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  • 1.
    Borstler, Jurgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Stoerrle, Harald
    QAware GmbH, Germany.
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    van Assema, Jelle
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Duran, Rodrigo
    Aalto Univ, Finland.
    Hooshangi, Sara
    George Washington Univ, USA.
    Jeuring, Johan
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Keuning, Hieke
    Windesheim Univ Appl Sci, Netherlands.
    Kleiner, Carsten
    Univ Appl Sci & Arts Hannover, Germany.
    MacKellar, Bonnie
    St Johns Univ, USA.
    "I know it when I see it" - Perceptions of Code Quality ITiCSE'17 Working Group Report2017Ingår i: ITICSE-WGR'17: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 ITICSE CONFERENCE WORKING GROUP REPORTS, ACM Publications, 2017, s. 70-85Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Code quality is a key issue in software development. The ability to develop high quality software is therefore a key learning goal of computing programs. However, there are no universally accepted measures to assess the quality of code and current standards are considered weak. Furthermore, there are many facets to code quality. Defining and explaining the concept of code quality is therefore a challenge faced by many educators. Objectives. In this working group, we investigated code quality as perceived by students, educators, and professional developers, in particular, the differences in their views of code quality and which quality aspects they consider as more or less important. Furthermore, we investigated their sources for information about code quality and its assessment. Methods. We interviewed 34 students, educators and professional developers regarding their perceptions of code quality. For the interviews they brought along code from their own experience to discuss and exemplify code quality. Results. There was no common definition of code quality among or within these groups. Quality was mostly described in terms of indicators that could measure an aspect of code quality. Among these indicators, readability was named most frequently by all groups. The groups showed significant differences in the sources they use for learning about code quality with education ranked lowest in all groups. Conclusions. Code quality should be discussed more thoroughly in educational programs.

  • 2.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Störrle, Harald
    QAware GmbH, Germany.
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    van Assema, Jelle
    University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Duran, Rodrigo
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hooshangi, Sara
    George Washington University, USA.
    Jeuring, Johan
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Hieke, Keuning
    Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands.
    Kleiner, Carsten
    University of Applied Sciences & Arts Hannover, Germany.
    MacKellar, Bonnie
    St John's University, USA.
    "I know it when I see it": perceptions of code quality2017Ingår i: ITiCSE '17: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, s. 389-389Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Code quality is a key issue in software development. The ability to develop software of high quality is therefore a key learning goal of computing programs. However, there are no universally accepted measures to assess the quality of code and current standards are consideredweak. Furthermore, there are many facets to code quality. Defining and explaining the concept of code quality is therefore a challenge faced by many educators. In this working group, we investigate the perceptions of code quality of students, teachers, and professional programmers. In particular, we are interested in the differences in views of code quality by students, educators, and professional programmers and which quality aspects they consider as more or less important. Furthermore, we are interested in which sources of information on code quality and its assessment are used by these groups. Eventually, this will help us to develop resources that can be used to broaden students' views on software quality.

  • 3.
    Ericsson, Morgan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    A Study of the Effect of Data Normalization on Software and Information Quality Assessment2013Ingår i: Software Engineering Conference (APSEC, 2013 20th Asia-Pacific), IEEE Press, 2013, s. 55-60Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Indirect metrics in quality models define weighted integrations of direct metrics to provide higher-level quality indicators. This paper presents a case study that investigates to what degree quality models depend on statistical assumptions about the distribution of direct metrics values when these are integrated and aggregated. We vary the normalization used by the quality assessment efforts of three companies, while keeping quality models, metrics, metrics implementation and, hence, metrics values constant. We find that normalization has a considerable impact on the ranking of an artifact (such as a class). We also investigate how normalization affects the quality trend and find that normalizations have a considerable effect on quality trends. Based on these findings, we find it questionable to continue to aggregate different metrics in a quality model as we do today.

  • 4.
    Ihantola, Petri
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Vihavainen, Arto
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Ahadi, Alireza
    University of Technology, Australia.
    Butler, Matthew
    Monash University, Australia.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Edwards, Stephen H.
    Virginia Tech, USA.
    Isohanni, Essi
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Korhonen, Ari
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Petersen, Andrew
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Rivers, Kelly
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Rubio, Miguel Ángel
    University of Granada, Spain.
    Sheard, Judy
    Monash University, Australia.
    Skupas, Bronius
    Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Spacco, Jaime
    Knox College, USA.
    Szabo, Claudia
    The University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics in Programming: Literature Review and Case Studies2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2015 ITiCSE on Working Group Reports / [ed] Program ChairsNoa Ragonis Beit Berl College and Technion-ITT, Israel Päivi Kinnunen Aalto University, Finland, New York: ACM Press, 2015, s. 41-63Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational data mining and learning analytics promise better understanding of student behavior and knowledge, as well as new information on the tacit factors that contribute to student actions. This knowledge can be used to inform decisions related to course and tool design and pedagogy, and to further engage students and guide those at risk of failure. This working group report provides an overview of the body of knowledge regarding the use of educational data mining and learning analytics focused on the teaching and learning of programming. In a literature survey on mining students’ programming processes for 2005–2015, we observe a significant increase in work related to the field. However, the majority of the studies focus on simplistic metric analysis and are conducted within a single institution and a single course. This indicates the existence of further avenues of research and a critical need for validation and replication to better understand the various contributing factors and the reasons why certain results occur. We introduce a novel taxonomy to analyse replicating studies and discuss the importance of replicating and reproducing previous work. We describe what is the state of the art in collecting and sharing programming data. To better understand the challenges involved in replicating or reproducing existing studies, we report our experiences from three case studies using programming data. Finally, we present a discussion of future directions for the education and research community.

  • 5.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Evaluation of an architectural conformance checking software service2016Ingår i: ACM Proccedings of the 10th European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSA-W), ACM Press, 2016, artikel-id 15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Static architectural conformance checking can be used to find architectural violations, cases where the implementation does not adhere to the architecture, and prevent architectural erosion. We implement a software service for automated conformance checking and investigate the effect this has on the number of architectural violations in software projects. The service is implemented using our heuristic-based approach to static architecture conformance checking of the Model-View-Controller pattern. The service is integrated in the source code management system of each project, so a report is generated every time the source code is modified. The service was evaluated in a field experiment that consisted of eight student projects. We found that the four projects that used the service produced significantly fewer violations compared to those that did not.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of a static architectural conformance checking method in a line of computer games2014Ingår i: QoSA '14 Proceedings of the 10th international ACM Sigsoft conference on Quality of software architectures, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, s. 113-118Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an evaluation of a simple method to find architectural problems in a product line of computer games. The method uses dependencies (direct, indirect, or no) to automatically classify types in the implementation to high-level components in the product line architecture. We use a commercially available tool to analyse dependencies in the source code. The automatic classification of types is compared to a manual classification by the developer, and all mismatches are reported. To evaluate the method, we inspect the source code and look for a pre-defined set of architectural problems in all types. We compare the set of types that contained problems to the set of types where the manual and automatic classification disagreed to determine precision and recall. We also investigate what changes are needed to correct the found mismatches by either designing and implementing changes in the source code or refining the automatic classification. Our evaluation shows that the simple method is effective at detecting architectural problems in a product line of four games. The method is lightweight, customisable and easy to implement early in the development cycle.

  • 7.
    Olsson, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Evolution and Evaluation of the Model-View-Controller Architecture in Games2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Games and Software Engineering, USA: IEEE Press, 2015, s. 8-14Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In game software it is important to separate game play code from rendering code to ease transitions to new technologies or different platforms. The architectural pattern Model-View-Controller (MVC) is commonly used to achieve such separation. We investigate how the MVC architectural pattern is implemented in five game projects from a small development studio. We define a metrics-based quality model to assess software quality goals such as portability and rendering engine independence and perform an architectural analysis. The analysis reveals three different evolutions of the pattern. We also assess the quality and find that 1. The evolutions of the architecture differ in quality and 2. An architectural refactoring to a newer version of the architecture increases the software quality.

  • 8.
    Toll, Daniel
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Measuring Programming Assignment Effort2016Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Students often voice that the programming assignments are hard and that they spend a lot of time on solving them. Is this true; are we giving them too hard assignments and how much and what do they spend the time on? This is what we want to gain insight to. We constructed a tool that records programming sessions with finer granularity than the existing solutions. The tool has recorded 2643 programming sessions from students. Using that data we found that students spend only 15% of their time writing code, and that on average 40% of their programming effort is spent reading and navigating. We also estimate the time spent outside of the tool to be almost 20%. The increased detail in the recordings can be used to measure the effect of programming source code comments, and we found that the effect of both helpful and redundant comments increases the reading time but did not help to reduce the students writing effort. Finally, we used the tool to examine the effects of an improved programming assignment and found that the total effort was not reduced.

  • 9.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Why is unit-testing in computer games difficult?2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering, CSMR / [ed] Tom Mens, Anthony Cleve, Rudolf Ferenc, IEEE, 2011, s. 373-378Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how unit testing can be used to verify computer game simulations with implicit and poorly defined mathematical models. The difficulty of calculation of expected values for such cases tends to lead to Fragile and Obscure tests. The effects of these test smells can be reduced if we improve the strategy we use to calculate expected values. We investigate four strategies and while each of these is insufficient, we outline how they can be combined into a single, sufficient strategy.

  • 10.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Detailed recordings of student programming sessions2015Ingår i: ITiCSE '15: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ACM Press, 2015, s. 328-328Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation is important when we teach programming. It can help identify students that struggle, concepts that are not clearly presented during lectures, poor assignments, etc. However, as development tools become more widely available or courses move off-campus and online, we lose our ability to naturally observe students. Online programming environments provide an opportunity to record how students solve assignments and the data recorded allows for in-depth analysis. For example, file activities, mouse movements, text-selections, and text caret movements provide a lot of information on when a programmer collects information and what task is currently worked on. We developed CSQUIZ to allow us to observe students on our online courses through data analysis. Based on our experience with the tool in a course, we find recorded sessions a sufficient replacement for natural observations.

  • 11.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Fine-Grained Recording of Student Programming Sessions to Improve Teaching and Time Estimations2015Ingår i: IFIP TC3 Working Conference “A New Culture of Learning: Computing and next Generations” / [ed] Andrej Brodnik, Cathy Lewin, 2015, s. 264-274Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To have direct observation of students during an online programming course is impossible. This makes it harder for teachers to help struggling students. By using an online programming environment we have the opportunity to record what the students actually do to solve an assignment. We can analyse the recordings and provide teachers with valuable information. We developed and used an online programming toolwith fine-grained event logging to observe how our students solve problems. Our tool provides descriptive statistics and accurate replays of a student’s programming sessions, including mouse movements. We used the tool in a course and collected 1028 detailed recordings. We compare fine-grained logging with existing coarsegrained logging solutions to estimate assignment-solving time. We find that time aggregations are improved by including time for active reading and navigation enabled by the increased granularity. We also divide the time users spent into editing (on average 14.8%), active use (on average 37.8%), passive use (on average 29.0%), and also estimate time used for breaks (on average 18.2%).Finally wesee a correlation between early student submission results and students that hand in later, but also see an example where the results differ significantly.

  • 12.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Fine-Grained Recording of Student Programming Sessions to Improve Teaching and Time Estimations2016Ingår i: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 1069-1077Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not possible to directly observe how students work in an online programming course. This makes it harder for teachers to help struggling students. By using an online programming environment, we have the opportunity to record what the students actually do to solve an assignment. These recordings can be analyzed to provide teachers with valuable information. We developed such an online programming tool with fine-grained event logging and used it to observe how our students solve problems. Our tool provides descriptive statistics and accurate replays of a student's programming sessions, including mouse movements. We used the tool in a course and collected 1028 detailed recordings. In this article, we compare fine-grained logging to existing coarse-grained logging solutions to estimate assignment-solving time. We find that time aggregations are improved by including time for active reading and navigation, both enabled by the increased granularity. We also divide the time users spent into editing (on average 14.8%), active use (on average 37.8%), passive use (on average 29.0%), and estimate time used for breaks (on average 18.2%). There is a correlation between assignment solving time for students who pass assignments early and students that pass later but also a case where the times differ significantly. Our tool can help improve computer engineering education by providing insights into how students solve programming assignments and thus enable teachers to target their teaching and/or improve instructions and assignments.

  • 13.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Olsson, Tobias
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Ericsson, Morgan
    University of Gothenburg.
    The challenge of teaching students the value of programming best practices2014Ingår i: Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education Conference 2014 / [ed] Åsa Cajander and Mats Daniels and Tony Clear and Arnold Pears, ACM Publications, 2014, s. 347-347Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the benefits of our programming assignments in correlation to what the students learn and show in their programming solutions. The assignments are supposed to teach the students to use best practices related to program comprehension, but do the programming assignments clearly show the benefits of best practices? We performed an ex- periment that showed no significant result which suggests that the assignments did not emphasise the value of best practices. As lecturers, we understand that constructing as- signments that match the sought after outcome in students learning is a complex task. The experiment provided valu- able insights that we will use to improve the assignments to better mirror best practices. 

  • 14.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    How Tool Support and Peer Scoring Improved Our Students' Attitudes Toward Peer Reviews2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, New York, NY, USA: ACM Publications, 2017, s. 311-316Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We wanted to introduce peer reviews for the final report in a course on Software Testing. The students had however experienced issues with peer reviews in a previous course which made this a challenge. To get a better understanding of the situation, we distributed a pre-questionnaire to the students. 48 of the 83 students provided their expectations on peer reviews. To deal with some of the perceived issues, we developed a peer review tool where we introduce anonymity, grading of reviews, teacher interventions, as well as let students score and comment on the reviews they receive. In total, 67 reports were submitted by 83 students and 325 reviews were completed. The post-questionnaire was answered by 48 students (not necessarily the same respondents as for the pre-questionnaire as both were collected anonymously). While 27 of the students expected incorrect feedback only 13 students agreed to have got incorrect feedback in the post-questionnaire. The students reported that they found the feedback from their peers more valuable (+15%) than expected, and 88% of the students reported that they learned from doing peer reviews. Overall, we find that the students' attitudes towards peer reviews have improved.

  • 15.
    Toll, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Wingkvist, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Visualizing programming session timelines2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Visual Information Communication and Interaction, ACM Publications, 2018, s. 106-107Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning programming with tutor tools has grown in popularity. These tools present programming assignments and provide feedback in the form of test-cases and compilation errors. Our timeline visualization of data from one such tool allows us to tell a story about what files were accessed and for how long, in what order files were edited, grown or shrunk, what errors the student ran into, and how those errors were addressed. This can be done without a need to read and replay the entire programming session. In sum, the tool has been used to visualize logs from students that tried to solve programming assignments and we find interesting stories that can help us improve how we address new assignments.

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