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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business Sch.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Conclusions: Latin America and Globalization-Challenges, Responses, and Perspectives in the Twenty-First Century2012In: Latin American responses to globalization in the 21st centur / [ed] Manuela Nilsson and Jan Gustafsson, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 253-262Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    All Winners- No Losers?: Reflections on the Troubled State of Nicaragua’s Democracy’2005In: FOCALPoint online, Canada, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 3-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Book review: Violent Peace by David Mares2002In: Latin American Politics and Society, ISSN 1531-426X, E-ISSN 1548-2456, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 163-168Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Building Peace Amidst Violence: An Analysis of Colombia's Policies to Address Security and Development Challenges2018In: Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Carribbean Studies, E-ISSN 2002-4509, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building peace in societies where levels of violence continue to be high is one of today’s biggest challenges for countries like Colombia that are emerging from decades of protracted social conflict. The article examines how the Colombian state reasons about the challenges of re-establishing security and devel- opment as two core pillars for sustainable peace. It is embedded in the international debates on the security-development nexus within the statebuilding-peacebuilding discourse and based on an in-depth analysis of government policy documents, complemented by field interviews conducted between 2013 and 2017. It evaluates the Colombian government’s perception of the nexus between security and devel- opment as a first step towards understanding how state actor perspectives in post-conflict societies with high levels of violence compare to international peacebuilding perspectives. The findings underline that while Colombia’s national consolidation and reconstruction policies definitely display a belief in the existence of a nexus between security and development, that understanding differs significantly from international peacebuilding perspectives. It places heavy emphasis on a security-first approach that aims at statebuilding and subordinates development concerns to that overall goal, which creates an imbalance that translates as well into actor choices for the peacebuilding policies to be applied locally.

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Building Peace Amidst Violence:: Local Perceptions of Threat and Insecurity in Post-Conflict Colombia2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries that sign a peace agreement to emerge from protracted violent conflict often begin reconstructing their societies amidst continued high levels of violence. Responding to this situation, national security policies often identify core threats primarily from a state perspective, disregarding local community perceptions of threat and insecurity. This paper is based on interviews conducted in Colombia with members of three rural communities that have undergone and still suffer from different forms and levels of post-accord violence. Differentiating between measurable and lived security threats, it identifies the communities' perceptions of threats to their current security situation and compares them to those of the state security actors stationed in the communities. Embedded in the call for more pragmatic, bottom-up peacebuilding, we argue that security is context-specific and stress the importance of understanding the diversity of local community perspectives on security for building sustainable peace under conditions of ongoing violence. Final policy recommendations thus underline the need for a more differentiated approach towards improving security levels, which meets the specific threat perceptions and security concerns of local communities, empowers those communities and improves cooperation between local communities and state security actors to bring sustainable, localized peace to context-specific security environments. 

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Civil Society Actors in Peace Negotiations in Central America2018In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 135-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Civil society actors are assumed to play an important part in post-conflict peacebuilding;

    therefore, the international community pushes for civil society participation already during

    peace negotiations. However, the actual connection between civil society’s participation in

    those negotiations and its role in implementation processes remains unclear. Taking the

    Central American peace processes of the late 1980s and early 90s as a case study, this

    article compares civil society participation in peace negotiations and provisions for civil

    society involvement for the implementation phase, with the actual role that the civil society

    played in the implementation processes in Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador. The

    article

    KEYWORDS: civil society, peace making, peacebuilding, Central America, peace process

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Cultural Diplomacy and Foreign Policy: German-American Relations, 1955-19681996Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the official German and American cultural, educational and information work activities from the mid-1950s to the late 1960s in an effort to show that cultural diplomacy deserves more scholarly attention as an element that influences the quality, stability and flexibility of German-American relations. Closely following foreign policy objectives, both countries' cultural diplomacy efforts underlined the transformation from dependency to interdependency which their relationship underwent during this crucial period of time.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    David Close, Salvador Martí i Puig, and Shelley A. McConnell, eds., The Sandin-istas and Nicaragua Since 1979. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 20112013In: Latin American Politics and Society, ISSN 1531-426X, E-ISSN 1548-2456, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 200-203Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Friedensverhandlungen [Peace Negotiations]2015In: Wissenschaft und Frieden, ISSN 0947-3971, no 3, p. 6-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    Friedensverhandlungen, also Dialoge zwischen Akteuren als Alternative zur fortgesetzten gewaltsamen Lösung ihrer Probleme miteinander, kommen als Konfliktlösungsmechanismus immer häufiger zum Einsatz. Im 19. und noch bis ins späte 20. Jahrhundert endeten bewaffnete Auseinandersetzungen überwiegend mit dem Sieg einer Seite, nur 15-20% durch Friedensverhandlungen. Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges wurden aber schon mehr als 50% aller Bürgerkriege, die häufigste Form gewaltsamer Konflikte, am Verhandlungstisch beendet (Bell 2006), und Zweidrittel dieser Verhandlungen führten auch wirklich zum Frieden (Joshi und Quinn 2015). Die Forschung und vor allem Praxis der Friedensverhandlungen haben aber noch einen langen Weg vor sich, denn bisher bringen Friedensverhandlungen im Vergleich immer noch einen weniger haltbaren Frieden als militärische Siege (DeRouen et al. 2010). Der längerfristige Trend berechtigt aber zur Hoffnung, dass Verhandlungen in Zukunft eine immer größere Rolle spielen werden.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Global Governance and Regional Rebalancing: Southern Hegemons and the Bid for Regional Representation in the UN Security Council2012In: Conference: Regional Rebalancing and Unanticipated Consequences of the Global Crisis (Aalborg University, Denmark), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated levels of globalization and an increasing need for global governance have produced widespread calls for an expansion of the United Nations, particularly from the developing world. Five emerging powers and regional hegemons of their own might - Brazil, India, South Africa, Egypt and Nigeria – are vying for a permanent seat in the United Nation’s Security Council. This paper compares the strategies these five regional hegemons pursue in order to become their region’s representatives in the global power structure and reflects on the question whether these policies help to create regional cohesion (regionness) or whether they contribute to regional tensions and increase the potential for conflicts. A last section ponders about the implications of accession of those five self-proclaimed leaders of the developing world to the UNSC, particularly on the question if that would actually bring about more regional representation and thus better reflect today’s geopolitical realities. Finally, the conclusions evaluate the value of regional representation as a solution to the dilemma of the lack of geographical representation in the UNSC.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Grassroots Reconciliation Stories from Post-Conflict Nicaragua2010In: Social Alternatives, ISSN 0155-0306, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 49-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do actors formerly involved in violent conflict reconcile, particularly in the absence of a government-led top down effort? This article analyzing grassroots reconciliation efforts during the fifteen years following the civil war of the 1980s in Nicaragua. As a result of extensive rounds of interviews with actors and opinion leaders from both sides as well as members of the international community in volved in the peace building process, the study concludes that today, after two decades of peace, many Nicaraguans have advanced from negative coexistence to full reconciliation. Faced with the absence of effective ‘trickle down’ policies on the elite level to help this process along, Nicaraguans have found their own ways of reconciliation. Examples for both, the successes as well as the failures to reach reconciliation, are presented.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Implementing the security-development nexus: An analysis of the state level in the example of reconstruction in Colombia2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Peacebuilding And Local Ownership: Who Owned the Reconciliation Process in Nicaragua?2015In: ISA's 56th Annual Convention: Global IR and Regional Worlds, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Peacebuilding and local ownership: Who owned the reconciliation process in post-conflict Nicaragua?2015In: Local Ownership in International Peacebuilding: Key theoretical and practical issues / [ed] Sung Yong Lee, Alpaslan Özerdem, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 116-134Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Reconstructing Colombia2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After decades of internal conflict and several failed attempts to construct the bases

    for sustainable peace, Colombia is once again undergoing peace negotiations. At

    the same time, the Colombian government is revising its reconstruction policies to

    address the impact of the protracted conflict. This paper discusses the country’s

    new national policy on territorial consolidation and reconstruction within the

    context of international reconstruction frameworks and the development-security

    nexus debate. The research is based on a number of international reconstruction

    policy frameworks, the latest yet unpublished Colombian documents concerning

    the new policies and interviews conducted during March 2013 in Bogota as well

    as in the regions of Makarena, Tolima and Montes de Maria, all three focus areas

    for governmental reconstruction policies. The paper finds that while the PNCRT

    definitely displays the beginning of a shift from an overwhelmingly securityoriented

    policy towards one taking development into consideration, it still

    displays a heavy emphasis on security issues and subordinates development

    concerns to that overall goal. That imbalance translates into actor choices for

    reconstruction policies and leaves much to be improved when comparing the

    policy to the international reconstruction framework.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Restituting Land in the midst of Violence: A Case Study of Colombia”2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Restituting Land in the midst of Violence: A Case Study of Colombia2016In: ISA's 57th Annual Convention: Exploring Peace, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Searching for sustainable peace: Challenges and opportunities for cooperation between military and civilian actors in Colombia2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Security Sector Reform in Angola, 2002-20122012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The challenges of land restitution in Colombia2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land is an important natural resource, serving as the literal bedrock for developing countries, tackling poverty by providing food security and export dividends. Protracted social conflict, however, may lead to decades in which land is underused, destroyed, or changes hands in both legal and illegal ways, often related directly to power asymmetries of the conflict actors. When peace finally comes, part of social reconstruction may involve restituting that land to its rightful owners. Post-conflict reconstruction necessitates rapid attention to agricultural production and resource extraction to spur development and economic growth, which in turn may help to prevent renewed conflict. This paper presents the preliminary results of a pilot study conducted on the land restitution process in Colombia. It looks particularly at the impact of land restitution on three inter-related goals in peacebuilding: security, development and transitional justice. Conducted in October 2014 with the first communities who were returned to their land in Cordoba, the pilot study included interviews with the main actors involved in the land restitution. Participants ranged from international organizations to the Unit of Land Restitution in Bogotá to regional judges who ruled on land restitution to local communities that have received land and those awaiting the final legal decision. Preliminary results demonstrate the challenges to the Colombian land restitution process at all levels, particularly within the context of peacebuilding amidst ongoing violence.

     

  • 21.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    The Importance of the Relationship between Civil Society and the Defense Sector for Peacebuilding in Nicaragua2005In: Pensamiento Propio, ISSN 1016-9628, Vol. 21, p. 55-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    The Paradox of Pacts: Pact Politics and Democracy Development in Post-Conflict Nicaragua2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    The Role of Universities in Peacebuilding: A Nicaraguan Case Study2005In: Revista Encuentro, ISSN 0424-9674, Vol. 71, p. 78-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    A pesar de que la comunidad internacional ha comenzado a reconocer la necesidad de utilizar actores locales de la sociedad civil en el proceso de construcción de la paz en sociedades que han pasado recientemente por un conflicto armado, el potencial de las universidades como socios locales ha sido pasado por alto. Esta investigación analiza el papel que las universidades pueden jugar en los procesos de transformación de conflictos y la construcción de la paz, utilizando el involucramiento de las universidades en Nicaragua como estudio de caso. El trabajo demuestra las ventajas de utilizar a la comunidad universitaria y analiza las diferentes maneras de su involucramiento activo, tanto en cooperación con los organismos internacionales como en iniciativas independientes. También discute las limitaciones de su desempeño y finaliza con las lecciones aprendidas en el estudio del involucramiento de las universidades nicaragüenses en la construcción de la paz.

  • 24.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The Sandinistas and Nicaragua Since 19792013In: Latin American Politics and Society, ISSN 1531-426X, E-ISSN 1548-2456, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 200-203Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Who Determines the Just Cause of Humanitarian Intervention?2005In: Social Alternatives, ISSN 0155-0306, Vol. 24, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The NATO intervention in Kosovo in 1999 sparked a heated discussion about the concept and objectives of humanitarian intervention, the United Nations´ dilemma of protecting its members´ sovereignty as well as international human rights and the options to prevent abuses that could be associated with that kind of intervention. The question of right authority is part of that discussion. This paper proposes the creation of an intermediary permanent international committee within the United Nations designed to help the UN Security Council in the decision making process about conflict situations where humanitarian intervention seems necessary.

  • 26.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    González Marín, Lucía
    Building Peace amidst Violence: Is Colombia’s Program to substitute Crops used for illegal Purposes improving Security and Development?2018In: Development Research Conference: Rethinking Development, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the core problems of peacebuilding conducted amidst violence is the complex relationship between the security and development arenas, two major pillars in peacebuilding that international peacebuilding frameworks consider to be inextricably linked. Yet, empirical research on how violent environments influence how peacebuilding policies in those two arenas relate to each other on the ground is scarce. This paper explores the relationship between security and development in peacebuilding policies in Colombia, a country barely emerging from decades of protracted armed conflict that continues to experience high levels and of violence. It particularly focuses on Colombia’s efforts to substitute crops used for illegal purposes with alternative forms of sustainable livelihood in order to curb what is perceived as one of the biggest threats to both security and development in the country. Through in-depth interviews with multiple actors involved in this effort, ranging from state and regional institutions and members of the army and the police force to different actor groups at the local community level, the paper explores how Colombia's violent environment shaped the country's efforts to deal with the substitution of drugs used for illegal purposes. The findings argue that continued violencecreates considerable obstacles for local peacebuilding actors trying to follow the international policy imperative to implement peacebuilding strategies that intend to pursue security and development at the same time. Violent peacebuilding environments can significantly counteract and undermine the successful outcomes of peacebuilding, turning security and development programs against each other and blocking each other's success. 

  • 27.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    González Marín, Lucía
    Searching for sustainable peace in Colombia: Civilian and military perceptions concerning the role of the military in the post-conflict future2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colombia’s search for peace to end a protracted social conflict that has mired the country in violence for decades reached a climax the fall of 2016 with the signing of a peace agreement between the government and the country’s largest armed opposition group. However, violence levels continue to be high, a fact that directs attention to the future role of one of the main actors in the conflict: the country's military forces. How security issues are addressed from here on will greatly affect Colombia’s future development. This study looks at the military's difficult transformation from a wartime to a peacetime institution, its role in peacebuilding and its relationship to the civilian state actors, its aspirations, strategies and visions for the future as well as its efforts to re-invent its own identity in an environment that is marked by continued violence. It is based on interviews conducted in the country between 2015 and 2018 with members of the Colombian military at both national and regional levels, the police, the Ministry of Defense and members of civil society organizations. The findings underline that the military's vision of its future role poses considerable challenges for the civilian government actors and Colombian civil society.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, JanCopenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Latin American Responses to Globalization in the 21st Century2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining thematic analysis with country case studies including Mexico, Bolivia, and Brazil, an international group of scholars discusses the expectations, threats, and responsese to globalization in Latin America. They look at a variety of new research areas connected to globalization, such as the creation of formal citizens, the impact of remittances, the dangers of transnational crime, indigenous responses to economic globalization, and its impact on human security. Moreover, they identify the pitfalls of democracy in a globalizing Latin America, as well as the hopes connected to energy politics. Finally, they consider the relationship with China and South-South cooperation as alternatives to long-term historical alliances.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Copenhagen Business Sch.
    Latin American Responses to Globalization in the 21st Century: Introduction2012In: Latin American Responses to Globalization in the 21st Century / [ed] Manuela Nilsson and Jan Gustafsson, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Africa's Hegemons and UN Security Council Reform2007Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposed reform for the amplification of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) has evoked considerable debate in recent years, focussing on the impact that incoming developing countries could have on future power constellations within that international body. This paper contemplates possible changes that could occur with the inclusion of African hegemonic states, particularly the three main pretenders, Egypt, South Africa and Nigeria. It analyzes the three countries power potential and their regional and international objectives as leaders of the developing world as well as their relations to each other. The paper concludes that the inclusion of major African states in the Security Council will shift the balance towards the Global South, resulting not only in changes in the agenda of the Security Council but possibly also in a variety of strategic alliances outlined in the paper, as well as South-South cooperation against the current power constellation within that body. This cooperation and the growing economic power potential behind it – particularly if taking into account energy resources in Africa - makes it increasingly unwise for the veto powers in the UNSC to keep postponing the debated reform – until they have lost their last negotiating power, their economic weight, to the combined force of the newcomers. Thus, the UNSC seat discussions are a reflection of the ongoing change in the power relationships in the international system and merit close observation as well as foreign policy adjustment by all members of the international community.

  • 31.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Making Durable Peace: Incorporating Social Power and Development Issues into Peace Agreements2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Taylor, Laura K.
    Queen's University Belfast, Ireland.
    Applying the security-development nexus on the ground: Land restitution in Colombia2017In: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general consensus on the security-development nexus is that both are key to achieving sustainable peace in war-torn societies. However, this debate has largely taken place among international actors, with little empirical evidence about how security and development relate to each other or are even considered by local actors. The current paper applies the security-development nexus to the case of land restitution in Colombia. Following decades of internal armed conflict, in 2012 the national government passed sweeping land restitution legislation amid ongoing violence. Through in-depth interviews and focus groups with multiple actors involved in this process, ranging from international organisations to national government units, from regional institutions to local communities, the paper analyses the objectives, impact, challenges and opportunities for land restitution related to security and development. Undermining peace-building, a lack of coherence in the integration of security and development priorities limits the extent to which either supports, or is promoted by, land restitution efforts in Colombia. The paper concludes with reflections on how the security-development nexus may promote peace-building amid ongoing conflict.

  • 33.
    Taylor, Laura
    et al.
    Queen’s University, Northern Ireland.
    Nilsson, Manuela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Amezquite-Castro, Brenda
    University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA.
    Reconstructing the social fabric amid ongoing violence: attitudes toward reconciliation and structural transformation in Colombia2016In: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 83-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the increase of reconciliation processes initiated amid ongoing violence, this study focuses on community reconciliation and its relation to structural transformation, or social reconstruction through reforming unjust institutions and practices that facilitate protracted violent conflict. Drawing lessons from the Caribbean coast of Colombia, mixed-methods analyses include 8 in-depth interviews and 184 surveys. Four key dimensions of reconciliation – truth, justice, mercy and peace – are examined. In the interviews, participants prioritise reconstructing the truth and bringing perpetrators to justice as essential aspects of reconciliation. Notions of mercy and forgiveness are less apparent. For the participants, sustainable peace is dependent on structural transformation to improve livelihoods. These data, however, do not indicate how this understanding of reconciliation may relate to individual participation in reconciliation processes. Complementing the qualitative data, quantitative analyses identify some broad patterns that relate to participation in reconciliation events. Compared to those who did not participate, individuals who engaged in reconciliation initiatives report higher levels of personal experience with violence, live alongside demobilised paramilitaries, are more engaged in civic life and express greater preference for structural transformation. The paper concludes with policy implications that integrate reconciliation and structural transformation to deepen efforts to rebuild the social fabric amid violence.

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