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  • 1.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Correlated evolution of color pattern and body size in polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix undulata.2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 16, p. 1308-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Differential habitat selection by pygmy grasshopper color morphs; interactive effects of temperature and predator avoidance2006In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 20 (3), p. 235-257Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix sp.) – eye-catching variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Torngräshoppor (Tetrix sp.) – iögonfallande variation2006In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, Vol. 127, p. 145-150Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Ale Ebrahim Dehkordi, Molood
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Farjam, Mike
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    De Moor, Tine
    Erasmus University, Netherlands.
    Long-term dynamics of institutions: Using ABM as a complementary tool to support theory development in historical studies2021In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 24, no 4, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical data are valuable resources for providing insights into social patterns in the past. However, these data often inform us at the macro-level of analysis but not about the role of individuals’ behaviours in the emergence of long-term patterns. Therefore, it is difficult to infer ‘how’ and ‘why’ certain patterns emerged in the past. Historians use various methods to draw hypotheses about the underlying reasons for emerging patterns and trends, but since the patterns are the results of hundreds if not thousands of years of human behaviour, these hypotheses can never be tested in reality. Our proposition is that simulation models and specifically, agent-based models (ABMs) can be used as complementary tools in historical studies to support hypothesis building. The approach that we propose and test in this paper is to design and configure models in such a way as to generate historical patterns, consequently aiming to find individual-level explanations for the emerging pattern. In this work, we use an existing, empirically validated, agent-based model of common pool resource management to test hypotheses formulated based on a historical dataset. We first investigate whether the model can replicate various patterns observed in the dataset, and second, whether it can contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanism that led to the observed empirical trends. We showcase how ABM can be used as a complementary tool to support theory development in historical studies. Finally, we provide some guidelines for using ABM as a tool to test historical hypotheses.

  • 6.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of northern pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0154488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development – which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations.

  • 7.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yildirim, Yeserin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Effects of environmental translocation and host characteristics on skin microbiomes of sun-basking fish2023In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 290, no 2013, article id 20231608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variation in the composition of skin-associated microbiomes has been attributed to host species, geographical location and habitat, but the role of intraspecific phenotypic variation among host individuals remains elusive. We explored if and how host environment and different phenotypic traits were associated with microbiome composition. We conducted repeated sampling of dorsal and ventral skin microbiomes of carp individuals (Cyprinus carpio) before and after translocation from laboratory conditions to a semi-natural environment. Both alpha and beta diversity of skin-associated microbiomes increased substantially within and among individuals following translocation, particularly on dorsal body sites. The variation in microbiome composition among hosts was significantly associated with body site, sun-basking, habitat switch and growth, but not temperature gain while basking, sex, personality nor colour morph. We suggest that the overall increase in the alpha and beta diversity estimates among hosts were induced by individuals expressing greater variation in behaviours and thus exposure to potential colonizers in the pond environment compared with the laboratory. Our results exemplify how biological diversity at one level of organization (phenotypic variation among and within fish host individuals) together with the external environment impacts biological diversity at a higher hierarchical level of organization (richness and composition of fish-associated microbial communities).

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  • 8.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Yildirim, Yeserin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Broman, Elias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Fish Skin Microbiomes Are Highly Variable Among Individuals and Populations but Not Within Individuals2022In: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 12, article id 767770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish skin-associated microbial communities are highly variable among populations and species and can impact host fitness. Still, the sources of variation in microbiome composition, and particularly how they vary among and within host individuals, have rarely been investigated. To tackle this issue, we explored patterns of variation in fish skin microbiomes across different spatial scales. We conducted replicate sampling of dorsal and ventral body sites of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from two populations and characterized the variation of fish skin-associated microbial communities with 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. Results showed a high similarity of microbiome samples taken from the left and right side of the same fish individuals, suggesting that fish skin microbiomes can be reliably assessed and characterized even using a single sample from a specific body site. The microbiome composition of fish skin differed markedly from the bacterioplankton communities in the surrounding water and was highly variable among individuals. No ASV was present in all samples, and the most prevalent phyla, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, varied in relative abundance among fish hosts. Microbiome composition was both individual- and population specific, with most of the variation explained by individual host. At the individual level, we found no diversification in microbiome composition between dorsal and ventral body sites, but the degree of intra-individual heterogeneity varied among individuals. To identify how genetic and phenotypic characteristics of fish hosts impact the rate and nature of intra-individual temporal dynamics of the skin microbiome, and thereby contribute to the host-specific patterns documented here, remains an important task for future research.

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  • 9.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Tinnert, Jon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Spatial sorting may explain evolutionary dynamics of wing polymorphism in pygmy grasshoppers.2012In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 2126-2138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wing polymorphism in insects provides a good model system for investigating evolutionary dynamics and population divergence in dispersal-enhancing traits. This study investigates the contribution of divergent selection, trade-offs, behaviour and spatial sorting to the evolutionary dynamics of wing polymorphism in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata (Tetrigidae: Orthoptera). We use data for > 2800 wild-caught individuals from 13 populations and demonstrate that the incidence of the long-winged (macropterous) morph is higher and changes faster between years in disturbed habitats characterized by succession than in stable habitats. Common garden and mother-offspring resemblance studies indicate that variation among populations and families is genetically determined and not influenced to any important degree by developmental plasticity in response to maternal condition, rearing density or individual growth rate. Performance trials show that only the macropterous morph is capable of flight and that propensity to fly differs according to environment. Markrecapture data reveal no difference in the distance moved between free-ranging long- and short-winged individuals. There is no consistent difference across populations and years in number of hatchlings produced by long- and shorter-winged females. Our findings suggest that the variable frequency of the long-winged morph among and within pygmy grasshopper populations may reflect evolutionary modifications driven by spatial sorting due to phenotype- and habitat typedependent emigration and immigration.

  • 10.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Associations of 16-Year Population Dynamics in Range-Expanding Moths with Temperature and Years since Establishment2023In: Insects, ISSN 2075-4450, E-ISSN 2075-4450, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple Summary There has been a widespread decline of many plants and animals driven at least partly by climate change. This pattern is not universal, and certain taxa are increasing in abundance and distribution. A better understanding of population dynamics and range expansions in different areas and how different taxa respond to changing temperatures is therefore important, as we are facing a warmer and more fluctuating climate in the future. In this study, we show that range-expanding moths in southeastern Sweden have increased their species richness over time and that abundance and population growth increase during years with higher temperatures. We also show that population growth in range-expanding moths is fastest in the first years after establishment in an area. These shifts in distribution and abundance of moths may lead to rapid and dramatic changes in community compositions, with potentially widespread consequences for species interactions and ecosystem functioning. Parallel to the widespread decline of plants and animals, there is also an ongoing expansion of many species, which is especially pronounced in certain taxonomic groups and in northern latitudes. In order to inform an improved understanding of population dynamics in range-expanding taxa, we studied species richness, abundance and population growth in a sample of 25,138 individuals representing 107 range-expanding moth species at three light-trap sites in southeastern Sweden over 16 years (from 2005 to 2020) in relation to temperature and years since colonisation. Species richness and average abundance across range-expanding moths increased significantly over time, indicating a continuous influx of species expanding their ranges northward. Furthermore, average abundance and population growth increased significantly with increasing average ambient air temperature during the recording year, and average abundance also increased significantly with increasing temperature during the previous year. In general, population growth increased between years (growth rate > 1), although the population growth rate decreased significantly in association with years since colonisation. These findings highlight that, in contrast to several other studies in different parts of the world, species richness and abundance have increased in southeastern Sweden, partly because the warming climate enables range-expanding moths to realise their capacity for rapid distribution shifts and population growth. This may lead to fast and dramatic changes in community composition, with consequences for species interactions and the functioning of ecosystems. These findings are also of applied relevance for agriculture and forestry in that they can help to forecast the impacts of future invasive pest species.

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  • 11.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Increased Abundance Coincides with Range Expansions and Phenology Shifts: A Long-Term Case Study of Two Noctuid Moths in Sweden2023In: Diversity, E-ISSN 1424-2818, Vol. 15, no 12, article id 1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and climatic changes are inducing population declines in numerous species. However, certain species demonstrate remarkable resilience, exhibiting both population growth and range expansion. This longitudinal study in Sweden carried out over two decades (2004–2023) examines the noctuid moths Mythimna albipuncta and Hoplodrina ambigua. Abundance and phenology data were gathered from three light traps in southeastern Sweden and integrated with distribution and phenology data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In M. albipuncta, the distribution area expanded from 7 to 76 occupied grids (60 km2) and the abundance increased from 7 to 6136 individuals, while in H. ambigua, the distribution area expanded from 1 to 87 occupied grids and the abundance increased from 0 to 6937 individuals, during the course of the study. Furthermore, a positive yearly association was observed between the number of occupied grids and light trap abundance for each species. We also found significant extensions in the adult flight periods of more than 100 days in both species. Light traps emerged as an effective monitoring tool, with light trap abundance as a reliable proxy for distribution changes. Our findings demonstrate that the studied species cope very well with environmental and climatic changes. Given their role as dominant links between primary producers and higher trophic levels, abundance and distribution shifts of these ecological engineers have the potential to cascade up and down in the ecosystem.

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  • 12.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Inter-individual variation in colour patterns in noctuid moths characterizes long-distance dispersers and agricultural pests2019In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, no 9, p. 992-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high capacity for long‐distance dispersal is a key to success for species confronted with environmental heterogeneity, habitat modification, fragmentation and loss. However, dispersal capacity is difficult to quantify and therefore poorly known in most taxa. Here, we report on a test for an association of variation in dispersal capacity with variable colouration of noctuid moths. First, using data from 12 experienced lepidopterologists, we showed that despite variation among experts in average assessments, different species are consistently classified as having non‐variable, variable or highly variable colour patterns when assessed by different experts. We then compared the incidence of non‐resident species with high inter‐individual variation in colour patterns recorded on the isolated island Utklippan (n = 47), with that in a species pool of potential long‐distance dispersers from the nearest mainland (n = 295). Species with high inter‐individual colour pattern variation were over‐represented on the island compared with species having non‐variable colouration. This finding constitutes rare evidence from the wild of long‐distance dispersal, measured on a spatial scale relevant for moths when tracking habitats in fragmented and changing landscapes or when keeping pace with environmental challenges associated with climate change. Finally, we showed that Swedish noctuid moths classified as agricultural pests (n = 28) had more variable colour patterns compared with non‐pests (n = 368). The majority of agricultural pests were also recorded on the isolated island, an outcome that is indicative of pest species having high dispersal capacity. Data on colour pattern variation may thus offer a simple and cost‐effective proxy to estimate dispersal capacity and can also help identify potential pest species. Our findings are potentially useful when modelling and predicting population and range dynamics of species in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments, with direct implications for conservation biology and pest management.

  • 13.
    Betzholtz, Per-Eric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Franzén, Markus
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Colour pattern variation can inform about extinction risk in moths2017In: Animal Conservation, ISSN 1367-9430, E-ISSN 1469-1795, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 72-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory posits that species with inter-individual variation in colour patterns should beless vulnerable to extinction, compared with species that do not vary in colour. Toevaluate this prediction, we explored whether differences in colour pattern diversitywas associated with extinction risk, using red-list status for more than 350 species ofnoctuid moths in Sweden. We also evaluated six other species characteristics thathave been proposed to influence extinction risk namely: host plant niche breadth,habitat type, area of occupancy, body size, overwintering life-history stage and lengthof flight activity period. We found that species with variable colour patterns hadreduced extinction risk overall compared with species having non-variable colourpatterns, and that this difference was pronounced more strongly among species havingsmaller areas of occupancy. There were also significant associations with hostplant niche breadth and habitat type, extinction risk being lower on average in polyphagousspecies and in generalist species that occupied different habitat types. Thesefindings represent the first evidence for insects that variable colouration is associatedwith reduced extinction risks. Information on colour pattern variation is readily availablefor many taxa and may be used as a cost-effective proxy for endangerment inthe work of halting national and global biodiversity loss.

  • 14.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Testing the role of co-adapted genes versus bet hedging for mating strategies in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2007In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 90, p. 491-499Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Do polyandrous pygmy grasshopper females obtain fitness benefits for their offspring?2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 354-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explanations for polyandry in insects invoke material and genetic benefits that enhance female fitness via the production of more viable or more variable offspring. Here we use the color polymorphic pygmy grasshopper, Tetrix subulata, to evaluate effects of male quality, mate color morph resemblance (a proxy for compatibility), and polyandry on offspring performance. We experimentally mated females with different numbers and color morph combinations of males and reared offspring under either sun-exposed or shaded conditions using a split-brood design. We find a significant male identity effect on egg hatchability, consistent with the hypothesis that males vary in paternal quality. Offspring viability posthatching varied in a complex manner with solar regime, mating treatment, and parental resemblance. The effects of parental color morph resemblance on offspring performance suggest a potential role of compatibility and offspring variability. Monandrous females produced more viable offspring than polyandrous females (under shaded conditions) and we suggest as a hypothesis that the expected positive influence of polyandry on offspring performance may have been outweighed by more intense competition and antagonistic interactions among half-siblings. That an effect of mating treatment was evident under shaded but not under sun-exposed conditions suggests that great care is called for when making inferences from studies that show negative results.

  • 16.
    Caesar, Sofia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Diversity and relatedness enhance survival in colour polymorphic grasshoppers2010In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 5, article id e10880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different resource utilization and behaviour by alternative phenotypes may reduce competition and enhance productivity and individual performance in polymorphic, as compared with monomorphic, groups of individuals. However, firm evidence that members of more heterogeneous groups benefit from enhanced survival has been scarce or lacking. Furthermore, benefits associated with phenotypic diversity may be counterbalanced by costs mediated by reduced relatedness, since closely related individuals typically are more similar. Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrix subulata) are characterized by extensive polymorphism in colour pattern, morphology, behaviour and physiology. We studied experimental groups founded by different numbers of mothers and found that survival was higher in low than in high density, that survival peaked at intermediate colour morph diversity in high density, and that survival was independent of diversity in low density where competition was less intense. We further demonstrate that survival was enhanced by relatedness, as expected if antagonistic and competitive interactions are discriminately directed towards non-siblings. We therefore also performed behavioural observations and staged encounters which confirmed that individuals recognized and responded differently to siblings than to non-siblings. We conclude that negative effects associated with competition are less manifest in diverse groups, that there is conflicting selection for and against genetic diversity occurring simultaneously, and that diversity and relatedness may facilitate the productivity and ecological success of groups of interacting individuals.

  • 17. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Immune function, parasitization and extended phenotypes in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2005In: Biological journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 85 (3), p. 373-383Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Martin, J
    Lopez, P
    Indirect effects of prey coloration on predation risk: grasshoppers versus lizards2004In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, Vol. 6, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Determinants of survival in juvenile Psammodromus algirus lizards2000In: Oecologia, Vol. 124, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Civantos, E
    et al.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    “Developmental instability and immune function in colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2005In: Evolutionary ecology, Vol. 19 (1), p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    de Moor, Tine
    et al.
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Dehkordi, Molood
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    van Weeren, Rene
    Common paths in long-term institutional dynamics: An analysis of rule changes in British and Dutch commons over seven centuries2019In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    De Moor, Tine
    et al.
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Taking sanctioning seriously: The impact of sanctions on the resilience of historical commons in Europe2021In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 87, p. 181-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their studies of collective exploitation of common-pool resources, Ostrom and other scholars have stressed the importance of sanctioning as an essential method for preventing overuse and, eventually, the collapse of commons. However, most of the available evidence is based on data covering a relatively small period in history, and thus does not inform us about the evolution of rules, including sanctions, over time. In this article, we demonstrate, based on historical sources covering several centuries, that sanctioning was not always the preferred way of preventing or dealing with free-riding in institutions for collective action, but that the legal context is decisive to understand why commoners in some countries were using more sanctions than those in others to regulate commoners' behavior. Commoners that could self-govern their resources used fewer sanctions, and when they did, it was mainly to avoid overuse of their most vulnerable resources. Moreover, graduated sanctioning seems to be less important than suggested in Ostrom's famous Design Principles, and was reserved primarily for immediate threats to the commons' resources. We also show the importance of other types of rules, such as differentiated rules, which have hardly been taken into account in literature to date.

  • 23.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Herder, Paulien
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    De Moor, Tine
    Erasmus University, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    The role of wealth inequality on collective action for management of common pool resource2021In: Advances in social simulation / [ed] Petra Ahrweiler; Martin Neumann, Springer, 2021, p. 375-379Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Dehkordi, Molood
    van Weeren, Rene
    Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources2019In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Shared Patterns in Long-Term Dynamics of Commons as Institutions for Collective Action2020In: International Journal of the Commons, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of regulatory activities in historical commons offering a unique picture of their long-term institutional dynamics. The analysis took into account almost 3,800 regulatory activities in eighteen European commons in two countries across seven centuries. Despite differences in time and space, we found a shared pattern where an initial, highly-dynamic institutional-definition phase was followed by a relatively long period of stability and a final burst of activities, possibly in an attempt to respond to new challenges. In addition, most of the initial regulatory activities focused on resource use, while towards the end other activities prevailed. Our approach allows for a better understanding of institutional dynamics and our findings also provide important insights about how to regulate the use of current natural resources.

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  • 26.
    Forsman, Anders
    Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis.
    Adaptive body and head size variation in populations of the adder Vipera berus1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Forsman, Anders
    Department of Zoology, Uppsala University.
    Adaptive variation in head size in Vipera berus L. populations1991In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 281-296Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    An experimental test for food effects on head size allometry in juvenile snakes1996In: Evolution, Vol. 50, p. 2536-2542Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Body size and net energy gain in gape-limited predators: a model1996In: Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 30, p. 307-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Clutch size versus clutch interval: life history strategies in the colour polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata2001In: Oecologia, Vol. 129, p. 357-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Effects of genotypic and phenotypic variation on establishment are important for conservation, invasion and infection biology.2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 302-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is abundant evidence that the probability of successful establishment in novel environments increases with number of individuals in founder groups and with number of repeated introductions. Theory posits that the genotypic and phenotypic variation among individuals should also be important, but few studies have examined whether founder diversity influences establishment independent of propagule pressure, nor whether the effect is model or context dependent. I summarize the results of 18 experimental studies and report on a metaanalysis that provides strong evidence that higher levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in founder groups increase establishment success in plants and animals. The effect of diversity is stronger in experiments carried out under natural conditions in the wild than under seminatural or standardized laboratory conditions. The realization that genetic and phenotypic variation is key to successful establishment may improve the outcome of reintroduction and translocation programs used to vitalize or restore declining and extinct populations. Founder diversity may also improve the ability of invasive species to establish and subsequently spread in environments outside of their native community, and enhance the ability of pathogens and parasites to colonize and invade the environment constituted by their hosts. It is argued that exchange of ideas, methodological approaches, and insights of the role of diversity for establishment in different contexts may further our knowledge, vitalize future research, and improve management plans in different disciplines.

  • 32.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Growth and survival of Vipera berus in a variable environment1997In: Venomous snakes: ecology, evolution and snakebite / [ed] Thorpe, Roger S., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 143-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Growth rate and survival in relation to relative head size in Vipera berus1994In: Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 28, p. 231-238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Growth rate in different colour morphs of the adder, Vipera berus, in relation to yearly weather variation1993In: Oikos, Vol. 66, p. 279-285Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Heating rates and body temperature variation in melanistic and zigzag Vipera berus: does colour make a difference?1995In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, Vol. 32, p. 365-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Is colour polymorphism advantageous to populations and species?2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 2693-2698Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I am writing in response to an article by Bolton, Rollinsand Griffith (2015) entitled ‘The danger within: the roleof genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in populationpersistence of colour polymorphic species’ that wasrecently published as an Opinion under the NEWS ANDVIEWS section in Molecular Ecology. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) argue that colour polymorphismmay reduce population fitness and increaseextinction risk and emphasize that this is contrary to predictionsput forward by Forsman et al. (Ecology, 89, 2008,34) and Wennersten & Forsman (Biological Reviews 87,2012, 756) that the existence of multiple colour morphswith co-adapted gene complexes and associated trait valuesmay increase the ecological and evolutionary successof polymorphic populations and species. Bolton et al.(Molecular Ecology, 2015, 24, 2907) further state that thereis no clear evidence from studies of ‘true polymorphicspecies’ that polymorphism promotes population persistence.In response, I (i) challenge their classifications ofpolymorphisms and revisit the traditional definitions recognizingthe dynamic nature of polymorphisms, (ii)review empirical studies that have examined whetherand how polymorphism is associated with extinction risk,(iii) discuss the roles of trait correlations between colourpattern and other phenotypic dimensions for populationfitness and (iv) highlight that the causes and mechanismsthat influence the composition and maintenance of polymorphismsare different from the consequences of thepolymorphic condition and how it may impact on aspectsof ecological success and long-term persistence of populationsand species.

  • 37.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kapprustning i Stockholms skärgård1993In: Fauna och Flora, Vol. 88, p. 20-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    On the role of sex differences for evolution in heterogeneous and changing fitness landscapes: insights from pygmy grasshoppers2018In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 373, no 1757, article id 20170429Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to study evolution of local adaptations by natural selection, and to explore the roles of neutral processes and developmental plasticity for patterns of diversity among individuals, populations and species. Some aspects, such as evolution of adaptive variation in phenotypic traits in stable environments, and the role of plasticity in predictable changing environments, are well understood. Other aspects, such as the role of sex differences for evolution in spatially heterogeneous and temporally changing environments and dynamic fitness landscapes, remain elusive. An increased understanding of evolution requires that sex differences in development, physiology, morphology, life-history and behaviours are more broadly considered. Studies of selection should take into consideration that the relationships linking phenotypes to fitness may vary not only according to environmental conditions but also differ between males and females. Such opposing selection, sex-by-environment interaction effects of selection and sex-specific developmental plasticity can have consequences for population differentiation, local adaptations and for the dynamics of polymorphisms. Integrating sex differences in analytical frameworks and population comparisons can therefore illuminate neglected evolutionary drivers and reconcile unexpected patterns. Here, I illustrate these issues using empirical examples from over 20 years of research on colour polymorphic Tetrix subulata and Tetrix undulata pygmy grasshoppers, and summarize findings from observational field studies, manipulation experiments, common garden breeding experiments and population genetics studies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Linking local adaptation with the evolution of sex differences'.

  • 39.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Opposing fitness consequences of colour pattern in male and female snakes1995In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 8, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Reproductive life history variation among colour morphs of the pygmy grasshopper, Tetrix subulata1999In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 67, p. 247-261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rethinking phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for individuals, populations and species.2015In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 276-284Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research has been devoted to identify the conditions under which selection favours flexible individuals or genotypes that are able to modify their growth, development and behaviour in response to environmental cues, to unravel the mechanisms of plasticity, and to explore its influence on patterns of diversity among individuals, populations, and species. The consequences of developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility for the performance and ecological success of populations and species have attracted a comparatively limited but currently growing interest. Here, I re-emphasize that an increased understanding of the roles of plasticity in these contexts requires a ‘whole organism’ (rather than ‘single trait’) approach, taking into consideration that organisms are integrated complex phenotypes. I further argue that plasticity and genetic polymorphism should be analysed and discussed within a common framework. I summarize predictions from theory on how phenotypic variation stemming from developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility may affect different aspects of population-level performance. I argue that it is important to distinguish between effects associated with greater inter-individual phenotypic variation resulting from plasticity, and effects mediated by variation among individuals in the capacity to express plasticity and flexibility as such. Finally, I claim that rigorous testing of predictions requires methods that allow for quantifying and comparing whole organism plasticity, as well as the ability to experimentally manipulate the level of and capacity for developmental plasticity and phenotypic flexibility independent of genetic variation.

  • 42.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Rethinking the thermal melanism hypothesis: rearing temperature and coloration in pygmy grasshoppers2011In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 1247-1257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection for efficient conversion of solar radiation to body heat has favored theevolution of dark coloration in many ectotherms. The thermal melanism hypothesis positsthat dark coloration is beneficial under conditions of low ambient temperatures because itresults in faster heating rates and higher body temperatures. Fast heating rates, however,may come at a cost of overheating unless compensated for by thermal physiology orbehaviour. Pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera, Tetrigidae) populations that inhabit fire-ravagedareas characterized by blackened backgrounds and hot surface temperatures due tohigh absorbance of solar radiation show an increased frequency of black phenotypes. Iraised the progeny of wild-captured Tetrix undulata in cold and hot temperatures and useddata on color patterns and survival in a greenhouse to examine whether a cold thermalenvironment triggered the development of melanic coloration or differently affected survivalof melanic versus non-melanic individuals. My results indicate that melanism was notinfluenced by rearing temperature but by genes or epigenetic maternal effects. Temperaturealso did not affect survival. However, melanic individuals produced by melanic motherssurvived longer than melanic individuals produced by non- melanic mothers, whereas nonmelanicindividuals produced by non-black mothers survived longer than melanic individualsproduced by non-black mothers. This suggests a mismatch between color andphysiology in offspring belonging to a different color morph than their mother. Futureinvestigations into the evolution of melanism should consider conflicting selection pressureson thermal capacity and camouflage as well as the influence of correlated responsesto selection on traits associated with coloration.

  • 43.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Some like it hot: intra-population variation in behavioral thermoregulation in color-polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers2000In: Evolutionary Ecology, Vol. 14, p. 25-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Survival in relation to body size and growth rate in the adder, Vipera berus (L.)1993In: Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 62, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Temperature influence on escape behaviour in two species of pygmy grasshoppers1999In: Ecoscience, Vol. 6, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Thermal capacity of different colour morphs in the pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata1997In: Annales Zoologici Fennici, Vol. 34, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Forsman, Anders
    Department of Zoology, Uppsala University .
    Variation in sexual size dimorphism and maximum body size among adder populations: effects of prey size1991In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 253-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (1) Geographic variation in maximum body size of male and female adders, Vipera berus, was documented over one mainland locality and six groups of islands in the Baltic Sea. Males varied more in body size among localities than females, although not significantly so. (2) Geographic variation in prey (field vole, Microtus agrestis) body size explained 68% and 40% of the variation in maximum body size of male and female adders, respectively. Body size of adders increased with body size of prey. (3) Adders were smaller on islands where there were three prey species than where there were two. It is suggested that selection for fasting endurance where there are few prey species and a high risk of starvation may have produced this pattern. (4) Growth rates of individual adders were faster where mean field vole body weight was large (47 g) than where it was small (26 g). Maximum body size of adders was large where growth rate was fast and vice versa. (5) Female adders were larger than males at all localities. Females also had faster growth rates than males. (6) The degree of sexual size dimorphism of adders varied among localities and was negatively correlated with size of males. There was no relationship between sexual dimorphism and size of females. (7) There was no significant relationship between sexual size dimorphism of adders and mean body size of field voles. Nor was there any relationship between sexual dimorphism and number of prey species or size distribution of field voles. (8) I argue that optimal body size for survival is locally determined by prey availability and size of prey items. However, due to the fecundity advantage of large size in females, female adders deviate from the optimum size for survival, and more so when this optimum size is small. Thus, local variation in properties of the food resource, e.g. prey size, can give rise to variation in sexual size dimorphism. 

  • 48.
    Forsman, Anders
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Variation in thermal sensitivity of performance among color morphs of a pygmy grasshopper, Tetrix subulata1999In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 12, p. 869-878Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Fitness benefits of diverse offspring in pygmy grasshoppers2007In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1305-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Do females obtain fitness benefits from an increase in offspring diversity?Hypotheses: Polyandry increases offspring diversity within a clutch. Increased offspring diversity will reduce competition among siblings (manifested as increased mean survival in more diverse families) and the probability that all offspring might be ill-suited to future conditions (manifested as lower variance in survival in diverse families).Organisms: Pygmy grasshoppers, Tetrix subulata and Tetrix: undulata, that are polymorphic for colour pattern.Field site: South-central Sweden.Methods: We varied the number of mates provided to colour polymorphic pygmy grasshoppers. We reared families in either warm or cold conditions using a split-brood design.Conclusions: The colour morph diversity of broods increased with the number of experimentally provided mates. Colour morphs represent alternative strategies that differ in body size, physiology, behaviour, and life history. Survival increased with increasing sibling diversity, supporting the hypothesis that different morphs avoid competition by using different subsets of available resources. Homogeneous families (in which all siblings belong to the same or only a few colour morphs) varied more in survival than did families with diverse siblings, supporting the hypothesis that morphs vary in their ability to cope with and utilize different resources.

  • 50.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Caesar, Sofia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A model of ecological and evolutionary consequences of color polymorphism2008In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
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