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  • 1.
    Attila, Dioszegi
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Dept of Mechanical Engineering/Component Technology.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, Dept of Mechanical Engineering/Component Technology.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    Jönköping University, Dept of Mechanical Engineering/Component Technology.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Defect Formation of Grey Cast Iron2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cast iron is one of the oldest technical alloys used for creating objects. Foundrymen from the very beginning ofcasting was fighting to avoid casting defects. In the beginning a successfully performed casting was associated withwitchcraft. Cast component producers suffer yearly substantial expanses due to rejecting or repairing castings. Thepresent work will summarize research efforts to understand formation mechanisms of defects, performed incollaboration with Swedish foundries during the last years. The presented work will focus on defects, specific castingof gray iron components. Studied defects are gas porosity, shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration.Novell experimental set up has been developed or existing methods has been improved to study defect formationmechanisms. Today we can realize that casting without defects are possible only by approaching the defect formationmechanism with multidisciplinary science.

  • 2.
    Dioszegi, Attila
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Svidro, Peter
    Jönköping University.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    SinterCast AB, Katrineholm.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Defect formation mechanisms in lamellar graphite iron related to the casting geometry2016In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 279-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although lamellar cast iron has been used in advanced applications for about 20 years, our knowledge about the mechanisms affecting microstructure and defect formation is relatively limited. The present paper summarises some solidification-related phenomena from a series of recently published peer-reviewed papers and scientific theses and suggests a mechanism of defect formation which is dependent on the shape of the solidifying casting geometry. When shrinkage porosity or metal expansion penetration occurs, evidence of material transport in the intergranular zone of primary equiaxed austenite grains in the casting and in the intergranular regions between the sand grains in the mould material is seen. Material transport occurs across the casting-mould interface, where the existence of or the permeability of the primary columnar zone determines if material transport can take place.

  • 3.
    Diószegi, Attila
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Jönköping University.
    The Mechanism of Metal Expansion Penetration in Gray Cast Iron2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Diószegi, Attila
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Jönköping University.
    Metal Expansion Penetration on Concave Casting Surfaces of Grey Cast Iron Cylinder Heads2007In: Transactions of the American Foundry Society, Vol. 115, p. 609-615Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Diószegi, Attila
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Jönköping University.
    Penetrationsfehler an konkaven Gussteiloberflächen von Grauguss-Zylinderköpfen (Penetration errors casting concave surfaces of grey cast iron cylinder heads)2007In: Giesserei-Praxis, ISSN 0016-9781, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 450-454Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Diószegi, Attila
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH. Forskningsområde Material och tillverkning - gjutning.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Jönköping University.
    Defect Formation at Casting of Gray Iron Components2009In: Proceedings of the Carl Loper Cast Iron Symposium, Madison, Wisconsin, US, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Diószegi, Attila
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University.
    Orlenius, Jessica
    Jönköping University.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Jönköping University.
    Defect Formation of Gray Iron Casting2009In: International Journal of metalcasting, ISSN 1939-5981, E-ISSN 2163-3193, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cast iron is one of the oldest technical alloys used for creating objects. Foundrymen from the very beginning of casting was fighting to avoid casting defects. In the beginning a successfully performed casting was associated with witchcraft. Cast component producers suffer yearly substantial expenses due to rejecting or repairing castings. The present work will summarize research efforts to understand formation mechanisms of defects, performed in collaboration with Swedish foundries during the last years. The presented work will focus on defects, specific casting of gray iron components. Studied defects are gas porosity, shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration. Novell experimental set up has been developed or existing methods has been improved to study defect formation mechanisms. Today we can realize that casting without defects are possible only by approaching the defect formation mechanism with multidisciplinary science.

  • 8.
    Diószegi, Attila
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Svidró, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Defect formation mechanisms in lamellar cast iron related to the casting geometry2015In: Advances in the science and engineering of casting solidification: An MPMD symposium honoring Doru Michael Stefanescu / [ed] Laurentiu Nastac, Baicheng Liu, Hasse Fredriksson, Jacques Lacaze, Chun-Pyo Hong, Adrian Catalina, Andreas Buhrig-Polaczek, Daan M. Maijer, Charles Andrew Monroe, Adrian Sabau, Roxana Ruxanda, Alan A. Luo, Subhayu Sen, Attila Diószegi, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 251-259Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although lamellar cast iron has been used in advanced applications for about twenty years, our knowledge about the mechanisms affecting microstructure and defect formation is relatively limited. The present paper summarizes some solidification related phenomena from a series of recently published peer reviewed papers and scientific theses and suggests a mechanism of defect formation which is dependent on the shape of the solidifying casting geometry. When shrinkage porosity or metal expansion penetration occurs evidence of material transport in the intergranular zone of primary equiaxed austenite grains in the casting and in the intergranular regions between the sand grains in the mold material is seen. Material transport occurs across the casting-mold interface where the existence of or the permeability of the primary columnar zone determines if material transport can take place.

  • 9.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ductile iron for the wind power industry2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of electricity in the Europe from wind-powered turbines is increasing and the most important challenges for the wind turbine manufacturers are linked to the development of larger and more effective wind turbines. Cast iron is today used in central parts of a wind turbine construction and this is a growing market for Swedish foundries. The specifications and requirements applied for the cast iron components are among the most stringent used within the iron foundry branch. A problem for the production of these large components can be too high pearlite content in the metal matrix, thereby deteriorating mechanical properties. Because of this reason there are just a few iron foundries in Sweden that are able to cast the required high quality cast iron components.

    The project work has focused on reducing the pearlite stabilizing blanks into the melt and to improve the inoculation process. The project has shown that systematic work with the melt composition and inoculation may provide a much improved structure and thus better properties.

  • 10.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Effect of Casting Temperature on the Surface Finish of Grey Iron Castings2019In: Materials Processing Fundamentals 2019 / [ed] Lambotte G., Lee J., Allanore A., Wagstaff S., Springer, 2019, p. 87-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common surface defects in sand casting of grey cast iron is caused by metal penetration into the sand mould. Metal penetration is a surface condition in which metal or metal oxides have filled the voids between sand grains to various depth without displacing them, thus yielding a phase of sand grains surrounded by metal and frequently by mould–metal reaction products. The penetration is often so severe that casting components are beyond the point of economical rework and must be scrapped. This experimental work has focused on reducing metal penetration on casting component on a production scale. The casting component produced has strongly affected by sand sintering metal penetration. A series of simulations were performed with the casting simulation program MagmaSoft® in order to investigate the solidification characteristics as well as the porosity formation in the casting component. 

  • 11.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Effect of cooling rate on the casting defects of high chromium white cast iron for the impellers2015In: Zbornik povzetkov referatov 55. mednarodnega livarskega posvetovanja, Portorož 2015 / [ed] Alojz Križman; Mirjam Jan-Blažič; Martin Debelak; Peter Schumacher; Rüdiger Deike, Ljubljana: Društvo livarjev Slovenije , 2015, p. 35-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the oldest high alloys white cast irons is produced commercially when the chromium content is between 23 and 28 %. The high-chromium white irons have excellent abrasion resistance and are used effectively in slurry pumps, brick molds, coal-grinding mills, rolling mill rolls, shot blasting equipment, and components for quarrying, hard-rock mining and milling.

    The specifications and requirements applied for the white cast iron components are among the most stringent used within the iron foundry branch. One of the biggest problems for the production of these components is hot tearing or hot cracking, or hot shortness. Irrespective of the name, this phenomenon represents the formation of an irreversible failure (crack) in the still semisolid casting.

    This paper will show a study of the effect of cooling rate on the cracks. The procedure to achieve this was to study one casting component, impeller, in a production scale using different cooling rate after pouring.

    In this work it has been shown that the solidification rate has a strong effect on the hot cracking.

  • 12.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Effect of molybdenum content and pouring temperature on the casting defects of high chromium white cast iron for the impellers2014In: Proceeding book of the 14th international foundrymen conference / [ed] Unkić, Faruk, Sisak, Croatia: University of Zagreb, Faculty of Metallurgy , 2014, , p. 10p. 17:1-17:8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    White cast iron components are today used in central parts for pumps. The specifications and requirements applied for the white cast iron components are among the most stringent used within the iron foundry branch. One of the problems for the production of these components can be cracks. Because of this reason there are just a few iron foundries in Sweden that are able to cast the required high quality white cast iron components.

    The project work has focused on reducing the cracks and to improve the machining properties of the casting. The experiments showed that molybdenum content and pouring temperature had an important influence on casting defects and machining of the casting components behaviour.

  • 13.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Effect of Molybdenum Content, Pouring Temperature and Cooling Rate on the Casting Defects of High Chromium White Cast Iron2017In: TMS 2017 146TH ANNUAL MEETING & EXHIBITION SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS, Springer, 2017, p. 475-482Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High chromium white cast are commonly used in application requiring excellent abrasion resistance, as central parts for pumps. The specifications and requirements applied for the white cast iron components are among the most stringent used within the iron foundry branch. One of the biggest problems for the production of these components is hot tearing. Irrespective of the name, this phenomenon represents the formation of an irreversible failure (crack) in the still semisolid casting. This paper aims to investigate the effect of molybdenum content, pouring temperature and cooling rate on the casting defect hot tearing. The procedure to achieve this was to study one casting component, impeller, in a production scale. The experiments showed that molybdenum content and pouring temperature had an important influence on casting defects. It was also observed that the solidification rate has a strong effect on the hot cracking.

  • 14.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Inoculation of Grey Cast Iron and the Influence on Metal Expansion Penetration2011In: Proceedings book of the 11th International foundrymen conference Foundry Industry – Significance and Future Challenges / [ed] Unkić, Faruk, Croatia: University of Zagreb , 2011, , p. 12p. 378-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important factors which influence the microstructure evolution of cast iron is nucleation. Nucleation of eutectic phase in grey cast is assumed to take place heterogeneously. Inoculation is the most common method to influence the heterogeneous nucleation. The choice of inoculants used in grey cast iron production today is probably one of the most important parameters to obtain good quality of castings component. In some grey cast iron components which are cast in sand moulds, the metal some time penetrates into the mould producing surface defects and causes difficulties when cleaning the components. 

    The present work utilizes the latest development of primary austenite inoculation in combination with classic eutectic inoculation to limit the metallurgical contribution to metal expansion penetration. A solid shell containing the primary austenite dendrite network constitutes the barrier between the liquid metal and mould interface. Inoculants of both the primary- and eutectic phase control the permeability of the dendrite network

  • 15.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linköping University.
    Metal Expansion Penetration During Solidification of Grey Cast Iron1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The meta! expansion penetration has been examined experimentally. The whole casting process was simulated using a commercial software, in order to investigate the solidification characteristics and the pore formation in the casting studied. In order to do this, a special module for cast iron was used, where nucleation and growth of all relevant phases are considered. During simulation it is possible to detect the areas where porosities are likely to be formed. The results of the experiments show that expansion penetration generally occurs in the same areas as detected in the simulation depending on the solidification path. The inoculation and solidification behaviour will result in an excess or deficiency of meta! at the end of solidification. This will lead to either meta! penetration or the formation of pores.

    A series of test castings were produced at a foundry. They were used to study the influence of chemical composition, the type and amount of inoculant and the casting temperature. The results show that the carbon and phosphorus content had an influence on meta! penetration. The tendency for meta! penetration decreased whit decreasing carbon content as well as with increasing phosphorus content.

    The experiments show that the type and amount of inoculant and casting temperature for grey cast iron influence the meta! expansion penetration in areas with late solidification and where the melt is in contact with the sand mould. The worst cases of meta! penetration were obtained with uninoculated melt. A !arge number of small eutectic cells making up a !arge fraction of the volume were observed, resulting in a !arge penetration.

  • 16.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Metal Expansion Penetration on Casting Components of Grey Cast Iron2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cast irons are a family of sophisticated design materials with precise engineering properties.

    In some grey cast iron components which are cast in sand moulds, the metal sometimes penetrates into the mould producing defects which cause difficulty when cleaning the components. Metal penetration is a casting surface condition resulting from either physical, mechanical and/or thermo chemical reactions or a combination of these at the mould–metal interface.

    The present work will summarize research efforts to understand the mechanisms of metal expansion penetration performed in collaboration with Swedish foundries. The main parts of the experimental works are based on some casting components.

  • 17.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Metal Expansion Penetration on Concave Casting Surfaces of Cylinder Heads Cast in Grey Cast Iron2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cylinder heads have an extremely complex shape with large areas of concave casting surfaces. The concave casting surfaces are often associated with metal expansion penetration problems or other surface defects, e. g. surface shrinkage. The defects cause high production costs due to component rejection and increased fettling time. This report presents an investigation of the microstructure in grey cast iron close to the sand-metal interface affected by metal penetration in a complex shaped casting. The dominant penetration defect observed in the cylinder heads was expansion penetration. Even pre-solidification penetration and sand crack defects were observed. The microstructure found in the non penetrated areas is typical for solidification of grey iron cast in sand moulds.

  • 18.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linköping University.
    The mechanisms of metal expansion penetration during solidification of grey cast iron2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of high quality castings requires the casting surface to be clean and free from defects. One type of defect often found is caused by metal penetration into the sand mould. Metal penetration is a casting surface condition resulting from either physical, mechanical and/or thermochemical reactions or a combination of these at the mould–metal interface. The metal penetrates into the voids between the sand grains to various depths without displacing the grains, thus yielding a phase of sand grains surrounded by metal and frequently by mould-metal reaction products. The present work is devoted to investigating the mechanisms of metal expansion penetration during solidification of grey cast iron.

    The phenomenon of metal expansion penetration has been examined experimentally. A series of test castings were produced at two foundries, to study the influence of chemical composition, the casting temperature and the addition of inoculants with respect to both primary and eutectic phases.

    The experiments show that the type and amount of inoculant, the casting temperature and the chemical composition influence the metal expansion penetration.

    Two major types of metal expansion penetration mechanisms are suggested with respect to the nucleation and growth of the primary and eutectic phases. The expansion penetration mechanisms found in the experimental work were also identified on complex shaped industrial castings such as clutch components and cylinder heads.

    The entire casting process was simulated using commercial software, and in which nucleation and growth of all relevant phases was considered in order to investigate the solidification characteristics and porosity formation in the casting. A good correlation between the simulation and experiments on real castings was found.

    Density and volume change in grey cast iron seem to play a decisive roll in the occurrence of metal expansion penetration. Laboratory measurements of density variations are difficult. A novel method of modeling the density variation in cast iron has been introduced.

  • 19.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    White Cast Iron for the Impellers2014In: Conference Proceedings of the 54th International Foundry Conference Portorož 2014 / [ed] Križman, A. ; Debelak, M, Ljubljana: Društvo livarjev Slovenije , 2014, , p. 8p. 71-72Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High chromium white cast iron are commonly used in applications requiring excellent abrasion resistance, as central parts for pumps. Their excellent abrasion resistance is mainly due to their solidification microstructures. The specifications and requirements applied for the white cast iron components are among the most stringent used within the iron foundry branch. One of the problems for the production of these components can be cracks. Because of this reason there are just a few iron foundries in Sweden that are able to cast the required high quality white cast iron components.

    This work has been carried out on a foundry where an impeller for pumps has been analyzed. The project work has focused on reducing cracks on casting component in a production scale using different type of shell moulding sand. The experiments showed that the shell moulding sand had an important influence on the cracks

  • 20.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Berndt, Robin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Josefsson, Simon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Hedström, Martin
    China Euro Vehicle Technology AB, Sweden.
    Non-metallic inclusion and their effect on fatigue strength for case-hardened carbon steel in gears2018In: TMS 2018 147th Annual Meeting & Exhibition Supplemental Proceedings. TMS 2018, Springer, 2018, p. 123-133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steel is a very essential structural material and its production worldwide has shown significant increase over the last years. In steels there always exist a large number of inclusions which can have a degrading effect on the fatigue properties. This study is focused on the link between the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions and how they affect fatigue strength of the standardized case-hardened carbon steel 20MnCr5 and a version of this steel with a more favorable inclusion distribution, a so-called Clean steel. For the evaluation of the mechanical properties the test result from rotary bending tests are compared and an improvement by 37.5% in fatigue strength can be noted between the different steels. The new performed ultrasonic tests illustrate the difference in the size of defects in materials with different manufacturing processes and degree of reduction. By studying international and European standards for non-destructive testing and investigation of alloy compounds, the current material specification can be adjusted. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2018.

  • 21.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Dioszegi, Attila
    Jönkoping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Jönkping University.
    Ekspanzijska penetracija metala na konkavnim povrsinama cilindarskih glava od sivog lijeva2009In: Časopis za praćenje razvoja i dostignuća ljevarske tehnologije, ISSN 1330-2132, Vol. 4, no 51, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Dioszegi, Attila
    Jönköping Tekniska Högskolan.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Ekspanzijska penetracija metala na konkavnim povrsinama cilindarskih glava od sivog lijeva2009In: Časopis za praćenje razvoja i dostignuća ljevarske tehnologije, ISSN 1330-2132, Vol. 4, no 51, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Diozegi, A
    Svensson, I. L.
    Metal Expansion Penetration on Concave Casting Surfaces of Grey Cast Iron Cylinder Heads2010In: International Foundry Research/Giessereiforschung, ISSN 0046-5933, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 38-23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cylinder heads have an extremely complex shape withlarge areas of concave casting surfaces. The concavecasting surfaces are often associated with metalexpansion penetration problems or other surfacedefects, e. g. surface shrinkage. The defects cause highproduction costs due to component rejection andincreased fettling time. This report presents aninvestigation of the microstructure in grey cast ironclose to the sand-metal interface affected bymetal penetration in a complex shaped casting.The dominant penetration defect observedin the cylinder heads was expansion penetration.Even pre-solidification penetration and sandcrack defects were observed. The microstructurefound in the non penetrated areas is typicalfor solidification of grey iron cast in sand moulds.

  • 24.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Diozegi, A
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L.
    Metal Expansion Penetration on Concave Casting Surfaces of Grey Cast Iron Cylinder Heads2010In: International Foundry Research/Giessereiforschung, ISSN 0046-5933, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 38-23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cylinder heads have an extremely complex shape withlarge areas of concave casting surfaces. The concavecasting surfaces are often associated with metalexpansion penetration problems or other surfacedefects, e. g. surface shrinkage. The defects cause highproduction costs due to component rejection andincreased fettling time. This report presents aninvestigation of the microstructure in grey cast ironclose to the sand-metal interface affected bymetal penetration in a complex shaped casting.The dominant penetration defect observedin the cylinder heads was expansion penetration.Even pre-solidification penetration and sandcrack defects were observed. The microstructurefound in the non penetrated areas is typicalfor solidification of grey iron cast in sand moulds.

  • 25.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L.
    Jönköping University.
    Metal Expansion Penetration on Concave Casting Surfaces of Grey Cast Iron Cylinder Heads2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cylinder heads have an extremely complex shape with large areas of concave casting surfaces. The concave casting surfaces are often associated with metal expansion penetration problems or other surface defects, e. g. surface shrinkage. The defects cause high production costs due to component rejection and increased fettling time. This report presents an investigation of the microstructure in grey cast iron close to the sand-metal interface affected by metal penetration in a complex shaped casting. The dominant penetration defect observed in the cylinder heads was expansion penetration. Even pre-solidification penetration and sand crack defects were observed. The microstructure found in the non penetrated areas is typical for solidification of grey iron cast in sand moulds.

  • 26.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L.
    Jönköping University.
    The Influence of Inoculation on the Metal Expansion Penetration With Respect to the Primary and Eutectic Solidification2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of metal expansion penetration of grey cast iron components is dependent on both solidification anomalies at the metal – mould interface and the inclination of the sand mould to permit the metal liquid to penetrate between the sand grains. The present work utilizes the latest development of primary austenite inoculation in combination with classic eutectic inoculation to limit the metallurgical contribution to metal expansion penetration. A solid shell containing the primary austenite dendrite network constitutes the barrier between the liquid metal and mould interface. Inoculants of both the primaryand eutectic phase control the permeability of the dendrite network.

  • 27.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Henriksson, Felix
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Strebel, Conrad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Kosmaz, Ozkan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Jönköping University.
    On the Effects of Alloying Element Range on the Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aluminium Alloy EN AB-460002016In: Light Metals 2016 / [ed] Edward Williams, John Wiley & Sons, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium can be produced from the raw material bauxite or by recycling aluminium scrap. When aluminium is being recycled, the material strength is then depending on the alloying and trace elements in the aluminium scrap. This paper aims to investigate the sole effect of the alloying element range of Si, Cu, Mg, Mn and Fe on the mechanical properties of the recycled aluminium alloy EN AB-46000 by producing directional solidified samples with low defect levels.

  • 28.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Karlsson, Christian
    Älmhults Foundry AB.
    GIFA 2011 – New opportunities2011In: Swedish Foundry Technical Association Conference, Nyköping, Sweden, 2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Jönköping University.
    An investigation of the effect of five different inoculants on the metal expansion penetration in grey cast iron1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of quality castings requires the casting surface to be clean and free from defects. In some grey cast iron components which are cast in sand moulds, the metal sometimes penetrates into the mould, producing difficulties in cleaning the components. The defect causes very high costs due to component rejection and increased fettling in the casting industry. Most of the grey iron foundries around the world have problems with metal penetration on applicable components. In this work the problem of metal penetration has been studied using a commercial casting component. Eight castings were mounted on the pattern plate and five different inoculants were investigated. The experiments show that the inoculation of grey cast iron will influence the metal penetration in areas with late solidification times and where the melt is in contact with the sand mould. In all experiments 0.14 % inoculant was added in the pouring ladle. The experiments show that the best results to reduce metal penetration have been obtained when using the inoculant which contained silicon, aluminium and zirconium. Using this inoculant, the average penetration area was only about 20 % of what was found using the worst inoculant. However, this inoculant also gave rise to a large tendency to formation sinks.The experiments also show two main classes of eutectic cell size. One class nucleated at the beginning of the eutectic solidification and one at the end of the solidification. Two other inoculants, both containing Al and Si have about the same base composition. From the measurements of penetration areas, one can draw the conclusion that the inoculant with the smallest grain size gives nuclei with the shortest lifetime. The coarser grains give a longer dissolution time and this promotes the survival of the nuclei. At the end of solidification, a larger amount of graphite will precipitate at higher temperatures if new nuclei can be activated. If the hot spot is located close to the metal surface, the metal will expand into the mould; resulting in metal expansion penetration. The worst cases of metal penetration have been obtained using an inoculant containing titanium. A large number of small eutectic cells and high volume of the small cells were observed, which leads to severe penetration.

  • 30.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Jönköping University.
    An investigation of the effect of inoculants on the metal expansion penetration in grey iron1999In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 333-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of quality castings requires the casting surface to be clean and free fromdefects. In some grey cast iron components which are cast in sand moulds, the metalsometimes penetrates into the mould, producing difficulties in cleaning the components. Thedefect causes very high costs due to component rejection and increased fettling in the castingindustry. Most of the grey iron foundries around the world have problems with metalpenetration on applicable components.In this work the problem of metal penetration has been studied using a commercial castingcomponent. Eight castings were mounted on the pattern plate and five different inoculantswere investigated. The experiments show that the inoculation of grey cast iron will influencethe metal penetration in areas with late solidification times and where the melt is in contactwith the sand mould. In all experiments 0.14 % inoculant was added in the pouring ladle.The experiments show that the best results to reduce metal penetration have been obtainedwhen using the inoculant which contained silicon, aluminium and zirconium. Using thisinoculant, the average penetration area was only about 20 % of what was found using theworst inoculant. However, this inoculant also gave rise to a large tendency to formation sinks.The experiments also show two main classes of eutectic cell size. One class nucleated at thebeginning of the eutectic solidification and one at the end of the solidification.Two other inoculants, both containing Al and Si have about the same base composition. Fromthe measurements of penetration areas, one can draw the conclusion that the inoculant withthe smallest grain size gives nuclei with the shortest lifetime. The coarser grains give a longerdissolution time and this promotes the survival of the nuclei. At the end of solidification, a larger amount of graphite will precipitate at higher temperatures if new nuclei can beactivated. If the hot spot is located close to the metal surface, the metal will expand into themould; resulting in metal expansion penetration.The worst cases of metal penetration have been obtained using an inoculant containingtitanium. A large number of small eutectic cells and high volume of the small cells wereobserved, which leads to severe penetration.

  • 31.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH. Forskningsområde Material och tillverkning - gjutning.
    An investigation of the effect of inoculants on the metal expansionpenetration in grey iron1998Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Jönköping University.
    The effect of chemical composition on the metal expansion penetration in grey cast iron1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In some grey cast iron components which are cast in sand moulds, the metal sometimes penetrates into the mould producing defects and causing difficulties when cleaning the components. To improve knowledge of the metal penetration mechanism a series of test castings was performed at ITT Flygt’s foundry where the influence of chemical composition was studied. The chemical composition of the melt was changed in the ladle before pouring. The result showed that the carbon and phosphorus content had an influence on metal penetration. The metal penetration tendency decreased when decreasing the carbon content as well as when increasing the phosphorus content. The penetration areas were analysed in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDS). The analysis showed that the average chemical composition in the penetration zones was close to the initial composition of the alloy. Consequently, no significant macro segregation of carbon or phosphorous could be observed. The whole casting process was simulated with the software MAGMAsoftTM, in order to investigate the solidification characteristics as well as the porosity formation in the casting studied. For this, a special module for cast iron was used, MAGMAironTM, where nucleation and growth of all relevant phases are considered. During simulation it is possible to detect the areas where porosities are likely to be formed. The results show that expansion penetration generally occurs in the same areas depending on the mode of solidification. The inoculation and solidification behaviour will result in excess or deficiency of the metal at the end of solidification, which will lead to either metal penetration or formation of porosities.

  • 33.
    Dugic, Izudin
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    Jönköping University.
    The effect of inoculant amount and casting temperature on metal expansion penetration in grey cast iron1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of the inoculant, containing different elements, as well as inoculant amount have been shown to play an important role in solidification of cast iron. Three different inoculant amounts and different pouring temperatures were used on a commercial casting. From the results of the ocular inspection of the castings, the eutectic cell size and distribution measurements, it can be concluded that nucleation of the eutectic cells plays an important role in formation of the expansion penetration. The castings show two different types of surface defects; namely, bulb and metal expansion penetration. The mechanisms of bulb and formation metal expansion penetration seems to be related. The influence of the melt casting temperatures showed the following results; by using a lower temperature the degree of metal penetration was reduced but the bulb formation is unchanged. This is applies to experiments using 0.15 % and 0.30 % inoculant. The amount of inoculant added shows a clear effect on the degree of metal penetration. The expansion penetration disappeared at 0.05 % addition at the two highest pouring temperatures although at the lowest temperature some penetration did occur. The low temperature did not show any tendency to form white solidification in this casting components. The pouring temperature seems to have a large influence in combination with high additions of inoculants. A low pouring temperature seems to increase the formation of bulbs caused by excess material at solidification. 2 The mechanism of bulb formation is proposed to depend on formation of a thin solidified layer when the metal has filled the mould. The shell is thin, and a later expansion of the metal, during solidification pushes the shell outward and forms a bulb, instead of bursting and metal penetration of the sand mould.

  • 34.
    Holmgren, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Liljenfors, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Purification of hydrogen in aluminium recycling2014In: Proceeding book of the 14th international foundrymen conference / [ed] Unkić, Faruk, Sisak, Croatia: University of Zagreb Faculty of Metallurgy , 2014, , p. 9p. 17:1-17:8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Second to steel, aluminium is the most widely used metal and its applications are manifold. It is available in all forms; such is wire, bars, extrusions, power, forging and casting. One of the major characteristics of aluminium is that it is very well suited for recycling. Recycled aluminium is known as secondary aluminium, but maintains the same physical properties as primary aluminium.

     The Company XY is a cast house in the Nordic countries supplying aluminium cast products. Customers today are placing greater demands on the products strength and quality. An important quality parameter of aluminium is its purity from contaminants, where hydrogen is one of the major issues with impact on the strength of the final product.

     The hydrogen content has been measured by Density Index for two different types of alloys (EN AB-43400 and EN AB-46000), at specific locations, at different stages in the process and with different degassing methods. Density Index is a measure for measuring and comparing the samples with respect to the internal porosity. As the air contains moisture, along with the melt temperature, the solubility of hydrogen in the melt is affected.

     The project work has focused on reducing the hydrogen content and to improve the strength of the final product. 

  • 35.
    Svensson, Ingvar L
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Jönköping University.
    Modelling of volumes in cast iron solidification to predict shrinkage and expansion defects1999In: International Journal of Cast Metals Research, ISSN 1364-0461, E-ISSN 1743-1336, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 489-494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Svidró, Peter
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    SinterCast AB.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University.
    Characterization of primary dendrite morphology in complex shaped lamellar cast iron castings2014In: The 10th International Symposium on the Science and Processing of Cast Iron, SPCI10, November, 2014, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 2014, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration are two fundamental defects appearing during the production of complex shaped lamellar cast iron components. Simplified test models simulating the thermal and geometrical conditions existing in complex shaped castings have been successfully used to provoke shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration. A stereological investigation of the primary dendrite morphology indicates a maximum intra-dendritic space in connection with the casting surface where the porosity and the penetration defects appear. Away from the defect formation area the intra-dendritic space decreases. Comparison of the simulated local solidification times and measured intra-dendritic space indicates a strong relation which can be explained by the dynamic ripening process. The slow local solidification time situated at the boundary between the casting surface and its surrounding is explained to be the reason for the formation of an austenite morphology which can promote mass flow between dendrites, thereby provoking shrinkage porosity or metal expansion penetration.

  • 37.
    Svidró, Péter
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University.
    Investigation of cooling rate dependent dendrite morphology in hypoeutectic lamellar cast iron2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration are two fundamental defects appearing at production ofcomplex shaped lamellar cast iron components. In previous work it has been shown that both shrinkageporosity and metal expansion penetration are related to the primary austenite dendrite network and itsformation mechanisms. The purpose of the present work is to study the morphology of primary austenite intest casting with a high tendency to form shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration. Simplified testmodels simulating the thermal and geometrical conditions similar to the conditions existing in complex shapedcasting have been successfully used to provoke shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration.Stereological investigation of the primary dendrite morphology indicates a maximum interdendritic space inconnection to the casting surface where the porosity and the penetration defect appear. Away from the defectformation area the interdendritic space decreases. Furthermore the local solidification times of the investigatedsamples were calculated in a 3D simulation software. Comparison of the simulated local solidification timesand measured interdendritic space indicates a strong relation of the same shape as it is known from theliterature when dynamic coarsening mechanism is characterized. The main outcome of the present paper is theobserved gradient of increasing interdendritic space from sections with high local solidification to sectionswith low solidification time. The mechanism of increasing the interdendritic phase can be explained by thedynamic ripening process. The unfortunate thermal conditions with the slowest local solidification timesituated in the border between the casting surface and its surrounding are considered the reason to form anaustenite morphology which can promote the mass flow between dendrite provoking shrinkage porosity ormetal expansion penetration.

  • 38.
    Svidró, Péter
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Elmquist, Lennart
    Jönköping University.
    Dugic, Izudin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Diószegi, Attila
    Jönköping University.
    Investigation of cooling rate dependent dendrite morphology inhypoeutectic lamellar cast iron2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration are two fundamental defects appearing at production ofcomplex shaped lamellar cast iron components. In previous work it has been shown that both shrinkageporosity and metal expansion penetration are related to the primary austenite dendrite network and itsformation mechanisms. The purpose of the present work is to study the morphology of primary austenite intest casting with a high tendency to form shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration. Simplified testmodels simulating the thermal and geometrical conditions similar to the conditions existing in complex shapedcasting have been successfully used to provoke shrinkage porosity and metal expansion penetration.Stereological investigation of the primary dendrite morphology indicates a maximum interdendritic space inconnection to the casting surface where the porosity and the penetration defect appear. Away from the defectformation area the interdendritic space decreases. Furthermore the local solidification times of the investigatedsamples were calculated in a 3D simulation software. Comparison of the simulated local solidification timesand measured interdendritic space indicates a strong relation of the same shape as it is known from theliterature when dynamic coarsening mechanism is characterized. The main outcome of the present paper is theobserved gradient of increasing interdendritic space from sections with high local solidification to sectionswith low solidification time. The mechanism of increasing the interdendritic phase can be explained by thedynamic ripening process. The unfortunate thermal conditions with the slowest local solidification timesituated in the border between the casting surface and its surrounding are considered the reason to form anaustenite morphology which can promote the mass flow between dendrite provoking shrinkage porosity ormetal expansion penetration.

1 - 38 of 38
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