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  • 1.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Wiman, Bo L.B.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mitigating the emissions released from spontaneous fires at biomass storages: A footstep towards sustainability2015In: 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 1-4 June 2015, 2015, Vol. 23, p. 1550-1557Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires at the  material storages sites of manucipal and industrial sectors are a major environmental risk and have increased significantly. Toxic emissions released from such open fires have severe environmental and health consequences. Considering that it is not possible to install any unit operation to control the emissions released from such open fires, the possibilities to employ natural vegetation to act as a sink for aerosol particles released from open fires was investigated. A series of tests was conducted in a controlled wind tunnel environment. Smoke was generated in a smoke-aerosol generator and measurements of smoke concentrations upwind and downwind of “green filter packs” (vegetation filters) were made. Measurements involved laser-based particle counters, two-stage Nuclepore filter systems, and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) techniques followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main objective of the work was to illustrate ways to design experiments that can assist in the study of vegetation as “pollution screens”. Our observations and findings imply that several refinements to the experimental design will be needed, including with respect to methods for assessing the distribution of particle number and mass as a function of particle size.

  • 2.
    Jansson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Pilot-Scale Experiments Using Cultivated Macro Algae for Biogas Production, Part of a Future Seafarm Biorefinery2016In: 24th EUBCE Online Proceedings 2016: Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, p. 627-629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research is focused on evaluation of substrates not commonly used for biogas production and the development and optimization of processes adjusted to these substrates. This study deals with evaluation of sea weeds (Saccharina Lattisima and Laminaria digitata). Biomethane potential tests (BMP) have shown the methane potential of the algae to be 180-440 l CH4/kg organic material. These potentials are in the same range as potentials found for commonly used substrates such as sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste. Sampling of produced biogas, substrate and digest were performed by using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis by a Gas Chromatograph with a Mass Spectrometrer (GC-MS) in order to develop a method to be able to characterize, monitor and possibly control the process.

  • 3.
    Kans, Mirka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Anette
    School-wide approach for the degree project courses2013In: Proceedings of the 9th International CDIO Conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard UniversitySchool of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 9 – 13, 2013.: Engineering Leadership in Innovation and Design, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The poster contains a practical example of how the CDIO concept can be used for developing common course contents with the aim to improve the students’ generic and professional competences. The overall purpose is to create a school-wide spirit of community for the students and introduce CDIO for faculty.

    OBJECTIVES

    1. Ideas for how to coordinate school-wide activities aiming at increasing students’ generic skills and professional identity

    2. Strategies for introducing the CDIO concept for the school faculty members

    DESCRIPTION

    For reaching high employability, students require knowledge and skills connected to the future working area, as well as generic skills and a professional attitude [1]. Ensuring these abilities is a major challenge of higher education today [2-4]. All these abilities are trained in the final independent work, where students, normally in collaboration with industry, acts as professionals while fulfilling the goals of academy. In the past, every subject had their own way of running the degree courses, but a need to coordinate the efforts for assuring the required outcome has gradually evolved. This emerging need was used as an opportunity to introduce CDIO thinking on school level, because most staff is involved in the degree project courses. Activities open for all students, such as joint introduction and lectures, workshops in literature search and a final dinner together with industry collaborators, are offered during the final semester, and general tools supporting the process have been developed, covering templates for report writing, a common web portal and a web based tool for registering of degree theses. The approach is extended with faculty pedagogic development activities, such as discussion meetings regarding generic skills training and the tutors’ role in the learning process.

  • 4.
    Rupar, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sanati, M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from Drying and Storage of Biomass2002In: 12th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, WIP, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels has become increasing important due to both economic and environmental reasons. The emission of organic compounds of different green and dried biofuels that have been dried in hot air and steam medium, were analysed. Gas Chromatography (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID) and GC mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have been used to identify the organic matter. The terpene content was significantly affected by the use of different biofuels, changing the drying medium. Comparison between spectra from dry and wet fuels reveal that the main compounds emitted during drying are monoterpenes- and sesquiterpenes-hydrocarbon, whilst the emissions of diterpenes-hydrocarbon seem to be negligible. The drying medium, which was either steam or hot air, is known to influence the distribution between different emitted terpene hydrocarbon matters. Hydrocarbon emissions from storing of biomass was compared during a storage period. The precipitation has an effect on the emission levels and on the pile temperature. 

  • 5.
    Rupar, Katarina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för biovetenskaper och processteknik.
    Sanati, Mehri
    The Release of Organic Compounds during Biomass Drying depends upon the feedstock and/or altering Drying Heating Medium2003In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 615-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of organic compounds during the drying of biomass is a potential environmental problem, it may contributeto air pollution or eutrophication. In many countries there are legal restrictions on the amounts of terpenes that may bereleased into the atmosphere. When considering bioenergy in future energy systems, it is important that information on theenvironmental e-ects is available. The emissions of organic compounds from di-erent green and dried biofuels that have beendried in hot air and steam medium, were analyzed by using di-erent techniques. Gas chromatography and gas chromatographymass spectrometry have been used to identify the organic matter. The terpene content was signi2cantly a-ected by thefollowing factors: changing of the drying medium and the way the same biomass was handled from di-erent localities inSweden. Comparison between spectra from dried and green fuels reveal that the main compounds emitted during dryingare monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the emissions of diterpene hydrocarbons seem to be negligible. Therelative proportionality between emitted monoterpene, diterpene and sesquiterpene change when the drying medium shiftsfrom steam to hot air. The obtained result of this work implies a parameter optimization study of the dryer with regard toenvironmental impact. With assistance of this result it might be foreseen that choice of special drying medium, diversity ofbiomass and low temperature reduce the emissions. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer was used for investigating the biomassdrying rate.

  • 6.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Biomass Pre-treatment for the Production of Sustainable Energy: Emissions and Self-ignition2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic emissions with focus on terpenes, from biomass drying and storage were investigated by Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and GC-FID and GC-MS. The remaining terpenes in the biomass (Spruce and pine wood chips) after drying were dependant on the drying temperature and drying medium used. The drying medium used was steam or hot air; the drying temperatures used were 140degreeC, 170degreeC and 200degreeC. Steam drying at 170degreeC left more of the terpenes remaining in the wood chips, not emitting them into the drying medium. The terpenes emitted from storage of forest residues and bark and wood chips increased up to three-four or four-five months of storage, and then dropped down to approximately the same low level as the first month. The leachate taken from the forest residue pile contained 27µg PAH per liter.

    The SPME response for a monoterpene (a-terpene) at different temperatures, amounts and humidities was quantified. The highest concentration calibrated was 250 ppm and the lowest 9.4 ppm. There is a better linear agreement at higher temperatures (70degreeC and 100degreeC) than lower temperatures (below 40degreeC).

    Organic emissions from biofuel combustion were measured at three medium sized (~ 1MW) biomass fired moving grate boilers fired with different fuels: dry wood fuel, forest residues and pellets. The PAH emissions varied by almost three orders of magnitude between the three boilers tested, 2.8-2500 microgram/m3. It was difficult to identify any general parameters correlating to the PAH emissions. The variation in PAH emission is most probably a result of boiler design and tuning of the combustion conditions.

    When comparing the contribution to self-heating from different wood materials by means of isothermal calorimetry with different metals added and stored at different temperatures, the differences were quite large. Some of the samples released as much as 600mW/kg, whereas others did not contribute at all to the self-heating. The storage temperature, at which the samples released the most heat, was 50C. There was a peak in heat release for most of the samples after 10-30 days. Stepwise increase in temperature did not favour the heat release in the sample Dry Mix; the heat released was even lower than when it was directly put in the different storage temperatures. When metal is added, there is an increase in heat release, the reference sample without metal released 200mW/kg compared to 600mW when copper was added.

  • 7.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Parametric Study of Self-heating properties in Woody Biomass Samples2016In: EUBCE 2016 – 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition: 6th Jun, 2016 - 9th Jun, 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, ETA-Florence Renewable Energy , 2016, p. 578-579Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current investigation focused on obtaining experimental results on self-heating properties of different woody biomasses during lab-scale storage. The heat released from the different biomass samples was measured by isothermal calorimetry, with the purpose to assess the contribution to self-heating during storage. Biomass samples were stored at different temperatures and metals were added in order to investigate if the presence of metals would increase the risk of self-heating. There was an increase in heat release after 10-30 days of storage, and the addition of metals gave rise to an increase in heat release. The results are intended to be useful when planning for the large-scale use of different biomasses, leading to the need of storage.

  • 8.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Self-heating properties of softwood samples investigated by using isothermal calorimetry2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 111, p. 206-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation focused on obtaining experimental results from the self-heating properties of different softwood samples during lab-scale storage. The samples investigated were a mixture of dried soft wood sawdust, softwood pellets 8 mm in diameter, and aged softwood sawdust stored outdoors for three months. Isothermal calorimetry was used to measure the heat released from the biomass samples and assess the contribution to self-heating during storage. Softwood samples were stored at 20 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C and 60 °C, and the metals manganese, copper and iron were added as a water solution to investigate if the presence of metals would increase the risk of self-heating. For most sample series, the highest levels of heat release were found after approximately 10 days of storage; sample series stored at 50 °C displayed the highest levels. The addition of copper resulted in levels of heat release 135% higher than samples without metal added.

  • 9.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Strandmark, Gunnar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Biological treatment of air polluted with alpha-pinene.2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Strandmark, Gunnar
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Kemi.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Biological treatment of air polluted with alpha-pinene2008In: 16 th European Biomass Conference&Exhibition, Eta-Florence Renewable Energies , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was performed in order to evaluate if a more hydrophobic biofilter surface could facilitate the removal of hydrophobic pollutants from air. Alpha-pinene was used as a model compound since it is released from wood handling industries e.g. sawmills. Two biofilters were used during the study. One of the filter was filled with perlite soaked with silicone oil while the other was filled with untreated perlite. The removal efficiency was approximately the same for both filters except for the start up period when the oil soaked filter was more efficient.

  • 11.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik.
    Emissions from stored biofuels for house-hold use, risks and health effects2008In: 16th European Biomass Conference&Exhibition, 2-6 June 2008, Valencia, Spain, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By varying the storage conditions for lab-scale samples of different biomasses, the mircrobial growth in the samples varied. The microbial acitvity caused heat release and organic emissions were sampled. By measuring the heat release with isothermal calorimetry and organic emissions with solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatorgraphy with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), it may be posssible to predict the deterioriation in fuel quality, substance losses and health effects for a special fuel storage. The biofuels investigated were pellets made from peat/wood, bark/wood and wood pellets.

  • 12.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergi.
    Prevention of self ignition during storage of biomass fuels2007In: 15th European biomass conference & exhibition, 2007, p. 83-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the work is to increase knowledge in order to prevent self-ignition during large scale storage of biomass fuels. Important goals are to increase the knowledge about the mechanisms involved in the initiation and propagation of self-ignintion. This study is based on measurements of emissions of volatile organic hydrocarbons from two (out of four) wood pellets containing silo experiments, where local auto ignition was initiated by a coiled heating wire placed in the pellet bulk centrally in the silo. The aim was to find a parameter which can be followed in order to estimate the risk for self-ignition. The hydrocarbon gases were sampled using Tenax tubes and the analysis performed on a gaschromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer. Continuous analyses of the total hydrocarbon gases (THC) were also performed using a flame ionization detector (FID). After the self-heating was initiated , two compounds dominated when the individual hydrocarbins were analyzed, opne unidentified , the other was methyl furan, but the levels of these compounds did not start to increase until after 20 hours when the pyrolysis was well established.

  • 13.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Institutionen för teknik.
    Widuch, Jonas
    Zander, Carin
    Sanati, Mehri
    Welander, Ulrika
    Instituitionen för teknik.
    Evaluation of the role of microbail activity in self-jheating of stored wood based biofuels2005In: Swedish-Finnish Flame Days, International Flame Research Foundation , 2005, p. 262-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-ignition in storde wood based biofuels is an environmental as well as an economical problem. The amount of biofuels, which is going to be stored, might increase due to the decision taken by the European Union that the emissions of greenhouse gases should decrease. Storage of oragnic material leads to chemical as well as microbial activities. The heat released from aged sawdust (stored outside for three months), dried mixture before it was pressed to pellets and three different kinds of pellets due to microbial activity was measurede with an isothermal calorimeter (TAM Air) under various conditions.- Experiments with and without addition of Cu,Fe and Mn were performed in order to investigate if a catalytical effect could be observed. The results showed that the addition of copper had different efffects depending on which wood material that was studied and the temperature at which the samples had been stored. The addition of Fe or Mn generally did not give any measurable increase in the heat released.

  • 14.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Wiman, Bo
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A theoretical and experimental framework for the study of vegetation as a screen against aerosol pollution2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that vegetation acts a sink for aerosol particles, with the particle-capture efficiency strongly related to vegetation characteristics (such as dimensions of needles and leaves) and to  particle size and aerodynamic conditions. However, there is a need for studies of ways to harness this sink capacity for constructing “green screens” to help reduce aerosol-particle concentrations, and thus health effects, in downwind residential areas. In this report we present a simplified mathematical model for the particle-capture processes involved and use results of model simulations to explore ways to address the problem through experiments with vegetation-filter components (“green filter packs”) placed in a windtunnel. Because of the exploratory nature of our work, the very limited logistics available, and the severe time constraints for the work (a few weeks only were available) the report is shaped as a kind of “scientific narrative” (rather than as a traditional technical paper). A series of tests is described wherein steps are taken towards practical implementation of experimental designs and procedures  based on a simple smoke-aerosol generator and measurements of smoke concentrations upwind and downwind of “green filter packs”. Measurements involve laser-based particle counters, two-stage Nuclepore filter systems, and Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) techniques followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The main objective of the work was thus to illustrate ways to design experiments – rather than perform full-fledged experimental work – and to show how experimental data can be processed and used to assist in the study of vegetation as “pollution screens”. Despite the very limited time available for the work, the results show that our experimental approach is able to generate relevant information; for instance, a study of the particle-filtration capacity of a “green filter pack” consisting of an arrangement with Scots pine needles yielded interesting data.  Also, the  study suggests opportunities for more systematic comparisons between theory and practice, inasmuch it showed how, in principle, parameters involved in the mathematical model can be quantified. The SPME tests also provided interesting information with respect to chemical characteristics of the smoke-aerosol that was generated for the experiments. However, the tests with Nuclepore-filter sampling as well as the SPME applications showed needs for improving the smoke-generation method so that high and stable smoke-aerosol concentrations can be maintained over long periods (several hours).

     

     

    Our observations and findings imply that several refinements to the experimental design will be needed, including with  respect to methods for assessing the distribution of particle number and mass as a function of particle size (in the present study, the distribution is indicated by two particle-size classes only, 0.5 to 5 μm and >5 μm). Several other needs for improving the modelling as well experimental approach are also discussed in the report. Finally, a few observations on the needs for field-based studies are made together with remarks on the implications of the multi-disciplinary nature of this kind of work, with is linkages to the broader air-pollution context.

  • 15.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Zethraeus, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Safety and logistic aspects on biomass as RES2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The use of solid biomass is already dominant among RES not only in the South Baltic but in the European Federation as a whole and is expected to grow. With this, not only emissions from combustion but also emissions from storage and handling are apt to increase.The storage and handling of biomass is, however, not free from risks and problems.The current report discusses some of the risks associated with the large-scale handling and storage of biomass with special emphasis on the processes occurring during storage and the mechanisms behind auto-ignition.The report contains experimental results and information on different biomasses and their characteristics, with focus on the characteristics affecting the storage and handling properties. It is intended to be useful when planning for the use of different biomasses, leading to the need of storage.

  • 16.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Zethraeus, Björn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Safety, Self-Ignition and Storage: Investigation of Woody and Oily Biomass Samples2015In: 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 1-4 June 2015, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, Vol. 23, p. 642-645Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current investigation focused on obtaining experimental results on properties of different woody and oily biomasses during lab-scale storage. During large-scale storage of vegetable oils, biodiesel and woody biomasses, physical, biological and chemical processes lead to deterioration of the fuel, self-heating and in some cases to self-ignition. The heat released from the different biomass samples was measured by isothermal calorimetry, with the purpose to assess the biomass suitability for storage. The highest thermal output came from the boiled linseed oil, but also from olive oil. Wood pellets give rise to different levels of thermal output during storage and the levels depend on the moisture content, ambient gas media but not the resin content. The total energy release, as well as the peak value for the thermal power development in the individual ampoules, was limited by the amount of oxygen present. In spite of this, chemical heat release rates well exceeding 50 W/tonne were registered already at a sample temperature of 50 °C. The results are intended to be useful when planning for the large-scale use of different biomasses, leading to the need of storage. By measuring the heat released from different biomass samples, the biomass suitability for storage can be assessed. 

  • 17.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Rupar, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Bagherpour, Mohammad Bagher
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Effects of irrigation and water content of packings on alpha-pinene vapours biofilteration performance2005In: Biochemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1369-703X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different physical parameters on the performance of biofilters, treating

    hydrophobic compounds. In this respect, the effects of irrigation and water content of packings on the removal efficiency of bed in different

    pollutant loading rates, and gas phase flow rates, is studied. Alpha-pinene, which is produced from variety of industrial wood products, pulp

    and paper industries, and fragrance production units, has been selected as a model compound. Since the effectiveness of biofiltration depends

    strongly upon water solubility of compounds, in the case of alpha-pinene (2.5 ppm, at 25 ◦C), the process of waste gas treatment is faced

    with difficulties. In this paper, it is shown that performance of biofilters, treating hydrophobic contaminants, declines due to irrigation. This

    reduction is detected by an increase in the outlet concentration from 11% up to 22.5%. Its magnitude depends on the gas velocity inside the

    biofilter and outlet concentration of the bed. The result indicated that pore blocking along the bed has less effect on the performance reduction

    than diffusion coefficient. Also the inhibitory effects of velocity on biodegradation are considerably higher than the effects of concentration.

    In addition, this compost-based biofilter shows noteworthy higher elimination capacities in comparison with previous studied biofiltration

    systems. In this study, a maximum elimination capacity of 227 gm−3 of packing h−1 is achieved by 95% of removal efficiency. The maximum

    concentration in the inlet gas was 650 mgm−3.

  • 18.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Rupar, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Bagherpour, Mohammad Bagher
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bioenergiteknik.
    Solid phase micro extraction fibers, calibration for use in biofilter applications2006In: Biochemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1369-703X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a SPME calibration method suitable for use in evaluation of concentrations of hydrophobic substances

    in environmental samples.

    The analyte used in the experiments was alpha-pinene, a hydrophobic organic compound commonly found in wood, and therefore found in

    wood storage facilities, wood processing industries and wood based biofilters. The SPME fibres were calibrated for different concentrations of

    alpha-pinene at different temperatures and relative humidities. The method was used to evaluate the removal efficiency of a lab-scale biofilter.

  • 19.
    Sanati, Mehri
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Effects of irrigation and water content of packings on2005In: Biochemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1369-703X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 185-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different physical parameters on the performance of biofilters, treating

    hydrophobic compounds. In this respect, the effects of irrigation and water content of packings on the removal efficiency of bed in different

    pollutant loading rates, and gas phase flow rates, is studied. Alpha-pinene, which is produced from variety of industrial wood products, pulp

    and paper industries, and fragrance production units, has been selected as a model compound. Since the effectiveness of biofiltration depends

    strongly upon water solubility of compounds, in the case of alpha-pinene (2.5 ppm, at 25 ◦C), the process of waste gas treatment is faced

    with difficulties. In this paper, it is shown that performance of biofilters, treating hydrophobic contaminants, declines due to irrigation. This

    reduction is detected by an increase in the outlet concentration from 11% up to 22.5%. Its magnitude depends on the gas velocity inside the

    biofilter and outlet concentration of the bed. The result indicated that pore blocking along the bed has less effect on the performance reduction

    than diffusion coefficient. Also the inhibitory effects of velocity on biodegradation are considerably higher than the effects of concentration.

    In addition, this compost-based biofilter shows noteworthy higher elimination capacities in comparison with previous studied biofiltration

    systems. In this study, a maximum elimination capacity of 227 gm−3 of packing h−1 is achieved by 95% of removal efficiency. The maximum

    concentration in the inlet gas was 650 mgm−3.

    © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Welander, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Hejazi, Parisa
    Berenberg, Fredrik
    Isik, Güldem
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Strandmark, Gunnar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Shojaosadati, Abbas
    Treatment of alpha-pinene contaminated air using biofilters with and without silicone oil2010In: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1944-7442, E-ISSN 1944-7450, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 313-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two biofilters equal in size were filled with perlite for treatment of -pinene-contaminated air. The perlite used for one of the biofilters was partially coated with silicone oil to make the surface of the particles more hydrophobic. The filters were run at 1.5, 2.5, and 5 L/min airflow rate (3.1, 1.9, and 0.9-min retention time). The filters were operated for 5.5 months. The results showed that the silicone oil-coated filter performed better at 2.5 L/min with a maximum elimination capacity of 20 g/(m3 h) in comparison with 15 g/(m3 h) for the filter without oil. The efficiency was approximately the same for both filters at 1.5 L/min (40 g/m3 h), whereas it was slightly higher for the without oil filter at 5 L/min [35 g/(m3 h)]. The flow rate was set to 2.5 L/min once more (day 151). The results showed that the elimination capacity had increased to 35 g/(m3 h) and that the efficiency of both filters was approximately the same. The difference in results between the initial run and the later run at 2.5 L/min is probably depending on that the number of microorganisms had increased during the experiment and that the oil-containing biofilter adsorbed -pinene to a higher extent than the biofilter without silicone oil during the start-up period. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2010

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