespread skepticism and suspiciousness towards mainstream media. The message is that mainstream media conceal or distort information that does not fit the “politically correct” agenda. In Sweden anti-immigration movements exhibit the same attitude. Media channels (especially online participatory media) used by these movements (“alternative media”) need to be analysed in the light of its position as a perceived corrective of traditional media. In the project, the aim is to understand the rationality behind radical right media criticism by interviewing activists about their perception of mainstream media and their view of participation in democratic society. The findings will shed light on how people active in far-right counter-public spheres perceive and position themselves in relation to mainstream media.

  • 13.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Media distrust : A left-wing or right-wing specialty?: Historical perspectives on today’s debate about populism and the media2017In: Perspectives on Right-Wing Populism and the Media: Scholarship, Journalism, Civil Society. 11 and 12 September 2017 Center for Advanced Studies (CAS), LMU Munich, Germany, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common denominator among politicians who tend be called right wing populists is that their narratives often contain a high dose of criticism against the “mainstream media” (MSM), often described as biased in favour of leftist perspectives, uncritical of those in power and out of touch with ordinary people. Parallelly, a host of new “alternative media”, often with a focus on criticism of liberal immigartion politics and a harsh tone against MSM, has become an important factor in public discourse in many western countries. But is this sort of criticism really a new phenomenon? Historically, the phrase “mainstream media” has been used mostly by left-wing debaters, such as Noam Chomsky and by media scholars, “alternative media” has long been considered one of the dearest embodiments of the dream about giving ordinary citizens a way of “speaking back to power”. When looking into the rhetoric of anti MSM messages in alternative media today, it is striking how much the discourse resembles a Gramscian analysis of society and the media’s role in it. In this paper, I argue that it is crucial to distinguish between “media distrust” and “media criticism” in order to distinguish between ideological culture struggle or metapolitics on the one hand, and the sincere question if the MSM are really doing a good job in describing relevant problems.

  • 14.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Medieanvändare som nyhetsproducenter: Om medborgar- och deltagarjournalistik.2015In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson & Jesper Strömbäck, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 411-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har journalistiken genomgått en period av radikala och snabba förändringar relaterade till ekonomiska förutsättningar, yrkesrollen (Deuze, 2007). Anledningen är en kombination av teknologisk och journalistisk innovation, samt enligt många en vikande marknad (Pickard, 2011, 2013). Den traditionella, industriella journalistiken som distribueras via massmedier existerar idag vid sidan av en rad andra företeelser som liknar och konkurrerar med den (Deuze, Bruns, och Neuberger, 2007). Det som ofta beskrivs som mest slående med denna omvandling är den nya möjligheten för icke-journalister att skapa, och interagera med journalistiskt innehåll på nätet (Bruns, 2005; Bucy, 2004; Chu 2010;. Deuze, et al, Rebillard & Touboul, 2010; Domingo et al, 2008;. Gulbrandsen & Just 2011; Paulussen & Ugille 2008). Idag är det inte bara journalister som bistår allmänheten med den information den behöver, menar Jane Singer: “millions of people gather, organize and disseminate timely information every hour of every day” (Singer, 2006, s. 2). Detta har öppnat upp ett nytt och spännande forskningsfält eftersom den traditionella och professionaliserade journalistikens tidigare monopol på och kontroll över nyhetsförmedlingen inte längre är helt självklar.

  • 15.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Mediekritik bortom medierna: Om filosofi som mediekritisk resurs2014In: Mediekritik / [ed] Stiernstedt, Fredrik, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 23-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Mediemisstro: där ytterkanterna möts2017In: Misstron mot medier / [ed] Truedsson, Lars, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2017, p. 117-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Medierna som inte vann valet2018In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Lars Nord, Marie Grusell, Niklas Bolin, Kajsa Falasca, Sundsvall: DEMICOM , 2018, p. 90-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University.
    New Media, New Participants – New Ethics?: Is there a chance for ethics in a world of prosumers?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when not only journalists reach large audiences with news and commentary, new ethical questions arise.  In the paper, two opposing views are discussed critically: a) the traditional elitist view, that tends to be suspicious of UGC in participatory journalism on account of the lack of solid ethical guidelines and b) participatory ethics related to the ideal of “collective intelligence”. It is argued that both views are problematic, in their own ways.

    In search of an ethical framework that can appropriately be applied to participatory journalism, in a liquid modernity, and globalised media reach, the paper discusses Zygmunt Bauman’s and Roger Silverstone’s readings of Immanuel Levinas, and his notion of “I-for-the-Other”.

  • 19.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    New media, new participants new ethics?2014In: Social Media in a Changing Media Environment: Lessons from the Arab world / [ed] Institut de Presse et des Sciences de l’Information, Institut de Presse et des Sciences de l’Information, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At a time when not only journalists reach large audiences with news and commentary, new ethical questions arise. In the paper, two opposing views are discussed critically: a) the traditional elitist view, that tends to be suspicious of UGC in participatory journalism on account of the lack of solid ethical guidelines and b) participatory ethics related to the ideal of “collective intelligence”. It is argued that both views are problematic, in their own ways. In search of an ethical framework that can appropriately be applied to participatory journalism, in a liquid modernity, and globalised media reach, the paper discusses Zygmunt Bauman’s and Roger Silverstone’s readings of Immanuel Levinas, and his notion of “I-forthe-Other”.

  • 20.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University.
    Participatory Culture and the Church: Contrasting Communicative Ideals?2010In: The 2nd International Media Readings in Moscow Mass Media and Communications – 2010: DIGITAL FRONTIERS: TRADITIONAL MEDIA PRACTICES IN THE AGE OF CONVERGENCE, Moscow, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the culture of participation that is supposedly emerging, one thing is often stressed: The “people formerly known as the audience”, no longer tolerate to be reduced into passive receivers - they want to interact, customize, interfere and be taken seriously, they want to have a say and be able to influence, and they have the means to pool their resources in collective efforts to promote the changes they see fit. The power of such collectives is widely thought to cause great political and cultural change.

    The rhetorics of participation and change – surrounding the web 2.0 – has implications that need to be taken into account when an organisation like the church launches new strategies of communication on the web. The fact that the church is (and is widely perceived of as) an organisation, based on a hierarchical structure and upholding a strong tradition of communicating in a disseminatory, one-way, top-down manner should not be obscured in this discussion. Over the last years, the Catholic Church has received much criticism for its alleged inability to communicate with the surrounding world in an up to date manner. This has led to several initiatives that aim at strengthening the Church’s presence on the Internet and creating channels into social media. For example, the Pope has a Facebook page and the Holy See has a Twitter account, the papal Youtube channel received worldwide attention.

    In this paper, I discuss the compatibility between the church’s tradition of disseminatory communication and the dialogical and interactive aspects of participatory media.

  • 21.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University.
    Participatory culture and the church: Contrasting communicative ideals?2011In: Religion and new media in the age of convergence: Reading materials on media and religion for students / [ed] Khroul, Victor, Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 2011, p. 57-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the culture of participation that is supposedly emerging, one thing is often stressed: The “people formerly known as the audience”, no longer tolerate to be reduced into passive receivers - they want to interact, customize, interfere and be taken seriously, they want to have a say and be able to influence, and they have the means to pool their resources in collective efforts to promote the changes they see fit. The power of such collectives is widely thought to cause great political and cultural change.

    The rhetorics of participation and change – surrounding the web 2.0 – has implications that need to be taken into account when an organisation like the church launches new strategies of communication on the web. The fact that the church is (and is widely perceived of as) an organisation, based on a hierarchical structure and upholding a strong tradition of communicating in a disseminatory, one-way, top-down manner should not be obscured in this discussion. Over the last years, the Catholic Church has received much criticism for its alleged inability to communicate with the surrounding world in an up to date manner. This has led to several initiatives that aim at strengthening the Church’s presence on the Internet and creating channels into social media. For example, the Pope has a Facebook page and a Youtube channel.

    In this paper, I discuss the compatibility between the church’s tradition of disseminatory communication and the dialogical and interactive aspects of participatory media.

  • 22.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Populism, metapolitics and media criticism: An analysis of identitarian construals of mainstream media2015In: New Perspectives on Populist Political Communication: COST Early Stage Researchers Think Tank. Zurich (26-30 jan 2015)., Zürich, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of metapolitical participation is presented and discussed in relation to a case study of the online identitarian dictionary Metapedia.org. While political participation traditionally entails activities such as voting, demonstrating, petitioning etc., metapolitics, as a concept used by identitarians, excludes such expressions of political participation. Instead, metapolitics, as visible in Metapedia’s slogan “Countering semantic distortion worldwide”,  is defined as a way of influencing culture and societal discourse through cultural activities, such as compiling online dictionaries. Metapolitical participation describes  a form of online participation that is not compatible with traditional notions of democratic participation.  As the aim of Metapedia is to provide alternative (identitarian) constructions of reality, the mainstream media naturally becomes the main antagonist in their cultural battle. Due to this tension between mainstream media and the metapolitical agenda,  a qualitative content analysis of the media criticism at Metapedia was performed. The empirical material consists of all articles (231 in total) in the category “massmedia” at the Swedish branch of Metapedia.org. In the articles we identified five main themes of media criticism: erroneous reporting, criticism of ownership and influence, “naming and shaming”, discursive contestations, alternative phraseology, as well as an additional theme dealing with promotion of other media outlets within the counter-public sphere. Our findings reveal that the authors at Metapedia express a deep anxiety, uneasiness, discontent and cynicism about mediated public discourse which is seen as deliberately marginalizing certain perspectives, covering up uncomfortable facts and is guided by a general principle of conformity to “political correctness”.

  • 23.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Right-wing alternative media2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book offers a fresh perspective on central questions related to right-wing alternative media: Can right-wing media be alternative? Why do they exist? Are they a threat to the existing order and what have the reactions been from mainstream politicians and media actors?

    The rise and success of right-wing populism in the political life of many western countries, along with several new and apparently successful alternative media operations on the right, has caused surprise and confusion among researchers and debaters. How should this challenge to mainstream politics and media be understood? Journalistic, political and academic discourse has struggled to explain these tendencies and tend to focus on sensational and extreme examples, with little attention directed towards other aspects. This book critically discusses existing theoretical frameworks related to alternative media in general, analysing a wide scope of cases to illustrate the diversity of voices in alternative media on the right and highlighting the importance of intellectual coolness and common sense in discussions about this important but ideologically and politically charged area.

    An important addition to the current discourse of contemporary media, Right-Wing Alternative Mediais ideal for researchers, students and anyone interested in politics and public discourse.

  • 24.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Sentenced to the snipping–tool?: Some thoughts from a media scholar’s perspective on Big Data and online media criticism in far right counter-public spheres2015In: Big Data: från hype till handling, 4 december, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Shaking the foundations of the “corridor of opinion”?: Towards a framework for analysing Immigration Critical Alternative Media (ICAM) in Sweden2017In: ECPR 2017 General Conference, Oslo: Oslo 6-9 September, 2017, ECPR Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years a range of new alternative media outlets with a special focus on criticizing immigration politics and mainstream media, have emerged. The blog Avpixlat†, the online newspaper Fria†Tider†and the paper weekly Nya†Tider†are examples of media with quite different ideological profiles, but a clear and critical focus on immigration and mainstream journalistic representations of reality in common. Their message is that mainstream medi conceal or distort information about negative societal and cultural consequences of immigration and that mainstream journalists have teamed up with the political elites and engage in wichhunts of ordinary people who are critical, while ignoring abuses by those in power. Such media outlets (especially online participatory media) need to be analysed in the light of its position as perceived corrective of traditional media. Even though they have this in common, it is important to be able to discuss them together while at the same time take their differences into account. In the paper, the aim is to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the rationality behind this kind of criticism, building on interviews with people who are active in the most important immigration critical alternative media (ICAM) in Sweden about their perception of mainstream media and their view of participation in democratic society. The findings will shed light on how people active in Swedish ICAM perceive and position themselves in relation to mainstream media - and to each other. Based on these insights, it is possible to distinguish differences between them as well as common traits and to take the question of their influence on public discourse further.

  • 26.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Skilda verkligheter?: ”Internets undervegetation” vs ”PK-maffian”2016In: Migrationen i medierna: Men det får en väl inte prata om? / [ed] Lars Truedson, Stockholm: Institutet för mediestudier , 2016, p. 150-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University.
    The Hour och det journalistiska äkthetsidealet2012In: Kulturaliseringens samhälle: Problemorienterad kulturvetenskaplig forskning vid Tema Q 2002–2012 / [ed] Svante Beckman, Linköping: LiU-Tryck , 2012, p. 172-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    The Religious Dimension of Kierkegaard's Media  Criticism: “Authentic Fait"  vs “The Phantom Public”2015In: Mediatization of Religion: Historical and Functional Perspectives / [ed] Victor Khroul, Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 2015, p. 30-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper S. ren Kierkegaard’s “Two ages” is analysed as an example of early modern media criticism. Existentialist thinkers have dealt with the authenticity of the self, and the ideal of staying true to the uniqueness of one’s own being in spite of societal or cultural obstacles. Media has often been seen as a part of the increasingly artificial landscape of modern society. For Kierkegaard, however, the criticism of media had a clearly religious dimension. There is an intimate link between his objections to the Christianityof his time and his criticism of the emerging mediascape of the nineteenth century. Kierkegaard disliked the press because it offered a shortcut to forming own opinions by presenting readymade thoughts and shallow entertainment instead of helping people in facing reality. The media offered escape from reality into fiction, from personal experiences into someone else’s and as a consequence, was a threat to religious life. He saw media as an intervening agency, blocking people’s way to true experiences, authenticity and, ultimately, God.

  • 29.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Berggren, Ludvig
    Södertörns högskola.
    Ivar Harrie, 1899–19732017In: Svenskt Översättarlexikon / [ed] Lars Kleberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    de la Brosse, Renaud
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Médias antisystèmes et tentatives de ‘réinformation’ du public: Regards croisés sur les expériences suédoise et française2017In: Presented at Les journalistes dans le débat démocratique Théofraste Network, Tunis, Tunisia 23-25 October 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Au cours des dernières années, une série de nouveaux médias alternatifs sont apparus qui se sont particulièrement intéressés à la critique des politiques d'immigration et des médias traditionnels. Le blog Avpixlat (maintenant: samnytt.se), le journal en ligne Fria Tider et l'hebdomadaire de presse Nya Tider sont des exemples de médias avec: profils idéologiques assez différents, mais un accent clair et critique sur l'immigration et les représentations journalistiques dominantes de la réalité en commun. Leur message est que les médias traditionnels dissimulent ou faussent l'information sur les conséquences sociétales et culturelles négatives de l'immigration et que les principaux journalistes ont fait équipe avec les élites politiques et se livrent à la chasse de gens ordinaires sans tenir compte des abus commis par ceux qui sont au pouvoir. Ces médias (en particulier les médias participatifs en ligne) doivent être analysés à la lumière de leur position de correcteurs perçus des médias traditionnels. Même s'ils ont beaucoup en commun, il est important de pouvoir en discuter de l’ensemble tout en tenant compte de leurs différences. Le but de ce document est de développer un cadre théorique pour comprendre la rationalité de ce type de critique et de discuter de leur impact sur le discours public de manière plus nuancée. En s'appuyant sur des entretiens avec des personnes actives dans les médias alternatifs critiques vis-à-vis de l’immigration (ICAM) les plus importants en Suède, sur leur perception des grands médias et leur vision de la participation à la société démocratique.

  • 31.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Grusell, Marie
    What is unethical advertising?: An analysis of complaints to the Swedish Advertising Ombudsman 2009-2012.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advertising constitutes a significant portion of the total amount of mediated messages that are disseminated daily through available channels in today’s omnipresent and multifarious media landscape. Because of it’s prevalence, reach and impact, many scholars have argued that advertising should not only be construed as a specific form of market communication – in which it is implied that advertising is foremost concerned with presenting products to potential customers. Instead, advertising should rather be viewed as an integrated part of people’s daily cultural consumption through media, and as such also have a potentiality for impacting people’s minds, culture and society in ways that extend beyond the borders of serving customers with information about products. Advertising does not simply mirror society - it also shapes it by normalising and legitimizing practices, by creating ideals and stereotypes. Viewing advertising from this angle raises ethical questions that lie somewhat beside the main focus covered by ICC’s codes of ethics for advertising and market communication, since they are primarily developed as a tool for self-regulation and for the facilitation of marketing. In such a setting, the determination of what unethical advertising is, becomes a matter for negotiation between the public, who might react negatively to advertising for a plethora of reasons, and those who have authority to deem it unethical or not, based on an interpretation of the ICC codes. Since the practice of advertising ombudsmen is a quite new phenomena, there is a need for research about the outcome of this negotiation so far.

    In this paper, we examine all cases reported to the advertising ombudsman (Reklamombudsmannen, hereafter RO) in Sweden, who was instated in 2009, and tries cases reported as unethical by citizens. The question we ask in this paper is firstly what kind of advertising upsets people enough to report them to RO? Secondly, we ask what the common traits are of those cases that have been tried and convicted by RO. Following this question, we ask what the common traits are among those cases who were tried and not convicted. Lastly, we want to see if there is a discrepancy between what is considered unethical by those who report the cases on the one hand, and RO on the other hand. These questions will be answered through content analysis of all the cases handled by RO, the complainers’ motivations and RO’s statements. In the final section of this paper we discuss the theoretical implications of the results, and especially focus on how to interpret the complaints in relation RO’s authority as official interpreter of the ICC code.

  • 32.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Haller, André
    University of Bamberg, Germany.
    The Populist Communication Paradox of PEGDIA: Between “Lying Press” and Journalistic Sources2016In: Presented at the 66th annual ICA conference "Communicating with power". Fukuoka, Japan, 9-13 june. Preconference: Populism in, by, and Against the Media, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the end of 2014 a protest movement called “Patriotic Europeans against the Islamization of the Occident” (German abbreviation: PEGIDA) caused public conflicts (Kepplinger, 2009) about Islamization as well as about the question if PEGIDA is a racist organization. Though PEGIDA was a major issue in German media coverage, there was only one official media appearance of a PEGIDA spokesperson in the TV talk show Günther Jauch on January the 18th 2015 (Das Erste, 2015). Since its founding PEGIDA officially refused to talk to journalists as the movement denounced all established media as “lying press” (German: “Lügenpresse”). Branches of PEGIDA in other countries follow the same pattern and communicate with members and the public mainly through their official facebook pages. This basically means that PEGIDA leaders do not focus on mass media communication, for example by using press statements or organizing press conferences.

    Tsfati & Cohen (2003) define media skepticism as a sense of “alienation and mistrust toward the mainstream media” which involves the “feeling that journalists are not fair or objective in their reports about society and that they do not always tell the whole story” (p. 67) and that mainstream journalists “will sacrifice accuracy and precision for personal and commercial gains” (p. 67). Media criticism of a skeptic brand is therefore quite different from other types of criticism, where the focus is primarily on criticising for the sake of “improving” the quality of various aspects of media work or products. However, if certain groups in society choose to abstain from participation in the mainstream platforms of public discourse (the “agora”) and instead entrench themselves in “counter-public spheres” (Downey & Fenton, 2003) where discourses of alienation and mistrust in conventional democratic channels are fostered and amplified, it can be deeply problematic from a democratic perspective. (Sunstein, 2007).

    Against this background we interpret the recent occurrence of a plethora of alternative media platforms that are outspokenly anti-mainstream media and that also promote populist and/or far right movements or parties. In Sweden sites like Avpixlat.info, Friatider.se, and in Germany pi-news.net and metropolico.org (former Blu-NEWS) have become increasingly bold in their discourse and also show signs of increasing reach in readership (Borgs, 2015). In this paper, we want to look into how the PEGIDA movement relates to both mainstream media and alternative right wing media in their official communication with readers and the public through their facebook posts. This paper analyses PEGIDA in Germany, Sweden, Norway and Austria.

  • 33.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Haller, André
    University of Bamberg, Germany.
    What Does ‘Lügenpresse’ Mean?: Expressions of Media Distrust on PEGIDA’s Facebook Pages2017In: Tidsskriftet Politik, ISSN 1604-0058 , Vol. 20, no 4, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyze the protest movement PEGIDA’s criticism of the press (i. e. ‘Lügenpresse’, the ‘liar press’) on Facebook. What are the main points of criticism of the press and what are the reasons expressed for this criticism, and how do they refer to traditional media in the postings? We conduct a qualitative content analysis of PEGIDA’s Facebook pages in Germany, Austria, Sweden, and Norway. The study shows that there are two main types of references: affirmative references to prove one’s own positions and contesting references which comprise media criticism.

  • 34.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University.
    Edited participation: A comparative study of editorial influence on three online news media in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although participatory journalism often involves the publishing of content created by users, editorial influence is an important aspect of the emerging participatory online mediascape. The choices that editors make shape the conditions under which user generated content is produced, the immediate context of publication and the perceived prominence of the published content. The question is how this influence manifests itself, and how this can be related to the discussion about participatory media’s potential for revitalizing democracy. In this paper, three online news media in Sweden are analysed comparatively: Sourze – one of the first Swedish sites that invited citizens as primary contributors; Newsmill – a social media focusing on news and debate; and DN – the online version of the largest Swedish morning paper Dagens Nyheter. The question is how participation is affected by editorial influence.

    The findings suggest that participatory arenas to some extent are constrained by the logic of their context of production. Participation is not the same for everyone, and people from different categories in society participate on different terms. Furthermore, editors influence the agenda by suggesting topics, and by rewarding articles that follow their suggestions. These findings do not challenge assumptions about participatory newspapers as more accessible channels for citizens to publish content, and therefore interesting as possible means of allowing a more democratically involved citizenry, but it challenges assumptions about freedom from constraints related to traditional mass media, such as agenda setting, gate-keeping and media logic.

     

  • 35.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University.
    Edited participation comparing editorial influence on traditional and participatory online newspapers in Sweden2011In: Javnost - The Public, ISSN 1318-3222, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 19-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although participatory journalism involves publishing content created by users, editorial influence is an important aspect of participatory online media. Editors shape the conditions under which user generated content is produced, the context of publication and the perceived prominence of the content. It is still unclear how this influence manifests itself, and how it can be related to the discussion about participatory media’s potential for revitalising democracy. In this paper, three online news media in Sweden are analysed comparatively: Sourze – the first Swedish participatory newspaper; Newsmill – a social media focusing on news and debate; and DN – the online version of the largest Swedish morning paper Dagens Nyheter. The question is how participation is affected by editorial influence. The findings suggest that participatory arenas are constrained by the logic of their context of production. People from different categories in society participate on different terms. Furthermore, editors influence the agenda by suggesting topics, and by rewarding articles that follow their suggestions. These fi ndings do not challenge assumptions about participatory newspapers as more accessible channels for citizens and therefore interesting as possible means of allowing a more democratically involved citizenry, but it challenges assumptions about freedom from constraints related to traditional mass media, such as agenda setting, gate-keeping and media logic.

  • 36.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet.
    How are citizen journalists telling the news?: An inventory of Swedish online citizen journalism sites2013In: Nordmedia 2013: Defending Democracy, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, situated in Sweden, we examine what actual communities that are served by digital citizen community journalism in an everyday context. The results show that there are very few cases of citizen journalism and that they are situated in the same legacy media logic that they allegedly should be an alternative to. Moreover, the study shows that the citizen journalists focus on business news, entertainment and sports and do not cover local authorities. When sources are used they are few and originate from social institutions such as business, media, authorities and politics rather than citizens. All in all, this empirical study suggests that the reality of citizen journalism fall very short from the expectations expressed in much of the scholarly debate.

  • 37.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstads universitet.
    Om journalistikens existentiella kris: behövs verkligen journalister när vem som helst kan bli publicist?2014In: IKAROS tidskrift om människan och vetenskapen, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 11, no 3-4, p. 5-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Aldrig förr har journalister tagit så mycket så mycket plats i offentligheten som i våra dagar. Exempel: Valrörelserna 2014 i Sverige prägla(de)s i högre utsträckning än någonsin tidigare av en ohejdad journalistisk kommentarlusta. Ett typiskt nyhetsinslag innehåller ofta ett kort uttalande av någon politiker, följt av en lång diskussion med kanalens politiska kommentatorer. Klyftan mellan de politiska partierna och den intet ont anande allmänheten fylls till bredden av journalistisk analys, tyckande, reflekterande och debatt med andra journalister. Många har frågat sig om vi medborgare verkligen får en chans att fundera själva över vad politikerna egentligen menar, innan en journalistisk expert har hunnit förklara det oss. Samtidigt pågår en annan utveckling journalistiken befinner sig 1 sedan cirka ett decennium tillbaka i en existentiell kris.2 Just nu pågår en fas som präglas av ett stort behov av att definiera vad en journalist egentligen är, varför de finns och vilken uppgift de förvänts fylla i samhället. Anledningen är att den teknologiska utveckingen, parallellt med stora ekonomiska svårigheter för många mediehus, skapat helt nya förutsättningar för en verksamhet som under decennier präglats av rutin och förutsägbarhet.3 Mitt i detta skeende dyker de sociala medierna upp, där bloggare och twittrare utan journalistisk skolning tävlar med de professionella journalisterna om att tycka och tänka – och inte minst att leverera nyheter.

  • 38.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Karlstad University.
    Participatory Journalism and Editorial Influence2011In: Communication @ the Center: The 61st Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Boston, USA 26-30 May 2011, International Communication Association , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although participatory journalism involves publishing content created by users, editors shape the conditions under which user generated content is produced; the context of publication and the perceived prominence of the content. In this paper, three online news media in Sweden are analysed comparatively: Sourze – the first Swedish participatory newspaper; Newsmill – a social media focusing on news and debate; and DN – the online version of the Dagens Nyheter. The question is how participation is affected by editorial influence.Findings suggest that participatory arenas are constrained by the logic of their context of production. People from different categories in society participate on different terms. Furthermore, editors influence the agenda by suggesting topics, and by rewarding articles that follow their suggestions. This challenges assumptions about freedom from constraints related to traditional mass media, such as agenda setting, gate-keeping and media logic.

  • 39.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism. Karlstad universietet.
    Is anyone out there?: Assessing Swedish citizen-generated community journalism2015In: Community journalism midst media revolution / [ed] Robinson, Sue, Routledge, 2015, p. 52-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, situated in Sweden, citizen community journalism in 290 municipalities is evaluated. The results reveal that there are very few cases of citizen journalism at a community level, and that the existing citizen journalists focus on business news, entertainment and sports. When sources are used, they are few and originate from social institutions such as business, media, authorities and politics rather than citizens. Furthermore, there are only a few occasions when local authorities are included at all, even less so scrutinised, in the news stories. All in all, the study indicates that Swedish citizen community journalism has trouble either providing information that maintains the community or being the watchdog of that community.

  • 40.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    Karlstad University.
    “Random acts of journalism?”: How citizen journalists tell the news in Sweden2015In: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 1795-1810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the results from a content analysis of four Swedish online citizen journalism outlets are presented and discussed. The analysis focuses on new digital venues for news-making in theory and the question of the political relevance of citizen journalism in reality. This broad question is operationalized by asking more specifically how citizen journalists tell the news, according to established distinctions between variations in topic dimensions, focus, and presentational style. Our results show that citizen journalists tend to tell soft news. They rarely report on policy issues, local authorities, or people affected by decisions being made by them. Furthermore, the news focuses on individual relevance and is mostly episodic in nature. The style of writing is predominantly impersonal and unemotional. In sum, our results suggest that citizen journalism in Sweden is not yet at a stage where it can be considered a plausible alternative to traditional journalism.

  • 41.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Krogh, Torbjörn von
    Mid Sweden University.
    The citizen as media critic in periods of media change2010In: OBS - Observatorio, ISSN 1646-5954, E-ISSN 1646-5954, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 287-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media criticism often evolve – and grow in strength – during times of media change with new forms of journalism, new media formats, new media markets, new ways of addressing media markets and new media technologies. Different stakeholders may pursue their interests by formulating a media critique that protect their positions and promotes status quo. It is not difficult to find critics who in the name of the citizens formulate criticism against journalism and the media. It is more difficult to find and study representative examples of criticism expressed by the citizens themselves. The technological development on the Internet has paved the way for a number of new communicative tools that enable users to interact with each other and publish content in a way that changes the conditions for citizens to act as media critics radically. This is an aspect of the Internet’s democratic and participatory potential – and a key point in the rhetoric surrounding the concept “web 2.0”. In this paper we analyse and compare media critical debates during two periods of media change in Sweden: A) the debate caused by the launch of the tabloid Expressen in the 1950’s, and B) the critique against the new, commercially driven participatory news- and debate forum called Newsmill, launched in 2008. These historical and contemporary cases are used to enlighten a theoretical discussion about participatory online media’s potential for improving the conditions for citizens to act as media critics in a fruitful way. Both Expressen and Newsmill represent examples of journalistic innovations that affect surrounding media considerably. The result of the comparison point to a new dilemma related to the role of citizens as media critics in the digital age. The fact that the citizens themselves are now increasingly involved in the production of content, also puts them in a new role as defenders of the site that publish their content, against critics from traditional mass media.

  • 42.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Lundell, Patrik
    Lund University.
    Mistrusting the media – now and then: A historical comparison of far right media criticism in Sweden2015In: Political Agency in the Digital Age: Media, Participation and Democracy, Copenhagen, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characteristic of many contemporary far right movements is a deeply rooted skepticism and suspiciousness towards mainstream media. During the PEGIDA marches in Dresden, Germany, “Lügenpresse” is a common slogan. The message is that hegemonic mainstream media conceal or distort information that does not fit the “politically correct” agenda. In Sweden far right movements, ranging from right wing populist parties such as the Sweden Democrats (SD) to more extreme identitarian think-tanks such as Motpol.nu exhibit the same attitude. (Holt, 2015) Radical right media channels therefore need to be analysed in the light of its position as a perceived corrective of traditional media and constrained public discourse. But is this a new phenomenon? In this paper we compare findings from two separate studies of radical right wing media criticism from different periods: the online contemporary identitarian wictionary Metapedia.org (Holt & Rinaldo, 2014) and media criticsm in the journal Sweden-Germany (1938-58) published by the pro-German National Society Sweden-Germany (RST). (Lundell, 2015) Our aim is to study historical antecedents to today’s far right media criticism and discuss contemporary far right media criticism in the light of what can be learned from history.

  • 43.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Rinaldo, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Exploring the Dark Side of Participatory Online Media: A Case Study of Metapedia(dot)org2014In: Communication & Mass Media Abstracts: 12th Annual International Conference on Communication and Mass Media 12-15 May 2014, Athens, Greece / [ed] Gregory T. Papanikos, 2014, p. 63-63Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional media is often described as currently being in a state of decline. Historically, it has repeatedly been pointed out that it has failed, in various ways, in its task of providing truthful and relevant news and that it has not managed to engage the public in the sort of active participation that is required in order for any democracy to thrive. Recently, much has been written about the possibilities offered by new participatory online media, such as citizen journalism, in search of alternatives to the old, struggling media channels. (Barlow, 2010; Bruns, 2010; Carpenter, 2010; Fico et al., 2013; Goode, 2009; Meadows, 2012; Reich, 2008). Online participatory media content is generally thought to be unexpensive to produce since it is performed and published by non-paid laymen. Furthermore, it can offer news, information and perspectives without the constraint of traditional media-logic and from different perspectives than traditional media. It is therefore often construed as an important alternative that could enrich public discourse. On top of that, participatory features of new media can involve citizens in the very process of producing content, and therefore has a potential to boost civic engagement in public discourse. Although careful not to dismiss the democratic possibilities of online participatory media, we argue that the focus on these aspects has, in part, guided the spotlight of research to certain areas of online participation – where it is obvious that these democratic gains have a possibility of being realised (Karlsson & Holt, 2013). In turn, other uses of participatory media, have been neglected. Examples abound on the internet, of a darker side of participation. After all, groups of people could well – and do – pool their resources, collaborate in networks, produce, share and edit content that is aimed at achieving common goals that are far from democratic. The most striking example of this is the Wikipedia-like dictionary Metapedia(dot)org. It has borrowed its collaborative and participatory structure, way of working and even layout from Wikipedia. But it has a “metapolitical purpose, to influence the mainstream debate, culture and historical view” by providing an alternative description of the world, one that is in correspondence with racist ideology. If one looks up the term “holocaust”, for example, the definition is revisionist and states that it is a fraudulent term used to spread “germanophobia”. The network behind Metapedia is clearly working according to the principles of “collective intelligence”, often mentioned in connection with the democratic potential of new participatory online media. But their aim is obviously contrary to what is often assumed about these types of media. This “dark side” of participation is in need of scholarly attention. Theoretically, it forces us as media scholars to rethink concepts such as “collective intelligence”, in order to come to terms with the ways in which participatory media are used.

  • 44.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Rinaldo, Mikael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Exploring the dark side of participatory online media: Online participation, identitarian discourse and media criticism at Metapedia.org2014In: Journalism in Transition: Crisis or opportunity?, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of metapolitical participation is presented and discussed in relation to a case study of the online identitarian dictionary Metapedia.org. While political participation traditionally entails activities such as voting, demonstrating, petitioning etc., metapolitics, as a concept used by identitarians, excludes such expressions of political participation. Instead, metapolitics, as visible in Metapedia’s slogan “Countering semantic distortion worldwide”,  is defined as a way of influencing culture and societal discourse through cultural activities, such as compiling online dictionaries. Metapolitical participation describes  a form of online participation that is not compatible with traditional notions of democratic participation.  As the aim of Metapedia is to provide alternative (identitarian) constructions of reality, the mainstream media naturally becomes the main antagonist in their cultural battle. Due to this tension between mainstream media and the metapolitical agenda, we conducted  a qualitative content analysis of the media criticism at Metapedia. The empirical material consists of all articles (231 in total) in the category “massmedia” at Metapedia.org. In the articles we identified five main themes of media criticism: erroneous reporting, criticism of ownership and influence, “naming and shaming”, discursive contestations, alternative phraseology, as well as an additional theme dealing with promotion of other media outlets within the counter-public sphere. Our findings reveal that the authors at Metapedia express a deep anxiety, uneasiness, discontent and cynicism about mediated public discourse which is seen as deliberately marginalizing certain perspectives, covering up uncomfortable facts and is guided by a general principle of conformity to “political correctness”.

  • 45.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Rosenqvist, Carl
    Mid Sweden University.
    Wessel, Johan
    Mid Sweden University.
    Photos on facebook: Photos on Facebook – 24 youths about social visual communication on Facebook2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper deals with the question why youths are publishing photos digitally and how they think about making private photographs public. It also looks into differences between men and women regarding their attitude towards publishing photos in this way.

    By focus group interviews, we have examined how 18-year-old high school students in Sweden reflect over photos and photo publishing on the online social network

    Facebook. Three focus groups consisting of women and three focus groups consisting of men were asked questions about four different themes: mediatization, integrity, self-presentation and ethics.

    The results show that the youths live mediated lives and that there is, to them, an intimate link between their digital selves and their real life-selves. With the use of photographs, they re-tell events from real life on Facebook. They also use photographs to construct their digital selves, and these images are seen as important for how they are perceived by others. The girls in the focus groups claim that they publish more photos of themselves than the boys, and are more conscious of how they appear on these photos. The youths do take in mind how an unknown public can take part of the information that is digitally gathered about them, and therefore defend their integrity on Facebook since they want to control the existence of the photos they are occurring on. Furthermore, the youths show an understanding of the ethical dilemmas involved, but do not see this as a problem since they claim to often know the publisher of these photos, and express that since they only upload photos of their friends, they would never publish unethical photos on Facebook themselves.

     

  • 46.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University.
    Age and the effects of news media attention and social media use on political interest and participation: Do social media function as leveller?2013In: European Journal of Communication, ISSN 0267-3231, E-ISSN 1460-3705, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how media use differs across age groups- and whether this matters for people's inclination to participate politically. More specifically, the study investigates the impact of social media use for political purposes and of attention to political news in traditional media, on political interest and offline political participation. The findings, based on a four-wave panel study conducted during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign, show (1) clear differences in media use between age groups and (2) that both political social media use and attention to political news in traditional media increase political engagement over time. Thus, this study suggests that frequent social media use among young citizens can function as a leveller in terms of motivating political participation.

  • 47.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University.
    Social Media as Leveller?: Effects of Traditional News Media Attention and Social Media Use on Political Participation Among Younger and Older Citizens2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how media use among young citizens differs from older generations, and whether this matters for their inclination to participate politically. More specifically, this study investigates the causal impact of social media use and attention to political news in traditional media, on political interest and offline political participation. The findings, based on a four-wave panel study conducted during the 2010 Swedish national election campaign, show a) clear differences in media use between age groups, and b) that both political social media use and attention to political news in traditional media increase political engagement. The results also indicate that both types of media use have a causal impact on political interest and offline participation. Thus, this study suggests that frequent social media use among young citizens can function as a leveller in terms of motivating political participation.

  • 48.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University.
    Strömbäck, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ljungberg, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University.
    Nord, Lars
    Mid Sweden University.
    Political Motivation and Participation: Social Media as Leveler?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Ustad Figenschou, Tine
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Frischlich, Lena
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Key Dimensions of Alternative News Media2019In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 860-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a definition of alternative news media and suggests routes for further research. It complements and extends previous conceptualizations in research on alternative media and outlines an umbrella definition of this phenomenon aimed to inspire contemporary research and scholarly debate. Previous research has been guided by a “progressive” perspective as a form of resistance against “bourgeois” hegemonic discourse. Such normative evaluations have in turn limited how the phenomenon has been studied empirically, by limiting the scope of research so that important contemporary phenomena fall outside the theoretical map. Conceptualizing alternative news media in the present hybrid and polarized media environment, we first propose a non-normative, multilevel relational definition: Alternative news media position themselves as correctives of the mainstream news media, as expressed in editorial agendas or statements and/or are perceived as such by their audiences or third-parties. This counter-hegemonic alternativeness can emerge on the macro-level of societal function, the meso-level of organizations and/or the micro-level of news content and producers. Second, demonstrating why this umbrella definition is fruitful in the changing media environment characterized by boundary struggles, crisis in legacy news media and mushrooming of alternative news outlets, we highlight research gaps and propose future research.

  • 50.
    Holt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University.
    Citizens as Media Critics in Changing Mediascapes2011In: Communication @ the Center: The 61st Annual Conference of the International Communication Association Boston, USA 26-30 May 2011., Boston: International Communication Association , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 53
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