lnu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
123 1 - 50 of 110
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Correlated evolution of color pattern and body size in polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix undulata.2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 16, p. 1308-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Differential habitat selection by pygmy grasshopper color morphs; interactive effects of temperature and predator avoidance2006In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 20 (3), p. 235-257Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix sp.) – eye-catching variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Torngräshoppor (Tetrix sp.) – iögonfallande variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of northern pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0154488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development – which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations.

  • 6.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tinnert, Jon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Spatial sorting may explain evolutionary dynamics of wing polymorphism in pygmy grasshoppers.2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 2126-2138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wing polymorphism in insects provides a good model system for investigating evolutionary dynamics and population divergence in dispersal-enhancing traits. This study investigates the contribution of divergent selection, trade-offs, behaviour and spatial sorting to the evolutionary dynamics of wing polymorphism in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Tetrigidae: Orthoptera). We use data for > 2800 wild-caught individuals from 13 populations and demonstrate that the incidence of the long-winged (macropterous) morph is higher and changes faster between years in disturbed habitats characterized by succession than in stable habitats. Common garden and mother-offspring resemblance studies indicate that variation among populations and families is genetically determined and not influenced to any important degree by developmental plasticity in response to maternal condition, rearing density or individual growth rate. Performance trials show that only the macropterous morph is capable of flight and that propensity to fly differs according to environment. Markrecapture data reveal no difference in the distance moved between free-ranging long- and short-winged individuals. There is no consistent difference across populations and years in number of hatchlings produced by long- and shorter-winged females. Our findings suggest that the variable frequency of the long-winged morph among and within pygmy grasshopper populations may reflect evolutionary modifications driven by spatial sorting due to phenotype- and habitat typedependent emigration and immigration.

  • 7.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Colour pattern variation can inform about extinction risk in moths2017In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory posits that species with inter-individual variation in colour patterns should beless vulnerable to extinction, compared with species that do not vary in colour. Toevaluate this prediction, we explored whether differences in colour pattern diversitywas associated with extinction risk, using red-list status for more than 350 species ofnoctuid moths in Sweden. We also evaluated six other species characteristics thathave been proposed to influence extinction risk namely: host plant niche breadth,habitat type, area of occupancy, body size, overwintering life-history stage and lengthof flight activity period. We found that species with variable colour patterns hadreduced extinction risk overall compared with species having non-variable colourpatterns, and that this difference was pronounced more strongly among species havingsmaller areas of occupancy. There were also significant associations with hostplant niche breadth and habitat type, extinction risk being lower on average in polyphagousspecies and in generalist species that occupied different habitat types. Thesefindings represent the first evidence for insects that variable colouration is associatedwith reduced extinction risks. Information on colour pattern variation is readily availablefor many taxa and may be used as a cost-effective proxy for endangerment inthe work of halting national and global biodiversity loss.

  • 8.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Testing the role of co-adapted genes versus bet hedging for mating strategies in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2007In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 90, p. 491-499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Do polyandrous pygmy grasshopper females obtain fitness benefits for their offspring?2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 354-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explanations for polyandry in insects invoke material and genetic benefits that enhance female fitness via the production of more viable or more variable offspring. Here we use the color polymorphic pygmy grasshopper, Tetrix subulata, to evaluate effects of male quality, mate color morph resemblance (a proxy for compatibility), and polyandry on offspring performance. We experimentally mated females with different numbers and color morph combinations of males and reared offspring under either sun-exposed or shaded conditions using a split-brood design. We find a significant male identity effect on egg hatchability, consistent with the hypothesis that males vary in paternal quality. Offspring viability posthatching varied in a complex manner with solar regime, mating treatment, and parental resemblance. The effects of parental color morph resemblance on offspring performance suggest a potential role of compatibility and offspring variability. Monandrous females produced more viable offspring than polyandrous females (under shaded conditions) and we suggest as a hypothesis that the expected positive influence of polyandry on offspring performance may have been outweighed by more intense competition and antagonistic interactions among half-siblings. That an effect of mating treatment was evident under shaded but not under sun-exposed conditions suggests that great care is called for when making inferences from studies that show negative results.

  • 10.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers2010In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 5, article id e10880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.

  • 11. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Immune function, parasitization and extended phenotypes in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2005In: Biological journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 85 (3), p. 373-383Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Martin, J
    Lopez, P
    Indirect effects of prey coloration on predation risk: grasshoppers versus lizards2004In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, Vol. 6, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Determinants of survival in juvenile Psammodromus algirus lizards2000In: Oecologia, Vol. 124, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    “Developmental instability and immune function in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2005In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 19 (1), p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Forsman, Anders
    Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
    Adaptive body and head size variation in populations of the adder Vipera berus1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Forsman, Anders
    Department of Zoology, Uppsala University.
    Adaptive variation in head size in Vipera berus L. populations1991In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    An experimental test for food effects on head size allometry in juvenile snakes1996In: Evolution, Vol. 50, p. 2536-2542Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Body size and net energy gain in gape-limited predators: a model1996In: Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 30, p. 307-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Clutch size versus clutch interval: life history strategies in the colour polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata2001In: Oecologia, Vol. 129, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Effects of genotypic and phenotypic variation on establishment are important for conservation, invasion and infection biology.2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 302-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is abundant evidence that the probability of successful establishment in novel environments increases with number of individuals in founder groups and with number of repeated introductions. Theory posits that the genotypic and phenotypic variation among individuals should also be important, but few studies have examined whether founder diversity influences establishment independent of propagule pressure, nor whether the effect is model or context dependent. I summarize the results of 18 experimental studies and report on a metaanalysis that provides strong evidence that higher levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in founder groups increase establishment success in plants and animals. The effect of diversity is stronger in experiments carried out under natural conditions in the wild than under seminatural or standardized laboratory conditions. The realization that genetic and phenotypic variation is key to successful establishment may improve the outcome of reintroduction and translocation programs used to vitalize or restore declining and extinct populations. Founder diversity may also improve the ability of invasive species to establish and subsequently spread in environments outside of their native community, and enhance the ability of pathogens and parasites to colonize and invade the environment constituted by their hosts. It is argued that exchange of ideas, methodological approaches, and insights of the role of diversity for establishment in different contexts may further our knowledge, vitalize future research, and improve management plans in different disciplines.

  • 21.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Growth and survival of Vipera berus in a variable environment1997In: Venomous snakes: ecology, evolution and snakebite / [ed] Thorpe, Roger S., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 143-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Growth rate and survival in relation to relative head size in Vipera berus1994In: Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 28, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Growth rate in different colour morphs of the adder, Vipera berus, in relation to yearly weather variation1993In: Oikos, Vol. 66, p. 279-285Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Heating rates and body temperature variation in melanistic and zigzag Vipera berus: does colour make a difference?1995In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, Vol. 32, p. 365-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Is colour polymorphism advantageous to populations and species?2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2693-2698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I am writing in response to an article by Bolton, Rollinsand Griffith (2015) entitled ‘The danger within: the roleof genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in populationpersistence of colour polymorphic species’ that wasrecently published as an Opinion under the NEWS ANDVIEWS section in Molecular Ecology. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) argue that colour polymorphismmay reduce population fitness and increaseextinction risk and emphasize that this is contrary to predictionsput forward by Forsman et al. (Ecology, 89, 2008,34) and Wennersten & Forsman (Biological Reviews 87,2012, 756) that the existence of multiple colour morphswith co-adapted gene complexes and associated trait valuesmay increase the ecological and evolutionary successof polymorphic populations and species. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) further state that thereis no clear evidence from studies of ‘true polymorphicspecies’ that polymorphism promotes population persistence.In response, I (i) challenge their classifications ofpolymorphisms and revisit the traditional definitions recognizingthe dynamic nature of polymorphisms, (ii)review empirical studies that have examined whetherand how polymorphism is associated with extinction risk,(iii) discuss the roles of trait correlations between colourpattern and other phenotypic dimensions for populationfitness and (iv) highlight that the causes and mechanismsthat influence the composition and maintenance of polymorphismsare different from the consequences of thepolymorphic condition and how it may impact on aspectsof ecological success and long-term persistence of populationsand species.

  • 26.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kapprustning i Stockholms skärgård1993In: Fauna och Flora, Vol. 88, p. 20-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    On the role of sex differences for evolution in heterogeneous and changing fitness landscapes: insights from pygmy grasshoppers2018In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 373, no 1757, article id 20170429Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to study evolution of local adaptations by natural selection, and to explore the roles of neutral processes and developmental plasticity for patterns of diversity among individuals, populations and species. Some aspects, such as evolution of adaptive variation in phenotypic traits in stable environments, and the role of plasticity in predictable changing environments, are well understood. Other aspects, such as the role of sex differences for evolution in spatially heterogeneous and temporally changing environments and dynamic fitness landscapes, remain elusive. An increased understanding of evolution requires that sex differences in development, physiology, morphology, life-history and behaviours are more broadly considered. Studies of selection should take into consideration that the relationships linking phenotypes to fitness may vary not only according to environmental conditions but also differ between males and females. Such opposing selection, sex-by-environment interaction effects of selection and sex-specific developmental plasticity can have consequences for population differentiation, local adaptations and for the dynamics of polymorphisms. Integrating sex differences in analytical frameworks and population comparisons can therefore illuminate neglected evolutionary drivers and reconcile unexpected patterns. Here, I illustrate these issues using empirical examples from over 20 years of research on colour polymorphic Tetrix subulata and Tetrix undulata pygmy grasshoppers, and summarize findings from observational field studies, manipulation experiments, common garden breeding experiments and population genetics studies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking local adaptation with the evolution of sex differences'.

  • 28.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Opposing fitness consequences of colour pattern in male and female snakes1995In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 8, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Reproductive life history variation among colour morphs of the pygmy grasshopper, Tetrix subulata1999In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 67, p. 247-261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rethinking phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for individuals, populations and species.2015In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 276-284Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to identify the conditions under which selection favours flexible individuals or genotypes that are able to modify their growth, development and behaviour in response to environmental cues, to unravel the mechanisms of plasticity, and to explore its influence on patterns of diversity among individuals, populations, and species. The consequences of developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility for the performance and ecological success of populations and species have attracted a comparatively limited but currently growing interest. Here, I re-emphasize that an increased understanding of the roles of plasticity in these contexts requires a ‘whole organism’ (rather than ‘single trait’) approach, taking into consideration that organisms are integrated complex phenotypes. I further argue that plasticity and genetic polymorphism should be analysed and discussed within a common framework. I summarize predictions from theory on how phenotypic variation stemming from developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility may affect different aspects of population-level performance. I argue that it is important to distinguish between effects associated with greater inter-individual phenotypic variation resulting from plasticity, and effects mediated by variation among individuals in the capacity to express plasticity and flexibility as such. Finally, I claim that rigorous testing of predictions requires methods that allow for quantifying and comparing whole organism plasticity, as well as the ability to experimentally manipulate the level of and capacity for developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility independent of genetic variation.

  • 31.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rethinking the thermal melanism hypothesis: rearing temperature and coloration in pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1247-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection for efficient conversion of solar radiation to body heat has favored theevolution of dark coloration in many ectotherms. The thermal melanism hypothesis positsthat dark coloration is beneficial under conditions of low ambient temperatures because itresults in faster heating rates and higher body temperatures. Fast heating rates, however,may come at a cost of overheating unless compensated for by thermal physiology orbehaviour. Pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) populations that inhabit fire-ravagedareas characterized by blackened backgrounds and hot surface temperatures due tohigh absorbance of solar radiation show an increased frequency of black phenotypes. Iraised the progeny of wild-captured Tetrix undulata in cold and hot temperatures and useddata on color patterns and survival in a greenhouse to examine whether a cold thermalenvironment triggered the development of melanic coloration or differently affected survivalof melanic versus non-melanic individuals. My results indicate that melanism was notinfluenced by rearing temperature but by genes or epigenetic maternal effects. Temperaturealso did not affect survival. However, melanic individuals produced by melanic motherssurvived longer than melanic individuals produced by non- melanic mothers, whereas nonmelanicindividuals produced by non-black mothers survived longer than melanic individualsproduced by non-black mothers. This suggests a mismatch between color andphysiology in offspring belonging to a different color morph than their mother. Futureinvestigations into the evolution of melanism should consider conflicting selection pressureson thermal capacity and camouflage as well as the influence of correlated responsesto selection on traits associated with coloration.

  • 32.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Some like it hot: intra-population variation in behavioral thermoregulation in color-polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2000In: Evolutionary Ecology, Vol. 14, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Survival in relation to body size and growth rate in the adder, Vipera berus (L.)1993In: Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 62, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Temperature influence on escape behaviour in two species of pygmy grasshoppers1999In: Ecoscience, Vol. 6, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Thermal capacity of different colour morphs in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata1997In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, Vol. 34, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Forsman, Anders
    Department of Zoology, Uppsala University .
    Variation in sexual size dimorphism and maximum body size among adder populations: effects of prey size1991In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 253-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Geographic variation in maximum body size of male and female adders, Vipera berus, was documented over one mainland locality and six groups of islands in the Baltic Sea. Males varied more in body size among localities than females, although not significantly so. (2) Geographic variation in prey (field vole, Microtus agrestis) body size explained 68% and 40% of the variation in maximum body size of male and female adders, respectively. Body size of adders increased with body size of prey. (3) Adders were smaller on islands where there were three prey species than where there were two. It is suggested that selection for fasting endurance where there are few prey species and a high risk of starvation may have produced this pattern. (4) Growth rates of individual adders were faster where mean field vole body weight was large (47 g) than where it was small (26 g). Maximum body size of adders was large where growth rate was fast and vice versa. (5) Female adders were larger than males at all localities. Females also had faster growth rates than males. (6) The degree of sexual size dimorphism of adders varied among localities and was negatively correlated with size of males. There was no relationship between sexual dimorphism and size of females. (7) There was no significant relationship between sexual size dimorphism of adders and mean body size of field voles. Nor was there any relationship between sexual dimorphism and number of prey species or size distribution of field voles. (8) I argue that optimal body size for survival is locally determined by prey availability and size of prey items. However, due to the fecundity advantage of large size in females, female adders deviate from the optimum size for survival, and more so when this optimum size is small. Thus, local variation in properties of the food resource, e.g. prey size, can give rise to variation in sexual size dimorphism. 

  • 37.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Variation in thermal sensitivity of performance among color morphs of a pygmy grasshopper, Tetrix subulata1999In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 12, p. 869-878Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Fitness benefits of diverse offspring in pygmy grasshoppers2007In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1305-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Do females obtain fitness benefits from an increase in offspring diversity?Hypotheses: Polyandry increases offspring diversity within a clutch. Increased offspring diversity will reduce competition among siblings (manifested as increased mean survival in more diverse families) and the probability that all offspring might be ill-suited to future conditions (manifested as lower variance in survival in diverse families).Organisms: Pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix subulata and Tetrix: undulata, that are polymorphic for colour pattern.Field site: South-central Sweden.Methods: We varied the number of mates provided to colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers. We reared families in either warm or cold conditions using a split-brood design.Conclusions: The colour morph diversity of broods increased with the number of experimentally provided mates. Colour morphs represent alternative strategies that differ in body size, physiology, behaviour, and life history. Survival increased with increasing sibling diversity, supporting the hypothesis that different morphs avoid competition by using different subsets of available resources. Homogeneous families (in which all siblings belong to the same or only a few colour morphs) varied more in survival than did families with diverse siblings, supporting the hypothesis that morphs vary in their ability to cope with and utilize different resources.

  • 39.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A model of ecological and evolutionary consequences of color polymorphism2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Appelqvist, S
    Experimental manipulation reveals differential effects of colour pattern on survival in male and female pygmy grasshoppers1999In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 12, p. 391-401Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Appelqvist, S
    Visual predators impose correlational selection on prey color pattern and behavior1998In: Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 9, p. 409-413Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Can spatial sorting associated with spawning migration explain evolution of body size and vertebral number in Anguilla eels?2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 751-761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial sorting is a process that can contribute to microevolutionary change by assemblingphenotypes through space, owing to nonrandom dispersal. Here we first buildupon and develop the “neutral” version of the spatial sorting hypothesis by arguingthat in systems that are not characterized by repeated range expansions, the evolutionaryeffects of variation in dispersal capacity and assortative mating might not beindependent of but interact with natural selection. In addition to generating assortativemating, variation in dispersal capacity together with spatial and temporal variationin quality of spawning area is likely to influence both reproductive success and survivalof spawning migrating individuals, and this will contribute to the evolution of dispersal-enhancingtraits. Next, we use a comparative approach to examine whether differencesin spawning migration distance among 18 species of freshwater Anguilla eelshave evolved in tandem with two dispersal-favoringtraits. In our analyses, we use informationon spawning migration distance, body length, and vertebral number thatwas obtained from the literature, and a published whole mitochondrial DNA-basedphylogeny. Results from comparative analysis of independent contrasts showed thatmacroevolutionary shifts in body length throughout the phylogeny have been associatedwith concomitant shifts in spawning migration. Shifts in migration distance werenot associated with shifts in number of vertebrae. These findings are consistent withthe hypothesis that spatial sorting has contributed to the evolution of more elongatedbodies in species with longer spawning migration distances, or resulted in evolution oflonger migration distances in species with larger body size. This novel demonstrationis important in that it expands the list of ecological settings and hierarchical levels ofbiological organization for which the spatial sorting hypothesis seems to have predictivepower.

  • 43.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    To what extent can existing research help project climate change impacts on biodiversity in aquatic environments?: A review of methodological approaches2016In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 75Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is broadly accepted that continued global warming will pose a major threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. But how reliable are current projections regarding consequences of future climate change for biodiversity? To address this issue, we review the methodological approaches in published studies of how life in marine and freshwater environments responds to temperature shifts. We analyze and compare observational field surveys and experiments performed either in the laboratory or under natural conditions in the wild, the type of response variables considered, the number of species investigated, study duration, and the nature and magnitude of experimental temperature manipulations. The observed patterns indicate that, due to limitations of study design, ecological and evolutionary responses of individuals, populations, species, and ecosystems to temperature change were in many cases difficult to establish, and causal mechanism(s) often remained ambiguous. We also discovered that the thermal challenge in experimental studies was 10,000 times more severe than reconstructed estimates of past and projections of future warming of the oceans, and that temperature manipulations also tended to increase in magnitude in more recent studies. These findings raise some concerns regarding the extent to which existing research can increase our understanding of how higher temperatures associated with climate change will affect life in aquatic environments. In view of our review findings, we discuss the trade-off between realism and methodological tractability. We also propose a series of suggestions and directions towards developing a scientific agenda for improving the validity and inference space of future research efforts.

  • 44.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Faster poleward range shifts in moths with more variable colour patterns2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 36265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Range shifts have been documented in many organisms, and climate change has been implicated asa contributing driver of latitudinal and altitudinal range modifications. However, little is known aboutwhat species trait(s) allow for faster environmental tracking and improved capacity for distributionexpansions. We used data for 416 species of moths, and show that range limits in Sweden have shifted tothe north by on average 52.4 km per decade between 1973 and 2014. When also including non-expandingspecies, average expansion rate was 23.2 km per decade. The rate of boundary shifts increased withincreasing levels of inter-individual variation in colour patterns and decreased with increasing latitude. Theassociation with colour patterns indicate that variation in this functionally important trait enables speciesto cope with novel and changing conditions. Northern range limits also increased with average abundanceand decreased with increasing year-to-year abundance fluctuations, implicating production of dispersersas a driver of range dynamics. Studies of terrestrial animals show that rates of poleward shifts differbetween taxonomic groups, increase over time, and depend on study duration and latitude. Knowledge ofhow distribution shifts change with time, location, and species characteristics may improve projections ofresponses to climate change and aid the protection of biodiversity

  • 45.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Variable coloration is associated with dampened population fluctuations in noctuid moths2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1808, article id 20142922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory and recent reviews state that greater genetic and phenotypic variation should be beneficial for population abundance and stability. Experimental evaluations of this prediction are rare, of short duration and conducted under controlled environmental settings. The question whether greater diversity in functionally important traits stabilizes populations under more complex ecological conditions in the wild has not been systematically evaluated. Moths are mainly nocturnal, with a large variation in colour patterns among species, and constitute an important food source for many types of organisms. Here, we report the results of a long-term (2003-2013) monitoring study of 115 100 noctuid moths from 246 species. Analysis of time-series data provide rare evidence that species with higher levels of inter-individual variation in colour pattern have higher average abundances and undergo smaller between-year fluctuations compared with species having less variable colour patterns. The signature of interspecific temporal synchronization of abundance fluctuations was weak, suggesting that the dynamics were driven by species-specific biotic interactions rather than by some common, density-independent factor(s). We condude that individual variation in colour patterns dampens population abundance fluctuations, and suggest that this may partly reflect that colour pattern polymorphism provides protection from visually oriented predators and parasitoids.

  • 46.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Association of coloration mode with population declines and endangerment in Australian frogs2009In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1535-1543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful protection of biodiversity requires increased understanding of the ecological characteristics that predispose some species to endangerment. Theory posits that species with polymorphic or variable coloration should have larger distributions, use more diverse resources, and be less vulnerable to population declines and extinctions, compared with taxa that do not vary in color. We used information from literature on 194 species of Australian frogs to search for associations of coloration mode with ecological variables. In general, species with variable or polymorphic color patterns had larger ranges, used more habitats, were less prone to have a negative population trend, and were estimated as less vulnerable to extinction compared with nonvariable species. An association of variable coloration with lower endangerment was also evident when we controlled statistically for the effects of range size. Nonvariable coloration was not a strong predictor of endangerment, and information on several characteristics is needed to reliably identify and protect species that are prone to decline and may become threatened by extinction in the near future. Analyses based on phylogenetic-independent contrasts did not support the hypothesis that evolutionary transitions between nonvariable and variable or polymorphic coloration have been accompanied by changes in the ecological variables we examined. Irrefutable demonstration of a role of color pattern variation in amphibian decline and in the dynamics and persistence of populations in general will require a manipulative experimental approach.

  • 47.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Calling is an honest indicator of paternal genetic quality in poison frogs2006In: Evolution, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 2148-2157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hagman, Mattias
    Correlated evolution of conspicuous coloration and body size in poison frogs (Dendrobatidae).2003In: Evolution 57: 2904-2910Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Herrström, Joakim
    Asymmetry in size, shape and colour impairs the protective value of conspicuous colour patterns.2004In: Behavioral Ecology, Vol. 15:141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Wennersten, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karpestam, Einat
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rapid evolution of fire melanism in replicated populations of pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 2530-2540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts an interactive process whereby spatiotemporal environmental heterogeneity will maintain genetic variation, while genetic and phenotypic diversity will buffer populations against stress and allow for fast adaptive evolution in rapidly changing environments. Here, we study color polymorphism patterns in pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) and show that the frequency of the melanistic (black) color variant was higher in areas that had been ravaged by fires the previous year than in nonburned habitats, that, in burned areas, the frequency of melanistic grasshoppers dropped from ca. 50% one year after a fire to 30% after four years, and that the variation in frequencies of melanistic individuals among and within populations was genetically based on and represented evolutionary modifications. Dark coloration may confer a selective benefit mediated by enhanced camouflage in recently fire-ravaged areas characterized by blackened visual backgrounds before vegetation has recovered. These findings provide rare evidence for unusually large, extremely rapid adaptive contemporary evolution in replicated natural populations in response to divergent and fluctuating selection associated with spatiotemporal environmental changes.

123 1 - 50 of 110
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf