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  • 1.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    A specification of an environment for modern product development2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Entrepreneurial Learning in Higher Education2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    From product to Service and Experience and back: How traditional marketing is enriched by refocusing.2012In: Relationship Management for the Future: / [ed] M. Zineldin, Frederic Bill, Valentina Vasicheva, Sarah Philipson, Michaela Sandell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, p. 77-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Pattern-finding in qualitative data: a suggested method of making data analyzable2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Pattern-finding in qualitative data: a 17 steps procedure of making data analyzable2013In: Proceedings from the 6th Annual Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business. Confronting Contemporary Business Challenges through Management Innovation, Estoril, 23-24 september 2013, EuroMed Press / [ed] Vrontis, D., Weber, Y. & Tsoukatos, E., EuroMed Press , 2013, p. 1804-1820Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I have examined or tutored some 500 bachelors theses and some 100 masters theses at several Swedish universities.

    Over the past 20 years Swedish secondary school graduates has become less and less apt in mathematics, Mullis, et al. (2009). Due to this development university students mostly chose to make qualitative studies, irrespective if this is the best choice to study the research question on not. Most of them don’t even make good qualitative studies. After analysis of the requirements of what is needed, Prahalad’s (2006) ‘sandbox of innovation’, I have developed an abductive method for analysing qualitative data to help the students to get good use of their empirical material, a well-grounded theory, in contrast to the inherent deductive nature of grounded theory. It is suitable for studies based on interviews, focus groups and observations.

    As the dataset grows, the method becomes cumbersome, which I don not consider is a big problem, as big qualitative datasets would preferably be analysed by non-parametric statistics, rather than the iterative interpreting qualitative method I suggest here. The method has so far been used to advantage by students in some 15 bachelor and master theses. I also discuss the limitations of the method.

  • 6.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Protecting the offering from unfair competition in the knowledge economy: Design management in virtual enterprises2005In:  :  , 2005, p. 1-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future wealth of the industrialised world is based on the design and marketing of new products and services. To an increasing extent design is based on the co-operation of numerous companies and experts in technology and content. The variable cost of the production of the product or service is a smaller and smaller share of its price. Hence the protection of embedded intellectual assets is becoming a critical aspect of all business ventures.

    In this paper I propose a technological environment (“environment” is used in the information technology sence) for design in complex networks of independent companies and experts. An environment intended to make the protection of intellectual assets possible and in which the participants can build trust between each other for the common exploitation of assets owned individually and jointly. The environment, so far not tested, is based on my 25 years of experience as executive officer and management consultant in the media, telecommunication and engineering industries. I hope to test the environment in future research.

  • 7.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Quantum Leaps: The Resource-Based View (RBV) and the School of Industrial Organisation (IO) Revisited2011In: Proceedings from ICAM, 18th Annual International Conference on Advances in Management and 4th Annual International Conference on Social Intelligence, Cancun, 15-18 July / [ed] Rahim, A., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper proposes a synthesis of the Resource-Based View (RBV), and the School of Industrial Organization (IO) based on a framework developed by Philipson (1980). The framwork was developed after a little known work by Marx (1969): “Resultate des unmittelbares produktionsprozesses”. Philipson explored the concepts ”levels of functions of capital”, after Bettelheim (1970), the ”generalization of capital functions”, and used Gramsci’s (1971) concept of ”hegemony”. Two of Marx’ principal concepts were ”inner” and ”outer” conditions of production.  These preempted RBV and IO, which appeared hundred years later. In spite of the development of the RBV and the IO over the last 30 years, the most interesting questions to pursue for strategy research are how companies transcend their resources to reinvent themselves and how they transcend their resources to face new environmental conditions of which they do not have enough experience and resources; hence the transcendence of their limitations. The present article contributes with a phenomenology for studying firm strategy giving precedence to a different mix of the two schools. 

  • 8.
    Philipson, Sarah
    University of Gävle.
    Radical innovation of a business model - is business modelling a key to understand the essence of doing business?2016In: Competitiveness Review: an international business journal, ISSN 1059-5422, E-ISSN 2051-3143, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose“Business model” emerged fairly recently as an academic concept; competing with “sustainable strategic competitiveness”, “strategic fit” (Porter, 1996), and “dominant logic” (Prahalad & Bettis, 1986) to give key explanatory understanding of firm performance.This paper investigates key antecedents to the use of radical innovation of the business model of a service firm to achieve competitive advantage.

    Design/methodology/approachThe article is based on action research, in which the re-engineering of a service business turned into radical innovation of the business model.

    FindingsRadical innovation (conceived of as a new dominant logic) of the business model of a service firm is shown to give sustainable competitive advantage.It shows how fundamental the concept of business model is to understanding the nature of the business, and links it to fundamental academic discussion of recent decades around concepts such as “sustainable competitive advantage”, “structural capital” and “tacit knowledge”.

    Research limitations/implicationsThis is based on a case and more research is needed to generalize the findings.

    Practical implicationsIn contrast to the knowledge management and structural capital evangelization, much tacit knowledge cannot be converted to structural capital.

    Originality/valueBusiness model is a central concept to understand business performance, but must not be conceived as all-encompassing. We give a model for what the concept should cover and contrast it to other important models.We show the role of tacit knowing in a business model.

  • 9.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing. Gävle högskola.
    Radical innovation of business model - is business modelling a key to understand the essence of doing business?2014In: Future of Entrepreneurship, 2014, p. 1478-1491Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Business model' is a fairly new academic concept; competing with Porter's 'sustainable strategic competitiveness' and 'strategic fit' (Porter, 1996), Prahalad & Bettis 'dominant logic' (Prahalad & Bettis, 1986) to give key explanatory understanding of firm performance. We discuss business modelling based on an action research case and show just how fundamental it is. It links fundamental academic discussion of recent decades around concepts such as 'sustainable competitive advantage', 'structural capital' and 'tacit knowledge'.

  • 10.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Scripting: The Product Development of Experiences2012In: Relationship Management for the Future / [ed] Zineldin, M. et al., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2012, p. 87-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sources of innovation: Revisited2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sources of Innovation: Revisited2012In: Proceedings of the International Conference Economic & Social Challenges and Problems 2011: December 9-10, 2011 / [ed] Stringa, O., Dibra, S. & Shahini, B., Europrint & University of Tirana , 2012, p. 36-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his groundbreaking work Sources of Innovation, Eric von Hippel discussed from where in (and out of) the value-chain innovations came in different industries, the customer, the manufacturer, the supplier or the third party innovator (universities, research laboratories, etc.).The world has changed and new phenomena have become apparent.This article is a conceptual paper, discussing these new phenomena and presenting a tentative updated pheno-typology of the sources of innovation. Except von Hippel (1988) it draws heavily on Kaulio (1998), Borrus & Zysman (1997) and Hart & Sangbae (2002) to build these phenotypes.

     

  • 13.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    The Limits of Governance for Shareholder Capitalism2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing. University of Gävle.
    Value of listed companies; abnormal earnings and innovativeness2017In: Global and National Business Theories and Practice: Bridging the Past With the Future / [ed] Vrontis, D Weber, Y Tsoukatos, E, EuroMed Press , 2017, p. 1342-1348Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This a conceptual paper concerning the relation between innovativeness and monopoly rent/abnormal earnings. It discusses how these concepts can be measured and proposes that abnormal earnings are the result differentiation, by innovativeness (monopoly rent) or branding, by under-or overvalued assets, or by imperfect market information (value irrelevance). Specifically, innovativeness as a driver of monopoly rent/abnormal earnings is discussed.

  • 15.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    Workers’ subsumption of the work process: a case study2006In: Returning to Dialectics? Towards a Critical Philosophy of Management. A Conference at the Essex Management Centre, University of Essex, June 8-9 2006, University of Essex, June 2006, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In my doctoral thesis from 1980, Capital functions and the position of the workers (in Swedish), I explored a Marxian theory of Business administration, based on a little known work by Marx: “Resultate des unmittelbares produktionsprozesses”.

    I explored concepts like three levels of functions of capital: owning, administering and leading; the generalization of capital functions and hence globalization; the possibility that the workers could acquire the control (cf. Bettelheim) of lower functions of capital and hence undermining the owning of the company, This led to the hypothesis that the productive forces has not reached anywhere near its highest possible development under capitalism and hence that communism today or in our life time is a romantic dream. We should instead try to increase the productive forces within capitalism and broadening workers’ control over capital functions in order to make a future communist society possible. Only through such an expansion of actual control could the working class prepare itself for democratic (in contrast to despotic) communism.

    I had left the academia in 1977 because of the resistance to my ideas. I became a practitioner, working as a management consultant, executive in large corporations and owner of small companies. Whenever I could I tried to apply my theories, with good and bad results.

    One of these was the re-engineering in a subsidiary of ABB, Asea Brown Boveri, the Swedish-Swiss, electrical equipment giant. In 1988 – 1992 I developed and implemented a new business idea and the computer architecture to support it, in order to make the subsidiary more effective (ABB would not have let me otherwise) and, as a personal agenda, to extend workers’ control over leading and administrating. The results where both encouraging and limited, but still shows clearly how a work force can extend their control and the preparedness for further extension of that control.

  • 16.
    Philipson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing. University of Gävle.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schley, Don
    Colorado Tech Univ, USA.
    Global corporate governance: The maelstrom of increased complexity - is it possible to learn to ride the dragon?2015In: Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Value Chain in a Dynamic Environment, Euromed Press , 2015, p. 1785-1799Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of recent corporate scandals company failure is usually explained based on agency theory, leading to the conclusion that corporate boards and regulators must use agency theory to control management better. The authors use institutional theory to problematize this advice. We identify the role of accounting as to give predictability, hence preventing company failure. But this predictability can be questioned; it implies stability. Albeit partly with circumstantial evidence, we question this stability with factors making the conditions for management decision-making volatile, as explained by antecedents, and leading to unmanageable entities. The implications of this volatility have consequences for corporate governance, and question the going-concern assumption, the basis of accounting. Hence, from the dominant explanations that corrupt management, or management with different interests than the principal, leads to company failure, we evolve another chain of cause and effect: volatility, with company failure as a result. It is argued that traditional accounting rituals are unsuitable for many companies. The paper indicates a need for de-institutionalization and reconsidering of accounting practices, and particularly the fundamental assumption of going concern.

  • 17.
    Philipson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing. University of Gävle.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    University of Gävle ; Luleå University of Technology.
    Schley, Don G.
    Colorado Technical University, USA.
    Global corporate governance - The maelstrom of increased complexity: is it possible to learn to ride the dragon?2016In: Journal of Business and Economics, ISSN 2155-7950, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 425-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of recent corporate scandals company failure is usually explained based on agency theory, leading to the conclusion that corporate boards and regulators must use agency theory to control management better.

    The authors use institutional theory to problematize this advice. We identify the role of accounting as to give predictability, hence preventing company failure. But this predictability can be questioned; it implies stability. Albeit partly with circumstantial evidence, we question this stability with factors making the conditions for management decision-making volatile, as explained by antecedents, and leading to unmanageable entities. The implications of this volatility have consequences for corporate governance, and question the going-concern assumption, the basis of accounting.

    Hence, from the dominant explanations that corrupt management, or management with different interests than the principal, leads to company failure, we evolve another chain of cause and effect: volatility, with company failure as a result. It is argued that traditional accounting rituals are unsuitable for many companies. The paper indicates a need for de-institutionalization and reconsidering of accounting practices, and particularly the fundamental assumption of going concern.

  • 18.
    Philipson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Quantum leaps: the Resource Based View (RBV) and the School of Industrial Organization (IO) revisited2013In: Advances in Management, ISSN 0974-2611, E-ISSN 2278-4551, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a conceptual paper. In her doctoral thesis, “Capital functions and the position of the workers” (in Swedish), published in 1980, Philpson, explored a Marxian theory of Business administration, based on a little known work by Marx, “Resultate des unmittelbares produktionsprozesses”. She explored the three concepts “levels of functions of capital”, after Bettelheim, the “generalisation of capital functions” and hence globalisation and the possibility to use the concept of “hegemony” in business administration, after Gramsci.

    Two of the principle concepts were Marx’ “inner” and “outer” conditions of production. These pre-empted the Resource-Based View (RBV) and the School of Industrial Organization (IO) with hundred years. In Philipson, she proposed 72 phenotypes for the principle strategic situations for companies, based on their inner and outer conditions of production. The resource based view and the Industrial Organization School have long been two antagonistic explanations of the strategic possibilities of firms.

    This study is a synthesis of these two schools based on the framework developed in Philipson. It suggests a phenomenology for studying firm strategy that might possibly give precedence for a different mix of the two schools in the phenomenological cases.

    In spite of the development of the RBV and the IO over the last 30 years, the most interesting questions to pursue for strategy research are how companies transcends their resources to reinvent themselves and how they transcend their resources to face new environmental conditions of which they do not have enough experience and resources; hence the trans- cendence of their limitations. 

  • 19.
    Philipson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Philipson, Joakim
    Kungliga Biblioteket.
    From Budapest to Berlin: the role of reputation in the market economy2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a trip from Budapest to Berlin in 1990, Joakim made observations about a grey market trade between Rumanian Roma and Vietnamese guest students in Berlin. It was seemingly inexplicable how the two groups could enter into business relationships without a common language.

     

    This paper interprets the observed events and raises fundamental questions about society, market economy, and democracy. It discusses the role of trust and reputation as the prerequisite of conditional trust and suggest that there are now validation for classical economic value theory and for relationship management. This has important consequences for sociology, business administration, and economics.

  • 20.
    Philipson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Philipson, Joakim
    National Library of Sweden.
    From Budapest to Berlin: the role of reputation in the market economy2016In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 28, no 2/3, p. 310-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a trip from Budapest to Berlin in 1990, Joakim Philipson made observations about a grey market trade between Rumanian Roma and Vietnamese guest students in Berlin. It was seemingly inexplicable how the two groups could enter into business relationships without a common language. This paper uses the narrative as a basis for a discussion and interpretation of conditional trust and validates classical economic value theory. As “...research on trust... is relatively diverse and multidisciplinary” (Dirks and Ferrin, 2001; Lewicki et al., 1998; both after Gordon, 2007), we are drawing on research in as diverse fields as sociology, game theory, anthropology, and classical economics to question the paradigm that is the basis of both transaction cost economics and relationship management. As such the paper is a narrative case used for conceptual discourse. 

  • 21.
    Philipson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Scheley, D.
    The ethical dilemma of global corporate governance: the maelstrom of increased complexity – is it possible to learn to ride the dragon?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Philipson, Sarah
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Wendel, Ellen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Is customer involvement in product development driven by high product complexity and/or high production cost?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the relation between two factors that might explain why the Swedish wood component manufacturing industry use customer involvement in product development to a very small extent, failed to give high complexity and high production cost interesting predictory value in explaining the limited role of customer involvement in product development.

    In a complementary study, although with a small response rate, of the much more complex machine industry for the wood component industry even indicated that product complexity negatively impact customer involvement.

  • 23.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Bill, Frederic
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Vasicheva, Valentina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Sandell, Michaela
    Relationship management for the future2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationship management for the future (RMF) provides a unique and powerful tools and rod map for understanding relationship creation, development and sustainability in everyday work and life. This comprehensive and unique book blends the enduring wisdom of the past with the fresh thinking of today in order to offer a remarkably intriguing look into the future of tomorrow´s relationships. It is a multidisciplinary work addressing a broad spectrum of total relationship management (TRM) issues and strategies to create exciting and dynamic competitive organizations.

    What an organisation needs today to master it is future is a new total relationship management (TRM) philosophy. Total relationship management for the future (TRMf) should be supported by and rooted in the organization as a whole. Consumers and business customers are people with different current and future desires and needs. To win the heart of the people, a relationship- based- organisation should understand  today´s and future customers’ needs and desires and providing them with a mix of functional, utilitarian, technical and symbolic values.  This requires that people (managers, marketers and all other employees) who comprise the chain of relationships by which value is created for the end-customer must themselves work together to define areas of mutual interest and the potential for sharing. Thus, a TRMF philosophy should be the basis for re-engineering of business processes, policies and relationship views.

    RMF provides a synthesis of research and practice, offering valuable new insights for effective management of relationship-based organization. This book is aimed at both undergraduate and graduate business and management students, researchers, managers, marketers and all organizations facing the challenges of the future in all sectors such as industrial, consumer, education, agricultural, IT, medical, health care and other services.

     

  • 24.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    Back to the Future: the Era of Relationships2006In: The 2006 Academy of Business & Administrative Sciences (ABAS) International Conference, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1990s, many organizations and consumers experienced great movements and actions. Some key environmental factors provided the setting whereby companies changed their attention and orientation toward marketing and the consumer. Companies have recognized the fact that they must change and restructure their way of establishing and maintaining business relationships. For example, many manufacturers discovered, or more adequately, re-discovered that close relationships with suppliers are invaluable with constantly changing technology and increasing global competition.

    The term relationship marketing has become a buzzword, with the concept being used to reflect a number of differing themes or perspectives, and has become a ”catch-all” phrase. Unfortunately, the roots and the precise meaning of relationship marketing are not always clear in the literature. This paper is part of a long term research effort to provide a deeper insight and understanding of the relationship philosophy. The purpose of the article is to theoretically and conceptually explain the evolution of the Relationship approach, to elaborate on the indispensable role of the traditional marketing mix theory on the development of the relationship management and strategy. The paper also discuss the notion of relationship marketing as a paradigm shift. Our research reveals that the philosophy of viewing marketing as a cross-functional approach or orientation is not a new discovery of the 1980s or 1990s. The paper also argue that, it would be appropriate if we replace the concept relationship marketing with relationship management. This is not just a semantic point, it is an essential distinction which can be strategically significant for the long-term survival of the organization

  • 25.
    zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics. Marknadsföring.
    Kotler and Borden are not Dead: – Myth of Relationship Marketing and Truth of the 4 Ps2007In: Journal of Consumer Marketing, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While American School defines marketing through the concept of 4P’s, several European and especially The Nordic School (e.g. Gummesson, Grönroos, Zineldin) points out the fact that this view of marketing is no more up-to-date and irrelevant in a global market perspective. They also disapprove that concept because of the short-term duration of the economics transactions it generates. They argue that Scandinavian companies have much more focus on relationship marketing than other European countries and that there is a paradigm shift moving away from traditional transactional marketing to be focused on Relationship Marketing. All these criticisms have even led both Gummesson and Grönroos to declare that a “paradigm shift is needed is Marketing is going to survive as a discipline” (Brodie R. et al, 1997).

    According to our knowledge, no research in Scandinavian countries have brought results that could confirm the no-existence of such a “paradigm shift”, the main issue of our article is to empirically investigate if rather or not, this paradigm shift has relevant reasons to exist in several Scandinavian countries or if Transactional marketing is still the main marketing approach practised by firms. The date is collected via interviews with five companies in three countries within in Scandinavia: Two companies in Sweden: Two in Finland and one in Denmark. Our research reveals that the philosophy of viewing marketing as a cross-functional approach or orientation is not a new discovery of the 1980s or 1990s. The study also reveals that the paradigm-shift is far from being dominant in all Scandinavia since transaction Kotlersim concept of the 4 P's is still dominating, even so. Relationship concept is utilizing in some extent.

  • 26.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Philipson, Sarah
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Quality, Innovation & Differentiation (QID): A Case Study2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to our knowledge, no examination has been made regarding the triangle relationship between Quality, Innovation and Differentiation, QID, and what significance has QID for a firm's competitive position.

    This article aims to theoretically and empirically develop an understanding of the  role of quality, innovation and differentiating in the competitiveness of an organization and proposes a holistic, cross-disciplinary model of the quality, innovation and differentiation QID). A case study shows that linking QID is necessary for sustaining competitive advantage in the hyper-competitive world.  The features and essentials in the attainment of such an approach are tentatively constructed through the total relationship management (TRM) and the 5Qs (five qualities) models. It shows that that QID and competitiveness are all linked. QID and total relationship management are strongly related to competitive advantages.  Thus we argue that TRM can be seen as administrative and process innovation, which facilitate technological innovation.

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