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  • 1.
    Hammander, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    How Do You Measure Green Culture in Shipping?: The Search for a Tool Through Interviews with Swedish Seafarers2015In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 501-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the shipping industry faces important environmental challenges to reduce the impact of sea transport to the marine environment. In order to enhance compliance and encourage safe and efficient maritime operations, the implementation of a safety culture in both shore organisation and on board ships has been advocated. Similarly, it can be argued that a conscious ‘greening’ of an organisation’s culture may be necessary in order to meet legislative and societal demands, as well as embrace environmentally responsible values, beliefs and behaviours. The present pilot study describes the development and evaluation of a model designed to capture attitudes and perception among seafarers with regards to proactive environmental work in the shipping industry. The overall aim of the model is to enable measurement of the extent to which a ‘green culture’ is present within the shipping industry, and to identify factors that either facilitate or act as barriers to a green culture. Evaluation of the model was done through qualitative individual and focus group interviews with, in all, 13 active Swedish seafarers during the autumn of 2014. The findings show that the model captures the sought after mechanisms fairly well and shows some promise. Future work is needed to further refine and test the model in a larger setting, in order to provide a robust picture of the seafarers’ view on ‘green’ shipping.

  • 2.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Arbete och motivation2012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Hult, Carl, Linnaeus University , 2012, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Arbete och Åldrande inom Svensk Sjöfart2012In: Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus: årsberättelse 2011, Stockholm: Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus , 2012, Vol. 1, p. 23-24Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Arbetstillfredsställelsens betydelse i Sjömansyrket2012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Carl Hult, Kalmar: Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet , 2012, 1, p. 119-145Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Förhållandet till ålder och pension i sjömansyrket2012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Carl Hult, Kalmar: Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet , 2012, 1, p. 147-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hult, Carl
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Gender, Culture and Non-Financial Employment Commitment in Great Britain and Sweden2008In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 73-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Inför Sjöfararnas År 20102012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Hult, Carl, Linnaeus University , 2012, 1, p. 1-7Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hult, Carl
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    ’Organizational Commitment and Conflicting Values: The Impact of Systems of Norms in Six Western Countries’2003In: The International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol. 44 (5), p. 408-443Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hult, Carl
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    ’Organizational Commitment and Person-Environment Fit in six Western Countries’2005In: Organization Studies, Vol. 26 (2), p. 249-270Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hult, Carl
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Review, Tomas Berglund Attityder till Arbete i Västeuropa och USA: teoretiska perspektiv och analyser av data från sex länder. Akademisk avhandling, Göteborgs universitet 20012001In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 97-101p. 97-101Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sjömäns motivation i arbete och yrke2012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Carl Hult, Kalmar: Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet , 2012, 1, p. 73-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Svenskt sjömansliv 2009-20102012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Hult, Carl, Linnaeus University , 2012, 1, p. 9-22Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Swedish Seafarers and Seafaring Occupation 2010: A study of work-related attitudes during different stages of life at sea2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study of Swedish seafarers was to investigate attitudes, perceptions and work experiences in the seafaring occupation. The study was undertaken partly in response to the needs of the shipping industry to recruit and retain qualified Seafarers, and partly because of political ambitions to extend people’s working lives in general. The two main areas of enquiry were seafarers’ motivations to work for the specific shipping company (organizational commitment) and seafarers’ motivations for working in their particular occupation (occupational commitment). The study is based on survey responses from a sample of 1,309 seafarers taken from the Swedish Register of Seafarers.

    The study has shown that the seafaring occupation has strong influence on identity construction and that job satisfaction is generally high. Seafarers enjoy and are motivated by their job content. The study also, however, observed a number of challenges for Swedish shipping. It emerged that flagging out – registration of ships abroad – impairs commitment to the particular shipping company and that perceptions of the social composition on board are one underlying cause. Specifically for older seafarers (55+), flagging-out also resulted in a distinct decline in commitment to the occupation in general. The cause in this case is the perceived inadequacy of the social security structure. Occupational commitment otherwise increases with age and seafarers in the oldest category appear to find the seafaring life unproblematic. In this respect, there is a clear difference compared to the youngest seafarers (aged 19-30), a large proportion of whom believe it is likely they will leave the occupation within the next few years.

    The first two chapters of the report present the general aims of the study along with those aspects of shipping and the situations of seafarers in 2009-2010 relevant to the aims. The third chapter presents a selection of earlier Swedish maritime research. Work and commitment are discussed, based on theory and international studies, in the fourth chapter, where the study aims are also defined in greater detail. Chapter five presents the approach to data collection and processing. Results are reported and analyzed thereafter in three separate results chapters. In the final chapter, the most important results are brought to the fore and discussed along with associated recommendations and suggestions for future research.

  • 15.
    Hult, Carl
    Department of Sociology, Umeå University.
    The way we conform to paid labour: commitment to employment and organization from a comparative perspective2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Edlund, Jonas
    Age and labour market commitment in West Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden2008In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 109-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ljung, Margareta
    Högskolan Väst, Sociologi.
    Diskussion och rekommendationer rörande sjömännens förhållande till arbete och yrke2012In: Sjömän och Sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Carl Hult, Kalmar: Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet , 2012, 1, p. 173-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    On the Future of Maritime Transport - Discussing Terminology and Timeframes2019In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 269-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers an analytical discussion on the terminology and timeframes related to the future of shipping. The discussion is based on issues that have surfaced within the Swedish research project Autonomy and responsibility. The paper argues that the concept 'autonomous ships' has become an indicator of that seafarers soon will become obsolete - which may have negative consequences for the supply of maritime competence in coming years - and that the proper definition of the term 'autonomous' describes something that will never apply to a ship. Ships can be given the possibility, but hardly the full right or condition of self-government. It is argued that 'smart ships', or perhaps 'intelligent ships', are more appropriate, since these terms describe the current and future state of technology without predicting how humans will prefer to use it. The estimated timeframes for implementation of unmanned ships suggest no threat to the seafaring occupation for coming generation. The content of the occupation will of course change due to the phase of implementation of degree of digitalization, but there will always be a need for maritime knowledge and understanding.

  • 19.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Snöberg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Swedish Seafarers’ Commitment to Work in Times of Flagging out2014In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 121-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study takes its departure in the difficulties to recruit and retain qualified senior seafarers in the Swedish shipping sector. The study focus is on seafarers’ motivation at work for the specific shipping company (organizational commitment), and seafarers’ motivation towards their occupation (occupational commitment), in times of flagging out. It was hypothesized that the youngest seafarers and the oldest may be most sensitive to foreign registration of ships. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of 1,309 Swedish seafarers randomly collected in 2010 from a national register of seafarers. The results of the analyses show that flagging-out imposes a significant decline in organizational commitment for all seafarers. This decline is related to the perception of the social composition of crew. In addition, the oldest seafarers (age 55+) demonstrate diminished occupational commitment under a foreign flag. This decline is related to the degree of satisfaction with the social security structure. Occupational commitment among the youngest seafarers (age 19-30) is not affected by the nationality of flag. However, this type of commitment is decreasing by the time served on the same ship. This effect is partly related to a decline in satisfaction with the work content. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations are put forward.

  • 20.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Snöberg, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Wasted Time and Flag State Worries: Impediments for Recuitment and Retention of Swedish Seafarers2013In: Marine navigation and safety of sea transportation: STCW, Maritime Education and Training (MET), Human Resources and Crew Manning, Maritime Policy, Logistics and Economic Matters / [ed] Adam Weintrit & Tomasz Neumann, Leiden: CRC Press, 2013, p. 121-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on impediments for seafarers' motivaion at work for the specific shipping company (organizational commitment), and seafarers' motivation for working in their particular occupation (occupational commitment). The study takes its departure in the lingering difficulties to recruit and retain qualified senior seafarers in the Swedish shipping sector. Statistical analyses are empolyed, using a survey material of 1,309 Swedish seafarers collected in 2010. The results show that the main negative effects on seafarers' commitment at work primarily have to do with invested - or wasted - time, and flag state worries. Flagging-out imposes a significant decline in organizational commitment for all seafarers due to the perception of social composition onboard. The oldest seafarers demonstrate diminished occupational commitment under a foreign flag due to degree of satisfaction with the social security structure. The youngest seafarers display a decline in occupational commitment related to time served on the same ship, partly due to a decline in satisfaction with work content for each year on the same ship. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations are put forward.

  • 21.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Stattin, Mikael
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå Universitet.
    Age, Policy Changes and Work Orientation: Comparing Changes in Commitment to Paid Work in Four European Countries2010In: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 101-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to ageing populations and a future shortage of labour active people, there is a political ambition to prolong people’s work force activities in Europe. The question of this paper is to what degree policy changes aimed at prolonging people’s working lives have been successful in influencing peoples’ commitment to paid work during the studied period of time? The age patterns of non-financial employment commitment (EC) and organisational Commitment (OC) are examined from the perspective of policy changes in four European countries, using ISSP-data collected in 1997 and 2005 from Denmark, Great Britain, Hungary and Sweden. Because of hypothesised country and group differences in visibility and proximity of policy measures taken to increase labour market participation among older workers, Danish and Swedish people were expected to display some degree of general and intended attitudinal response to the policy changes and that the British and Hungarian response would be more gender divided. The results showed that policy changes overall had little intended effect on people’s attitudes to work. Instead, EC dropped dramatically in Hungary for all men from the age of 30 and over, and for Swedish men and Danish women in the 45-53 age group. OC decreased for Swedish men in the age 54 and over, and for Danish women in the 45-53 age group. The main exceptions were British and Hungarian women that displayed unchanged or even an increase in EC in the age group 54 and over.

  • 22.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Stattin, Mikael
    Janlert, Urban
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Comparing mortality rates and recognizing health selection bias: Reply to Wallman and Svärdsudd2010In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 1489-1491Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Stattin, Mikael
    Janlert, Urban
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Timing of retirement and mortality - A cohort study of Swedish construction workers2009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 70, p. 1480-1486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies indicate that early retirement per se may have a negative effect on health to such an extent that it increases mortality risk. One type of early retirement often referred to in these studies is retirement with disability pension/benefit. Given the overall objective of disability benefit programmes – to help the disabled live socially and economically satisfactory lives, freed from exposure to employment health hazards and thus avoid further declines in health – the finding is challenging. This paper examined the relationship between timing of retirement and mortality using a cohort of Swedish construction workers. The mortality risk of disability pensioners – excluding those with diagnoses normally connected to increased mortality – was compared with the risk of those continuing to work. Although initial indications were in line with earlier results, it became obvious that the increased mortality risk of disability pensioners did not depend on early retirement per se but on poor health before early retirement not explicitly recognized in the diagnosis on which the disability pension rested. The results indicate that there are no general differences in mortality depending on timing of retirement. Future studies of mortality differences arising from working or not working must sufficiently control for health selection effects into the studied retirement paths.

  • 24.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Svallfors, Stefan
    ’Production Regimes and Work orientations: A Comparison of Six Western Countries’2002In: European Sociological Review, Vol. 18, p. 315-331Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Swedish Seafarers’ Occupational Commitment in Light of Gender and Family Situation2015In: Safety of Marine Transport: Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation / [ed] Adam Weintrit and Tomasz Neumann, 2015, p. 41-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on the pattern of Swedish seafarers’ occupational commitment relative to gender and family situation. Statistical analyses are employed, using a survey material of Swedish seafarers randomly collected from a national register in 2010. It was hypothesized that the effect from having children at home should be negative on commitment to seafaring occupation. However, the effect was found to be strongly positive and statistically significant for women and close to significant for men. Another important family effect was, as expected, the positive effect of having a relative working, or having worked, at sea. This effect was, however, only significant for male seafarers in the age group below the early 40’s. When controlling for possible mediating effects due to gender distribution in the onboard departments, it became clear that working in the catering department comes with a strong negative effect on commitment to the seafaring occupation, but only so for women. This effect did not, however, alter much of the already observed gender patterns. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations put forward.

  • 26.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    The Impact of Family and Job Content on Swedish Seafarers' Occupational Commitment: A Gendered Issue?2016In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing research has indicated important effects on seafarers’ occupational commitment due to gender and family situation. In this study, these findings have been elaborated further by controlling for the effect of perceived work content. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of Swedish seafarers collected from a national register in 2010. The results showed that the effect on occupational commitment of having children at home is strongly positive and statistically significant for women. However, the significance was dependent on the level of satisfaction with the job content. It was suggested that the seafaring occupation could be viewed as a cooping strategy, although only appropriate if the job content is agreeable. Another important family effect was, as expected, the positive effect of having a relative working, or having worked, at sea. This effect was, however, only significant for male seafarers in the age group below the early 40’s. It was concluded that this effect is mainly emotionally driven and not particularly influenced by the actual job content. The results further showed that working in the catering department comes with a strong negative effect on commitment to the seafaring occupation for women. This effect, however, lost its significance after control for job content. It was concluded that the effect of satisfaction with job content on occupational commitment is generally important, with the exception of women, without children, working in the catering department.

  • 27.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Försäkringskassan Sjöfart.
    Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö: arbetsmiljö, arbetsupplevelser, motivation och sjukskrivningar på passagerarfartyg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här projektet undersöker arbetsmiljön för intendenturpersonalen på svenska passagerarfar-tyg. Bakgrunden till projektet ligger i upptäckten att intendenturpersonal ombord passagerar-fartyg år 2010 uppvisade en betydligt högre upplevelse av utmattning, jämfört med andra per-sonalgrupper. Utmattningsupplevelsen indikerades med ett utmattningsindex bestående av ett flertal upplevelseaspekter rörande trötthet och stress i arbetet. Passagerarfartygens intendentur-personal har även rapporterat högre ohälsotal än andra personalkategorier i svensk sjöfart.Projektet innefattar en jämförelse av svenskregistrerad sjöpersonals upplevelser av utmattning fördelat på ombordfunktioner och fartygstyp vid mellan 2010 och 2015, samt förhållandet mel-lan arbetstillfredsställelse, motivation och utmattningsupplevelse inom intendenturen år 2015. I projektet analyseras även Försäkringskassans sjukskrivningsstatistik för åren 2011–2014 med avseende på sjuktalen för långa sjukskrivningar över 60 dagar och diagnosfördelning för inten-denturpersonalen, samt om det möjligt att göra en analytisk koppling till upplevelsen av utmatt-ning. Genom intervjuer och observationer med chefer och medarbetare ombord och iland un-dersöks vilka fysiska, organisatoriska och sociala faktorer som upplevs vara av betydelse för arbetsmiljön.Det övergripande målet är att identifiera friskfaktorer för att minska risken för utmattning och ohälsa som kan leda till långa sjukskrivningar och lämna välgrundade rekommendationer för branschen.Resultaten visar att passagerarfartygens besättning rapporterar högst utmattningsupplevelse både 2010 och 2015. Intendenturpersonalen är också klart överrepresenterade i sjukskrivnings-statistiken och sjuktalen, vilket kan kopplas till upplevelsen av utmattning.Enkätundersökningen 2015 visar att intendenturpersonalen rapporterar mest negativa upplevel-ser av arbetssituation, kamratskap och ledarskap jämfört med andra avdelningar. Det är dock en generellt motiverad yrkesgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. Friskfaktorer som visat sig lindra utmattningsupplevelsen (bemanning, vila, ledarskap, relationer till andra avdelningar) stärker personalens motivation att arbeta till sjössÖkad delaktighet hos intendenturpersonalen i arbetsmiljöarbete och arbetsplatsens utformning kan minska de negativa och höja de hälsofrämjande effekterna av förändringsarbete ombord. Den sociala arbetsmiljön är en viktig del av arbetet till sjöss och omfattar även den lediga tid som tillbringas ombord. Arbetsmiljöarbete bör därför omfatta åtgärder som bryter ner gränser mellan avdelningar, skapar sammanhållning och en gemensam identitet för intendenturen och besättningen i stort.

  • 28.
    Ljung, Margareta
    et al.
    sociologi Högskolan Väst.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Svensk forskning om sjömanslivet2012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Hult, Carl, Linnaeus University , 2012, 1, p. 23-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Sandberg, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Towards Autonomous Shipping: Exploring Potential Threats and Opportunities in Future Maritime Operations2020In: Advances in Human Factors of Transportation: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Factors in Transportation, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Neville Stanton, Springer, 2020, p. 633-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents findings from an ongoing research project aiming to study the future of shipping operations with a specific focus on issues related to human roles, responsibilities and the organization of work. A focus group with representatives for the Swedish shipping cluster (n = 6) and academia (n = 2) has been conducted to explore potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) with the developments towards autonomous shipping. The results show an overall concern for how to realize the transition between today’s maritime traffic and a future setting where vessels may be operated from shore. Technology to automate navigational tasks and increase the degree of autonomy in shipping are developing, but more attention needs to be paid to the transition of work that may accompany the ongoing developments. Clear roles, responsibili- ties and a definition of potential operator competences need to be formulated to ensure a human-centered development for safer shipping.

  • 30.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Have a Healthy Lifestyle or Organize Work: Creating Healthy Shipboard Work Environments2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VI: Transport Ergonomics and Human Factors (TEHF), Aerospace Human Factors and Ergonomics / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 455-464Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study concerning the work environment on board Swedish passenger vessels. The study explored workrelated experiences of personnel in the service department (hotel, restaurant, catering, shops) based on individual and group interviews, observations, survey data and social insurance statistics concerning sick leave longer than 60 days. The results of this paper are based on ten semi-structured individual and group interviews with 16 respondents. The respondents were HR personnel from six shipping companies and crewmembers working onboard. The results show that in the HR personnel’s perception, healthy work environments are often associated to individual personal health activities, such as access to a gym or healthcare, lectures or other measures directed towards the individual seafarer. Aspects of the organizational and social work environments were barely mentioned as stressors or as contributing factors to an increasing number of sick absences. The interviewed crewmembers, however, highlighted the need for both organizational and social measures to foster healthy work environments. The need for employee participation within the organizational design and decision-making processes, including methods on how to conduct risk assessments prior to physical and organizational changes and follow up their consequences were emphasized. Thus, to create safe and sustainable work environments on board, more attention needs to be directed towards including shipboard personnel in the physical and organizational design of their own work environment rather than promoting a healthy lifestyle through measures directed towards the individual worker.

  • 31.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Strategies and measures to improve the work environment of service crew on board Swedish passenger vessel2018In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 587-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from three workshops focused on the physical, organizational and social work environment of service crew working on board Swedish passenger vessels. The first workshop aimed to identify underlying causes of long‐term sick leave among employees in the service department, and potential measures that can be taken to reduce ill‐health. The second and third workshop explored knowledge of available methods to identify occupational safety and health risks, and suggest health‐promotion strategies at individual, team and company levels. A total of 58 persons from the Swedish maritime cluster participated in the workshops. During the workshops, open and structured brainstorming was used to create affinity diagrams to systematically summarize the identified causes, risks and strategies. Although the results presented in this article stem from a research project focused on Swedish passenger vessels, many of the findings may be transferable to an international maritime setting towards a deeper understanding of seafarers’ work environment and working conditions.

  • 32.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Underlying Causes of and Potential Measures to Reduce Long-term Sick Leave Among Employees in the Service Department on Board Swedish Passenger Vessels2017In: Safety of Sea Transportation: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation (TransNav 2017), June 21-23, 2017, Gdynia, Poland / [ed] Adam Weintrit and Tomasz Neumann, Leiden: CRC Press, 2017, p. 287-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a workshop focused on the physical, social and organizational work environment in the service department on board Swedish passenger vessels. Twentyseven maritime professionals participated to provide input to potential causes and measures for long-term sick leave. During the workshop, an affinity diagram was created to systematically order the input of the respondents. The results show a wide range of causes and potential measures across multiple organizational levels. Unclear leadership, ambiguous or high demands with limited decision latitude, as well as aspects of work organization, i.e. manning, pressure for effectiveness, and extensive working hours were identified as important contributors to long-term sick leave. Although the findings are based on a workshop with Swedish maritime professionals, the results may be transferable to the international maritime sector to gain a deeper understanding of how to create, organize and promote a safe and efficient work environment.

  • 33.
    Sandberg, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöström, John
    Linköping University.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Prioritera forskning om att organisera för hälsa i arbetet2016In: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, article id 16-11-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationsforskning om och för bra arbetsplatser faller mellan stolarna. Det hävdar sex forskare inom olika ämnen, som nu föreslår en rad övergripande förändringar. Bland annat ett eget forskningsråd för arbetslivsforskning.

  • 34.
    Åsenholm, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Insamling och hantering av data om sjömäns förhållande till arbete och yrke2012In: Sjömän och sjömansyrke 2010: en studie i attityder till arbete och yrke under olika skeden i sjömanslivet / [ed] Hult, Carl, Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet , 2012, 1, p. 51-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Administrative burdens and over-exertion in Swedish short sea shipping2016In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant changes in work tasks performed on board, towards more sedentary monitoring and administrative work, the incidence of occupational injuries and disorders remains high among seafarers. In order to improve safety standards, industry stakeholders increasingly require written documentation of numerous routines, procedures and tasks performed on board. These increased demands have however added to the administrative burden. Some say, to the extent that administrative work has become a safety risk in itself. This paper presents the result of a survey investigating how Swedish seafarers perceive their own level of fatigue, stress and over-exertion related to work. The material consists of 1309 respondents originating from a random selection procedure, of which 651 reported to be employed in short sea shipping. Multiple regression analysis (OLS regression), allowing adjusted effects, were applied in several steps of the analysis. The highest levels of exertion were reported by employees in the catering department, positions not generally associated with high administrative burden. Perceived high levels of administrative work do increase the level of exertion, but cannot explain the observed pattern. Future ship and trade-specific studies on physical and mental well-being and complementary studies on the catering department’s working conditions and work environment are necessary.

  • 36.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Sjukt kul jobb.: Servicepersonalens arbetsmiljö, sjukskrivningar och arbetstillfredsställelse på passagerarfartyg2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stundtals tufft men ändå givande. Så skulle arbetssituationen kunna sammanfattas för de som jobbar inom intendenturen med service och försäljning till gäster på passagerarfartyg. Många arbetsmoment innebär hög fysisk och mental arbetsbelastning med liten möjlighet att själv kunna påverka sina arbetsförhållanden. Men trots att servicepersonalen är överrepresenterade bland de långa sjukskrivningarna är det en motiverad arbetsgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. I den här rapporten sammanställer vi några av de viktigaste resultaten från forskningsprojektet Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö som genomfördes vid Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet under åren 2015–2017. Både projektet och den här rapporten har finansierats av Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus.

  • 37.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Work environment challenges and participatory workplace interventions on passenger ships2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Nordic Ergonomics Society (NES) Conference Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund University , 2017, p. 452-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a larger research project investigating working conditions for employees in the service department on board passenger ships. A mixed methods approach was adopted, and this paper focuses on the findings related to the physical work environment. The main findings show the physical factors to be largely related to high physical load and time pressure. The design of workplaces and equipment is a cornerstone for a sustainable work environment. Participatory design practices open the opportunity to foster employee engagement in workplace design, contributing towards increased employee health and well-being.

1 - 37 of 37
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