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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Does Hiring Discrimination Cause Gender Segregation in the Swedish Labor Market?2011In: Feminist Economics, ISSN 1354-5701, E-ISSN 1466-4372, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 71-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies gender discrimination at hiring in the Swedish labor market. It examines data compiled from an experiment conducted in 2005–6 in which two qualitatively identical applications, one with a woman's name on it and the other with a man's name, were sent to employers advertising positions in Stockholm and Gothenburg (the two largest labor markets in Sweden). The study adds to previous international field experiments by providing additional analysis of the Swedish labor market to determine whether hiring discrimination is a primary cause of occupational gender segregation. The results show that, on average, women have a somewhat higher callback rate to interview in female-dominated occupations, while in male-dominated occupations there is no evidence of gender difference. These findings suggest that the bulk of the prevailing gender segregation in Sweden cannot be explained by discrimination in hiring.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer and the Ethnic Wage Gap.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Essays on Discrimination in Hiring2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays on discrimination in hiring.

    Essay I (co-authored with Dan-Olof Rooth) present evidence of ethnic discrimination in the recruitment process by sending fictitious applications to real job openings. Applications with identical skills were randomly assigned Middle Eastern or Swedish-sounding names and applications with a Swedish name receive fifty percent more callbacks for an interview. We extend previous analyses by adding register and interview information on firms/recruiters to the experimental data. We find that male recruiters and workplaces with fewer than twenty employees less often call applications with a Middle Eastern name for an interview.

    Essay II extends previous field experiments that study ethnic discrimination in the labour market by comparing discrimination of first and second generation immigrants from the same ethnic group. Qualitatively identical resumes, belonging to first and second generation immigrants from the Middle East, were sent to employers in Sweden that had advertised for labour. The findings suggest, somewhat unexpectedly, that first and second generation immigrants have essentially the same probability of being invited to a job interview, which in turn is significantly lower than the probability of invitation to interview for natives. Accordingly, the factor leading to discrimination in employers responses appears to be ethnicity per se and not an applicant’s country of birth, foreign mother-tongue, and foreign education.

    Essay III (co-authored with Dan-Olof Rooth) utilizes the extensive media coverage that occurred when the data collection of essay I and II were only halfway finished. This informed the employers that their hiring practices were being monitored by such situation testing. These unique events and the data from the situation tests are utilized to perform a difference-in-differences analysis of whether discrimination decreased after the media coverage. The results reveal no sign that employers changed their hiring practices after they became aware of the risk of being included in such a situation test. The policy implication of this relates to the fact that EU countries vary in the extent to which they allow situation test results to constitute evidence of ethnic discrimination in court. Our results suggest that the detection risk alone is not sufficient, but must be combined with some penalty to become effective, if authorities wish to use situation testing as a discrimination prevention strategy.

    Essay IV studies whether sex discrimination is the cause of sex segregation in the Swedish labor market. The correspondence testing (CT) method was used, which entails two qualitatively identical applications, one with a female name and one with a male name, being sent to employers advertising for labor. The results show that, on average, females have a somewhat higher callback rate to interview in female-dominated occupations, while in male-dominated occupations there is no evidence of any difference. This suggests that the bulk of the sex segregation prevailing in the Swedish labor market cannot be explained by discrimination in hiring. Instead, the explanation is likely to be found on the supply side.

  • 4.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Ethnic discrimination and attitudes towards immigrants: Conference on immigration and labor market integration, IFAU, Uppsala, Sweden2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Experimental Evidence of Discrimination in the Hiring of 1st and 2nd Generation ImmigrantsManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Previous field experiments that study ethnic discrimination in the labour market are extended in this paper, which outlines a study comparing discrimination of first and second generation immigrants from the same ethnic group. Qualitatively identical resumes, belonging to first and second generation immigrants from the Middle East, were sent to employers in Sweden that had advertised for labour. The findings suggest, somewhat unexpectedly, that first and second generation immigrants have essentially the same probability of being invited to a job interview, which in turn is significantly lower than the probability of invitation to interview for natives. Accordingly, the factor leading to discrimination in employers responses appears to be ethnicity per se and not an applicant’s country of birth, foreign mother-tongue, and foreign education.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Experimental Evidence of Discrimination in the Hiring of 1st and 2nd Generation Immigrants2010In: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 263-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous field experiments that study ethnic discrimination in the labour market are extended in this paper, which outlines a study comparing discrimination of first- and second-generation immigrants. Qualitatively identical resumes, belonging to first- and second-generation immigrants from the Middle East, were sent to employers in Sweden that had advertised for labour. The findings suggest, somewhat unexpectedly, that first- and second-generation immigrants have essentially the same probability of being invited to a job interview, which in turn is significantly lower than the probability of invitation to interview for natives.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Is it Your Foreign Name or Foreign Qualifications?2008In: European Association of Labour Economists Conference, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Kan könsdiskriminering förklara yrkessegregeringen på den svenska arbetsmarknaden?2009In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges arbetsmarknad uppvisar internationellt sett en hög grad av yrkessegregering

    med avseende på kön. I artikeln undersöks om könsdiskriminering

    i anställningssituationer är en viktig faktor som bidrar till denna segregering.

    En experimentell metod används som innebär att fiktiva jobbansökningar – en

    med ett mansnamn och en med ett kvinnonamn – skickas till arbetsgivare med

    utannonserade jobbvakanser. Resultatet visar att i kvinnodominerade yrken

    har kvinnor i genomsnitt en marginellt högre sannolikhet att kallas till en jobbintervju

    jämfört med män. I mansdominerade yrken finner vi ej någon motsvarande

    skillnad. Slutsatsen är att merparten av könssegregeringen på den svenska

    arbetsmarknaden ej tycks förklaras av diskriminering i anställningssituationer

    utan sannolikt är det i stället faktorer på utbudssidan som utgör de viktigaste

    förklaringarna.

  • 9.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Sex discrimination and segregation in the Swedish labour market: A field experiment2007In: European Society of Population Economics Conference, Chicago, US, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study sex discrimination and segregation in the

    Swedish labour market with the help of so-called “correspondence

    testing”. More specifically, the method entails that two qualitatively

    identical applications, one labelled with a male and one with a

    female name, are sent to employers who have advertised vacancies.

    In the studied occupations applications with a female name was

    invited for an interview with a higher probability compared to

    applications with a male name. We also found support for that

    unequal treatment maintains segregation.

    By adding register and interview data to the employers who

    participated in the experiment, we found that applications with a

    female name are invited to interview with less probability if the

    workplace is a public sector employer or has less than 20

    employees. Workplaces with a larger turnover of personnel on the

    other hand invite applications with a female name with a higher

    probability.

     

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Survey response and test performance using economic incentive schemes2005In: Finish Association of Experimental Economics Conference on Applied Microeconomics, Joensuu, Finland, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The Impact of Being Monitored on Discriminatory Behavior among Employers: Evidence from a Natural Experiment2009In: European Association of Labour Economists Conference, Tallin, Estland,2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a variation within the EU to what extent nations allow for situation test results toconstitute mass of evidence in court in order to prevent ethnic discrimination. In the UK TheEquality and Human Rights Commission has the right to conduct discrimination tests and to evenprosecute firms, implying that discriminating firms face the risk of a significant penalty. OtherEuropean countries have been reluctant to use such tests as a tool for counteractingdiscrimination and discuss a much softer version with only monitoring. In this study two labormarket field experiments, sending qualitatively identical job applications with randomly assignedSwedish and Middle Eastern sounding names to employers, show that ethnic discriminationexists in hiring in the Swedish labor market. In both studies extensive media coverage occurredwhen being only halfway finished informing employers of their hiring practices being monitoredby such situation testing. This study utilizes these unique events and the data from theexperiments to perform a difference-in-differences analysis of whether discrimination decreasedafter the media coverage. The results reveal no sign of employers changing their hiring practiceswhen being aware of running the risk of being included in such an experiment. This suggeststhat the detection risk alone is not sufficient if authorities wish to use field experiments as adiscrimination prevention strategy. Instead, it must be combined with some penalty to becomeeffective.Keywords/JEL-Code: ethnic discrimination correspondence testing field experiments J64, J71

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The Measured Degree of Hiring Discrimination and the Level of Standardization of the Job Applicants´ Qualifications in Field Experiments2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea with using field experiments for measuring discrimination in hiring is basically making all variables of a job applicant that are observable to the employer also observable to the researcher. This in turn should provide scope for measuring the true level of discrimination in hiring, which is very challenging if traditional ex post regression analysis of public microdata is used. However, most of the conducted field experiments have so far ignored that at what level the observable characteristics of the job candidates are standardized by the experiment might influence the measured degree of discrimination. In the current paper, a simple framework is first presented to illustrate the issue and then data from a field experiment conducted in the Swedish labor market is utilized to empirically analyze the question. The analysis show that the predicted difference in callback rate to a job interview between applicants with a typical Swedish and a typical Arabic name varies significantly over applications with different attributes attached. The conclusion is that studies which standardize the characteristics of the job applicants at a particular level might obtain very non generalizable results. At the end of the paper, we give some suggestions for how the field experimental methodology might be improved.

  • 13.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Är förkunskaper verkligen viktiga för framgångsrika högre studier?: En analys av studieresultatet på en grundläggande högskolekurs i statistik2012In: Högre Utbildning, ISSN 2000-7558, E-ISSN 2000-7558, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 33-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker vilken betydelse goda gymnasiala förkunskaper i matematik har för studieresultatet på en kurs i grundläggande statistik på högskolenivå. Särskilt fokus är på betydelsen av studenternas gymnasiala förkunskaper 1) i sådan matematik som ingår i behörig-hetskraven och 2) i form av extra kurser matematik som lästs utöver behörighetskraven. Data erhålls genom att på individnivå länka samman tentamensresultat på en statistikkurs med uppgifter kring studenternas gymnasiala meriter i ämnet matematik. Något förvånande – och i kontrast till tidigare studier – är det inget i resultaten som indikerar att extra kurser i matematik utöver behörighetskraven har betydelse för studieresultatet på statistikkursen. Istället tycks det vara vilket betyg studenterna har på de mer elementära matematikkurserna som ingår i behörighetskraven som är viktigt. En tolkning av resultaten är att en grundläggande högskolekurs i statistik inte kräver särskilt mycket matematiskt kunnande, utan att det är allmänna kognitiva förmågor som intuition, logiskt tänkande och problemlösningsförmåga som är viktiga och att betygen på de mest elementära matematikkurserna på gymnasiet speglar sådana förmågor

  • 14.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholm University.
    Backlash in attitudes after the election of extreme political parties2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Far-right and far-left parties by definition occupy the fringes of politics, with policy proposals outside the mainstream. This paper asks how public attitudes about such policies respond once an extreme party increases their political representation at the local level. We study attitudes towards the signature policies of two radical populist parties in Sweden, one from the right and one from the left, using panel data from 290 municipal election districts. To identify causal effects, we take advantage of large nonlinearities in the function which assigns council seats, comparing otherwise similar elections where a party either barely wins or loses an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for the far-right, anti-immigration party decreases negative attitudes towards immigration by 4.1 percentage points, in opposition to the party’s policy position. Likewise, when a far-left, anti-capitalist party politician gets elected, support for a six hour workday falls by 2.7 percentage points. Mirroring these attitudinal changes, the far-right and far-left parties have no incumbency advantage in the next election. Exploring possible mechanisms, we find evidence that when the anti-immigrant party wins a marginal seat, they experience higher levels of politician turnover before the next election and receive negative coverage in local newspapers. These findings demonstrate that political representation can cause an attitudinal backlash as fringe parties and their ideas are placed under closer scrutiny.

  • 15.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    UC San Diego, USA.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Do politicians change public attitudes?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A large theoretical and empirical literature explores whether politicians and political parties change their policy positions in response to voters’ preferences. This paper asks the opposite question: do political parties affect public attitudes on important policy issues? Problems of reverse causality and omitted variable bias make this a difficult question to answer empirically. We study attitudes towards nuclear energy and immigration in Sweden using panel data from 290 municipal election areas. To identify causal effects, we take advantage of large nonlinearities in the function which assigns council seats, comparing otherwise similar elections where one party either barely wins or loses an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for the anti-nuclear party reduces support for nuclear energy in that municipality by 18%. In contrast, when an anti-immigration politician gets elected, negative attitudes towards immigration decrease by 7%, which is opposite the party’s policy position. Consistent with the estimated changes in attitudes, the anti-nuclear party receives more votes in the next election after gaining a seat, while the anti-immigrant party experiences no such incumbency advantage. The rise of the anti-immigration party is recent enough to permit an exploration of possible mechanisms using several ancillary data sources. We find causal evidence that gaining an extra seat draws in lower quality politicians, reduces negotiated refugee quotas, and increases negative newspaper coverage of the anti-immigrant party at the local level. Our finding that politicians can shape public attitudes has important implications for the theory and estimation of how voter preferences enter into electoral and political economy models. 

  • 16.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon
    University of California at San Diego, USA.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Effect of Schooling on Cognitive Skills2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How schooling affects cognitive skills is a fundamental question forstudies of human capital and labor markets. While scores on cognitive ability testsare positively associated with schooling, it has proven difficult to ascertain whetherthis relationship is causal. Moreover, the effect of schooling is difficult to separate from the confounding factors of age at test date, relative age within a classroom, season of birth, and cohort effects. In this paper, we use a fundamentally different identification approach compared to the previous literature. We exploit conditionally random variation in the assigned test date for a battery of cognitive tests which almost all 18 year-old males were required to take in preparation for military servicein Sweden. Both age at test date and number of days spent in school vary randomly across individuals after flexibly controlling for date of birth, parish, and expected graduation date (the three variables the military conditioned on when assigningtest date). We find an extra 10 days of school instruction raises cognitive scoreson crystallized intelligence tests (synonym and technical comprehension tests) by approximately one percent of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool dayshave almost no effect. The benefit of additional school days is homogeneous, with similar effect sizes based on past grades in school, parental education, and father’s earnings. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling, but do increase modestly with age. We discuss the importance of these findings for questions about the malleability of cognitive skills in young adults, schooling models of signaling versus human capital ,the interpretation of test scores in wage regressions, and policies related to the length of the school year

  • 17.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Dahl, Gordon
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Öckert, Björn
    Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy, Sweden;Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The Effect of Schooling on Cognitive Skills2015In: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 533-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the causal effect of schooling on cognitive skills, we exploit conditionally random variation in the date Swedish males take a battery of cognitive tests in preparation for military service. We find an extra 10 days of school instruction raises scores on crystallized intelligence tests (synonym and technical comprehension tests) by approximately one percent of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool days have almost no effect. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling, but do increase modestly with age.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Age Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Labor Market2019In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows the results of a field experiment in which over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (35-70 years) were sent to Swedish employers with vacancies in low- and medium-skilled occupations. We find that the callback rate begins to fall substantially for workers in their early 40s and becomes very low for workers close to the retirement age. The decline in callback rate by age is steeper for women than for men. Employer stereotypes about the ability to learn new tasks, flexibility, and ambition seem to be an important explanation for age discrimination.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental housing market for apartments2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination in the housing market may create large inefficiencies, but is difficult to measure. To circumvent the problems with unobserved heterogeneity, most recent studies use the correspondence testing approach (i.e. sending fictitious applications to landlords). In this study, we extend the existing methodology by (i) randomly assigning all relevant applicant characteristics to the applications, and (ii) carefully taking into account the interactions between applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. Then, we demonstrate how this approach can be implemented by considering how an applicant’s gender, ethnicity, age and employment status affect the probability of being invited to an apartment viewing in the Swedish housing market. Our results confirm the existence of widespread discrimination, but also show that the degree of this discrimination varies substantially with applicant, landlord, apartment and regional characteristics. This heterogeneity highlights the importance of using of using a broad approach when conducting correspondence studies.

  • 20.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Discrimination in the rental market for apartments2014In: Journal of Housing Economics, ISSN 1051-1377, E-ISSN 1096-0791, Vol. 23, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination in the housing market may create large economic inefficiencies and unfair individual outcomes, but is very difficult to measure. To circumvent the problems with unobserved heterogeneity, most recent studies use the correspondence testing approach (i.e. sending fictitious inquiries to landlords). In this study, we generalize the existing methodology in order to facilitate a test of to what extent the measured degree of discrimination depends on applicant, landlord/apartment, and regional characteristics. To show how this more general methodology can be implemented, we investigate the effects of gender, ethnicity, age, and employment status in the Swedish rental market for apartments. Our results confirm the existence of widespread discrimination against some of the groups, but also show that the degree of discrimination varies substantially with landlord, apartment, and regional characteristics. This heterogeneity highlights the importance of using a broad approach when conducting correspondence studies. Our results also allow us to interpret the nature of discrimination and how it relates to segregation and geographical sorting. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do attitudes expressed in surveys predict ethnic discrimination?2017In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1739-1757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Survey data on people’s reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is weak empirical evidence of a link between reported attitudes and discrimination. In this article, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards ethnic minorities combined with a direct measure of ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this policy-relevant issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the extent of ethnic discrimination: in regions where attitudes are more negative, there is more discrimination, and vice versa. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful predictor of ethnic discrimination.

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Do reported attitudes towards immigrants predict ethnic discrimination?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reported attitudes towards immigrants are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is little empirical evidence of a link between attitudes and discrimination. In this paper, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards immigrants combined with data on ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards immigrants and the extent of ethnic discrimination at the municipality level. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful proxy for ethnic discrimination.

  • 23.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared accommodation2013In: 28th annual congress of the European Economic Association, Gothenburg, August 26-30, 2013, European Economic Association & Econometric , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for most people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. For people with limited financial resources, such as students and even young professionals, this is often one of the few viable types of housing available. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question for London is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: People with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 people advertising shared accommodations all over London. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic or Black African background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with an Indian background are found somewhere inbetween. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination. 

  • 24.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared housing2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding housing in London is a major challenge for many people. Therefore, it has become increasingly common to share an apartment or a house with others. Shared accommodation clearly has the potential to mitigate some of the negative consequences that the housing shortage has created. However, studies of housing markets in other countries suggest that ethnic discrimination is common and, thus, a policy-relevant question is if shared accommodation is equally available to everyone. In this paper, we study discrimination in the market for shared accommodation against four of the most important ethnic minorities in London: people with Eastern European, Indian, Black African and Arabic backgrounds. To this end, we conducted a field experiment where we e-mailed applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling ethnicity, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread against all the ethnic minorities that we consider: The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic background, while applicants with an Eastern European background are least affected and applicants with a Black African or Indian background are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, our results suggest that ethnic discrimination may reinforce the ethnic concentration in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority. Finally, our results indicate that – at least a portion of – the discrimination that we find is statistical discrimination.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic discrimination in the London market for shared housing2015In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1276-1301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-documented that there exists ethnic discrimination in the regular housing market in European and US cities. However, the existing literature has so far neglected the informal market for shared housing. We use a field experiment to investigate ethnic discrimination in this market. We sent fictitious inquiries with a randomly assigned name signaling a British, Eastern-European, Indian, African, or Arabic/Muslim background to more than 5,000 room advertisers in the Greater London Area. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread. We also find that the degree of discrimination depends on the applicant’s occupation and the ethnic residential concentration.

  • 26.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ethnic Discrimination in the Market for Shared Housing2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In major international cities, the difficulty of finding affordable housing has often resulted in an increased demand for shared housing, i.e. sharing an apartment/house with others. However, a policy-relevant question is if this very informal market is equally available to everyone regardless of ethnic background. To investigate this, we conduct a field experiment in the London market for shared housing. In the experiment, we send fictitious applications, with a randomly assigned name signalling a British, Eastern-European, Indian, African or Arabic background, to more than 5,000 room advertisers. Our main finding is that ethnic discrimination is widespread. The situation is worst for applicants with an Arabic name, while applicants with an Eastern-European name are least affected and applicants with an African or Indian name are found somewhere in-between. Moreover, the results indicate that a substantial fraction of these differences reflects statistical discrimination. Finally, we find that the degree of discrimination varies with the ethnic residential concentration. This suggests that discrimination contributes to maintaining the current situation in London, where ethnic minorities tend to live in certain areas and often separated from the ethnic majority.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The effect of age and gender on labor demand: evidence from a field experiment2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. The negative age effect prevails in all seven occupations we include. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about other worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.

  • 28.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in job search behaviour and access to high quality informal networks may be an important reason why immigrants fare worse than natives in many European labour markets. In this study, we design and conduct a survey of newly hired workers in the Swedish labour market to analyse if there are ethnic differences in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the successful search method for finding the job. We also investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the search method resulting in a job. Our data includes very detailed information about the workers’ job search, their informal networks, and the characteristics of their new jobs.We find that immigrants use all search methods more than natives, but that they inparticular rely more on informal search. Moreover, we show that, for immigrants, the search method resulting in a job is more likely to be informal search through their relatives and friends. However, we also find that jobs obtained through this search channel are associated with lower wages.

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European labour markets, workers born outside Europe are less successful than natives. A potential explanation for these differences is ethnic differences in job search behaviour and access to high-quality informal networks, but a lack of appropriate data makes it difficult to investigate the importance of this explanation. In this study, we use data from a survey conducted in the Swedish labour market to analyze if there are ethnic differences in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the search method that resulted in a job (the successful search method). Moreover, we investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the successful search method. Our data includes detailed information about the workers’ job search and the characteristics of the new job. We find that immigrants use all search methods more intensely than natives, but that they in particular rely more on informal search methods. Moreover, we find that, for immigrants, the successful search method is more likely to be informal search through relatives and friends. However, we also find that jobs found through this search channel are associated with lower wages. One interpretation of these results is that that immigrants perceive their chance of finding a job as so low that they are willing to accept low-paying jobs obtained through their family and friends.

  • 30.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Artifactual evidence of discrimination in correspondence studies?: A replication of the Neumark method2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The advocates of correspondence testing (CT) argue that it provide the most clear and convincing evidence of discrimination. The common view is that the standard CT can identify what is typically defined as discrimination in a legal sense – what we label total discrimination in the current study –, although it cannot separate between preferences and statistical discrimination. However, Heckman and Siegelman (1993) convincingly show that audit and correspondence studies can obtain biased estimates of total discrimination – in any direction – if employers evaluate applications according to some threshold level of productivity. This issue has essentially been ignored in the empirical literature on CT experiments until the appearance of the methodology proposed by Neumark (2012). He shows that with the right data and an identifying assumption, with testable predictions, this method can identify total discrimination. In the current paper we use this new method to reexamine a number of already published correspondence studies to investigate if their estimate of total discrimination is affected by group differences in variances of unobservable characteristics. We also aim at improving the general understanding of to what extent the standardization level of job applications is an issue in empirical work. We find that the standardization level of the job applications being set by the experimenter appear to be a general issue in correspondence studies which must be taken seriously

  • 31.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Does labor market tightness affect ethnic discrimination in hiring?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labor market tightness. While ranking models predict a negative relationship, the prediction of screening models is ambiguous about the direction of the relationship. Thus, the direction of the relationship is purely an empirical issue. We utilize three (but combine into two) correspondence studies of the Swedish labor market and two distinctly different measures of labor market tightness. These different measures produce very similar results, showing that a one percent increase in labor market tightness increases ethnic discrimination in hiring by 0.5- 0.7 percent, which is consistent with a screening model. This result stands in sharp contrast to the only previous study on this matter, Baert et al. (forthcoming), which finds evidence that supports a ranking model.

  • 32.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA.
    Does the design of correspondence studies influence the measurement of discrimination?2014In: IZA Journal of Migration, ISSN 2193-9039, Vol. 3, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correspondence studies can identify the extent of discrimination in hiring as typically defined by the law, which includes discrimination against ethnic minorities and females. However, as Heckman and Siegelman (1993) show, if employers act upon a group difference in the variance of unobserved variables, this measure of discrimination may not be very informative. This issue has essentially been ignored in the empirical literature until the recent methodological development by Neumark (2012). We apply Neumark’s method to a number of already published correspondence studies. We find the Heckman and Siegelman critique relevant for empirical work and give suggestions on how future correspondence studies may address this critique.

  • 33.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Fumarco, Luca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic discrimination in hiring, labour market tightness and the business cycle: evidence from field experiments2018In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, no 24, p. 2652-2663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies using observational data suggest that ethnic discrimination increases in downturns of the economy. We investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labour market tightness using data from correspondence studies. We utilize three correspondence studies of the Swedish labour market and two different measures of labour market tightness. These two measures produce qualitatively similar results, and, opposite to the observational studies, suggest that ethnic discrimination in hiring decreases in downturns of the economy.

  • 34.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. IZA;CReAM.
    Explaining the gender wage gap among recent college graduates: pre-labour market factors or empolyer discrimination?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the gender wage gap upon labor market entry among recent college graduates in Sweden and find a raw male-female wage gap of 12 percent. After adding controls for pre-labor market factors, only a gap of approximately 2.9 percent remains. Hence, pre-labor market factors, and especially the type of college major, explain the bulk of the initial gender wage gap, and there is little that can be attributed to employer discrimination. However, given the high minimum wages in the Swedish labor market discrimination may not be apparent in wages. Instead, employers may discriminate against women in hiring. Using data from a hiring experiment, we do not find any evidence of this. On the contrary, female job applicants tend to be preferred over male job applicants.

  • 35.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of whether and how living in a deprived neighborhood affects the labormarket outcomes of its residents has been a subject of great interest for both policy makers andresearchers. Despite this interest, empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labormarket outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant.The mechanism that this study investigates is neighborhood signaling effects. Specifically, weask whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signalsliving in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood. To this end, weconducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with anadvertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either abad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a jobinterview (the callback rate). We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects.However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lowerif they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, wefind that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, andthis is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect. Apparently, employers view informationabout residential addresses as important for employment decisions.

  • 36.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Reshid, Abdulaziz
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment2018In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 534-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    We investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

    Findings

    We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, we find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

    Originality/value

    Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. We provide such evidence.

  • 37.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    An Experimental Study of Sex Segregation in the Swedish Labor Market – Is Discrimination the Explanation?Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies whether sex discrimination is the cause of sex segregation in the Swedish labor market. The correspondence testing (CT) method was used, which entails two qualitatively identical applications, one with a female name and one with a male name, being sent to employers advertising for labor. The results show that, on average, females have a somewhat higher callback rate to interview in female-dominated occupations, while in male-dominated occupations there is no evidence of any difference. This suggests that the bulk of the sex segregation prevailing in the Swedish labor market cannot be explained by discrimination in hiring. Instead, the explanation is likely to be found on the supply side.

  • 38.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    An Experimental Study of Sex Segregation in the Swedish Labour Market: Is Discrimination the Explanation?2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies whether sex discrimination is the cause of sex segregation in the Swedish labour market. The correspondence testing (CT) method was used, which entails two qualitatively identical applications, one with a female name and one with a male name, being sent to employers advertising for labour. The results show that females have a somewhat higher callback rate to interview in female-dominated occupations, while in male-dominated occupations there is no evidence of any difference. The conclusion is that the sex segregation prevailing in the Swedish labour market cannot be explained by discrimination in hiring. Instead, the explanation must be found on the supply side.

  • 39.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Can media attention about tests of ethnic discrimination change the employers’ behaviour?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation testing is used to investigate whether employers discriminate when hiring. This study analyzes whether authorities can implement such situation tests to hinder ethnic discrimination and enforce anti-discrimination legislation more effectively by taking advantage of the opportunities provided by news media coverage. To this end, we use unique data that relates an exogenous shock, in the form of extensive media coverage of situation testing conducted in the labor market, to data on employers´ actual discriminatory behavior collected in two situation-testing field experiments. The media coverage, which luckily occurred in the middle of these experiments, and implementation of a difference-in-difference methodology make a causal interpretation of the results possible. Based on previous studies that have shown how the news media can affect economic outcomes, the hypothesis here is that such information, as the news media provided in this case, leads to a decline in the degree of discrimination in the labor market. However, the results reveal no sign of employers changing their hiring practices after the media coverage.

  • 40.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Correspondence testing och etnisk diskriminering på svensk arbetsmarknad2007In: Søkelys på arbeidslivet, ISSN 1504-8004, E-ISSN 1504-7989, no 3, p. 375-382Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Employer attitudes, the marginal employer and the ethnic wage gap2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic minorities have lower wages compared to the ethnic majority in most EU-countries. However, to what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. This study sets out to examine what role prejudice play in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe's most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer. Our results confirm that the attitudes of the marginal employer – but not those of the average employer – are important for the ethnic wage gap. This relationship becomes even stronger when potential measurement error and other forms of endogeneity are accounted for by controlling for a rich set of variables and implementing instrumental variable techniques.

  • 42.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer, and the Ethnic Wage Gap2016In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 227-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most EU countries, ethnic minorities have lower wages than does the ethnic majority. To what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. The authors examine the role that prejudice plays in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe’s most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer (the attitude of the most prejudiced employer hiring the ethnic minority). Results confirm that the attitudes of the marginal employer—but not those of the average employer—are important for explaining the ethnic wage gap.

  • 43.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Etnisk diskriminering på svensk arbetsmarknad – resultat från ett fältexperiment2007In: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 55-68Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Högskolan i Kalmar.
    Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data2007In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 716-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present evidence of ethnic discrimination in the recruitment process by sending fictitious applications to real job openings. Applications with identical skills were randomly assigned Middle Eastern or Swedish-sounding names and applications with a Swedish name receive fifty percent more callbacks for an interview. We extend previous analyses by adding register and interview information on firms/recruiters to the experimental data. We find that male recruiters and workplaces with fewer than twenty employees less often call applications with a Middle Eastern name for an interview.

  • 45.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Identifying preference-based employer discrimination: a field experiment2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard correspondence testing experiment does not identify whether employer prejudice, as opposed to statistical discrimination, drives discriminatory behavior when hiring. This article proposes a new methodology using geographic variation to explore the link between employer attitudes toward ethnic minorities and the ethnic difference in callbacks for a job interview. Using already existing Swedish data we find that a randomly selected employer is more likely to discriminate against a minority job applicant in regions where the average employer has more negative attitudes.

  • 46.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Is It Your Foreign Name or Foreign Qualifications? An Experimental Study of Ethnic Discrimination in Hiring2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contribute to the existing literature on ethnic discrimination of immigrants in hiring by addressing the central question of what employers act on in a job application. The method involved sending qualitatively identical resumes signalling belonging to different ethnic groups to firms advertising for labour. The results show that whether the applicant has a native sounding or a foreign sounding name explains approximately 77 per cent of the total gap in the probability of being invited to an interview between natives and immigrants, while having foreign qualifications only explains the remaining 23 per cent. This in turn, suggests a lower bound for statistical discrimination of approximately 23 per cent of total discrimination. The analysis indicates further that the 77 per cent are most likely driven by a mixture of preference-based and statistical discrimination.

  • 47.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Revealing taste-based discrimination in hiring: a correspondence testing experiment with geographic variation2012In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, no 18, p. 1861-1864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard Correspondence Testing Experiment (CTE) does not identify whether employer prejudice, as opposed to statistical discrimination, drives discriminatory behaviour when hiring. This article proposes a new methodology using geographic variation to explore the link between employer attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the ethnic difference in callbacks for a job interview. Using already existing Swedish data we find that a randomly selected employer is more likely to discriminate against a minority job applicant in regions where the average employer has more negative attitudes.

  • 48.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Management and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The Impact of Being Monitored on Discriminatory Behavior among Employers – Evidence from a Natural ExperimentManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    EU countries vary in the extent to which they allow situation test results to constitute evidence of ethnic discrimination in court. As part of this study, two situation tests were conducted to investigate ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market. Extensive media coverage occurred when both tests were only halfway finished. Consequently, employers became aware that their hiring practices were being monitored by such situation testing. These unique events and the data from the situation tests are utilized to perform a difference-in-differences analysis of whether discrimination decreased after the media coverage. The results reveal no sign that employers changed their hiring practices after they became aware of the risk of being included in such a situation test. This suggests that the detection risk alone is not sufficient, but must be combined with some penalty to become effective, if authorities wish to use situation testing as a discrimination prevention strategy.

  • 49.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    The Impact of Being Monitored on Discriminatory Behavior among Employers: evidence from a Natural Experiment2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a variation within the EU to what extent nations allow for situation test results to constitute mass of evidence in court in order to prevent ethnic discrimination. In the UK The Equality and Human Rights Commission has the right to conduct discrimination tests and to even prosecute firms, implying that discriminating firms face the risk of a significant penalty. Other European countries have been reluctant to use such tests as a tool for counteracting discrimination and discuss a much softer version with only monitoring. In this study two labor market field experiments, sending qualitatively identical job applications with randomly assigned Swedish and Middle Eastern sounding names to employers, show that ethnic discrimination exists in hiring in the Swedish labor market. In both studies extensive media coverage occurred when being only halfway finished informing employers of their hiring practices being monitored by such situation testing. This study utilizes these unique events and the data from the experiments to perform a difference-in-differences analysis of whether discrimination decreased after the media coverage. The results reveal no sign of employers changing their hiring practices when being aware of running the risk of being included in such an experiment. This suggests that the detection risk alone is not sufficient if authorities wish to use field experiments as a discrimination prevention strategy. Instead, it must be combined with some penalty to become effective.

  • 50.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The Power of Media and Changes in Discriminatory Behavior among Employers2012In: Journal of Media Economics, ISSN 0899-7764, E-ISSN 1532-7736, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 98-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes whether news media coverage of discrimination testing in the labor market leads to a lower degree of ethnic discrimination in hiring. To this end, unique data is used that relates an exogenous shock, in the form of extensive media coverage of discrimination testing, to data on employers' actual discriminatory behavior collected in 2 field experiments. The results reveal no sign of employers changing their hiring practices after the media coverage.

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