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  • 1.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers Matter - But How?: Introduction2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this special issue, we start from a general policy assumption about teachers and teachingparticularly clearly summarized in the 2005 report Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developingand Retaining Effective Teachers by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation andDevelopment (OECD). The report states that teacher policy is high on national agendas andthat teachers are ‘the most significant resource in schools’ for improving efficiency and equityin school. Thus, the policy report states school improvement largely depends on ‘ensuringthat competent people want to work as teachers, that their teaching is of high quality, andthat all students have access to high quality teaching’ (OECD, 2005, p. 7). Against a backgroundof an increasingly centralized transnational and national governance of school,emphasizing international comparisons (Dale & Robertson, 2009; Lawn & Grek, 2012; Meyer& Benavot, 2013; Nordin & Sundberg, 2014; Rizvi & Lingard, 2010) and a curriculum characterizedby performativity and educational effectiveness (Ball, 2003; Kelly, 2009), we are interestedin teachers’ significance and conditions for teacher agency. However, we regard thepolicy field mainly as the background, from which we retain the fundamental claim that‘teachers matter’. In contrast to policy documents, the intention in this special issue is toexplore in what different ways, at what different times and in what different spaces teacherstruly matter, without having any answers in advance – that is, outside the area of policyhighroads but still against a backdrop of a policy of accountability and standards.

  • 2.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Den evidensbaserade skolan: en introduktion2018In: Den evidensbaserade skolan: Svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik / [ed] Daniel Alvunger & Ninni Wahlström, Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 9-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, NinniLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Den evidensbaserade skolan: svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Lärarutbildningens forskningsbasering2018In: Den evidensbaserade skolan: Svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik / [ed] Daniel Alvunger & Ninni Wahlström, Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 101-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Research-based teacher education? Exploring the meaning potentials of Swedish teacher education2018In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the meaning potentials of teacher education in terms of the significance of a research-based approach and the different pedagogic identities that such an approach implies. The study’s aim is to examine the important factors for education to be considered research-based and to identify and analyse the research base of teacher education in Sweden. The results from the analysis of a large number of course documents and from a survey administered to teachers and students in four teacher education programmes indicate that the emerging potential meaning is that teacher education is generally a strongly framed professional education with a relatively weak and adapted research base. The analysis of the classification and framing of disciplinary content and pedagogy in the Swedish teacher education curriculum points at different pedagogic identities emerging from the different meaning potentials that are made available to the students. We argue that a thorough understanding of research-based teacher education needs to be grounded in both course content and its research base as well as other possible pedagogical aspects of research-based education; the education as a whole must be included in the concept of research-based education.

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  • 6.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Understanding Transnational Curriculum Policies and Curriculum Making in Local Municipal Arenas - The Case of Sweden2021In: Curriculum Making in Europe: Policy and Practice Within and Across Diverse Contexts, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2021, p. 223-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the interest is directed towards how transnational policy messages (supra-level) can be tracked down through analyses of curriculum policy discourses at the national (macro-level) and municipal level (meso-level) in the Swedish school system. Drawing on discursive institutionalism, and organizational and institutional theory, we analyse central policy messages in the introduction of the national Swedish standards-based curriculum reform for compulsory school from 2011, focusing on discourses of communication between local authorities (meso-level) and schools (micro-level) within their area of responsibility for curriculum making. Two main features emerge. The local curriculum reform agenda is significantly shaped by the argument that explicit standards together with systematic governance through evaluation and accountability will increase students' performance. The second feature underlines strong accountability as a prerequisite for equity and equivalence and the importance of the local school authority for the organization of schooling, structural support and interventions for curriculum making in schools. Equity and equivalence are a challenge for the local authorities. They have problems to support curriculum making which tends to create considerable variations in how the curriculum reform is enacted in the different schools of the municipality.

  • 7.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Understanding transnational curriculum policies on local municipal and school arenas in Sweden2018In: CESE: Compatative Education Society in Eureope: Identities and Education: Comparative Perspectives in an Age of Crisis, 2018, p. 155-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both the EU and the OECD are intergovernmental organizations where governments and national authorities cooperate closely across national borders. This co-operation results in common objectives and evaluations, but above all, in a common language about education and a shared view of education's problems and solutions (e.g. European Commission 2017).This kind of transnational cooperation, including private actors such as McKinsey and Pearson, forms an international discourse for education policy (Dale, 2010; Grek 2009; Robertson 2008). The Swedish curriculum reform for compulsory school, Lgr 11, can be considered as part of a transnational policy movement in which the different countries relate differently to certain key policy messages. Such messages include that schools needs to be more effective in providing all students with knowledge and raising the achievement of knowledge outcomes. Another explicit message is that the national school systems need to be clearly governed from national level (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017).

     

    Drawing on discursive institutionalism (Schmidt, 2015) and organizational and institutional theory (Coburn, 2004), this paper focuses on the central educational policy messages from transnational and national policy arenas and their recontextualization on a municipal and school level with Sweden as an example. To capture the links between macro, meso and micro arenas, key policy “messages” from the macro policy arena can be examined regarding in what ways, and to what extent, these messages are adopted or rejected by actors on the municipal and school arenas (Coburn, 2015; Höstfält et al. 2017). For exploring the ‘governing by discourse’, coordinative and communicative discourses are identified, as well as background and foreground ideas (Schmidt 2015). The study builds on interviews with 18 teachers teaching in grade 6 and 9 in different municipalities and schools, and 12 superintendents in charge of compulsory school as well as 12 chairmen of political committees responsible for compulsory school at municipal level. The interviews are analysed in relation to in what ways the actors assimilate or reject the policy messages and to what extent they use deliberative or coordinative discourses to form their understanding of the curriculum reform.  

  • 8.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Understanding transnational curriculum policies on local municipal arenas2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The year 2000, when the Lisbon strategy (Presidency Conclusions 2000) was adopted by the European Council, can be viewed as a starting point of an increasing interest in education policy on the transnational arena. Both the EU and the OECD are intergovernmental organizations where governments and national authorities cooperate closely across national borders. This co-operation results in common objectives and evaluations, but above all, in a common language about education and a shared view of education's problems and solutions (e.g. European Commission 2017). This kind of transnational cooperation, including private actors such as McKinsey and Pearson, forms an international discourse for education policy (Dale, 2010; Grek 2009; Robertson 2008). Thus, we consider the Swedish curriculum reform for compulsory school, Lgr 11, as part of a transnational policy movement in which the different countries relate differently to certain key policy messages. Such messages include that school needs to be more effective in providing all students with knowledge and raising the achievement of knowledge outcomes. Another clear message is that the national school systems need to be clearly governed from national level (Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017).

     

    Drawing on discursive institutionalism (Schmidt, 2015) and organizational and institutional  theory (Coburn, 2004), this paper focuses on the central educational policy messages from transnational and national policy arenas and their recontextualization on a municipal and school level with Sweden as an example. To capture the links between macro, meso and micro arenas, key policy “messages” from the macro policy arena can be examined regarding in what ways, and to what extent, these messages are adopted or rejected by actors on the municipal and school arenas (Coburn, 2015; Höstfält et al. 2017). For exploring the ‘governing by discourse’, coordinative and communicative discourses are identified, as well as background and foreground ideas (Schmidt 2015). The study builds on interviews with 18 teachers teaching in grade 6 and 9 in different municipalities and schools, and 12 superintendents in charge of compulsory school as well as 12 chairmen of political committees responsible for compulsory school at municipal level. The interviews are analysed in relation to in what ways the actors assimilate or reject the policy messages and to what extent they use deliberative or coordinative discourses to form their understanding of the curriculum reform. 

     

  • 9.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Conflicting goals of educational action: a study of teacher agency from a transactional realism perspective2018In: Curriculum Journal, ISSN 0958-5176, E-ISSN 1469-3704, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 134-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the different ways in which teachers relatetheir situational agency and professional assignment to the nationalcurriculum content and curriculum dilemmas. It builds theoreticallyon transactional realism and empirically on analyses of interviewswith teachers, exploring the nature of teacher agency during theenactment of a new Swedish curriculum reform. To uphold a dualperspective of teachers’ relation to the curriculum as bothcollectively and individually experienced and as both an ideal andrealistic–practical relation, we term the future as ‘projectiveexperiences’, the presence as ‘practical-evaluative experiences’ andthe past ‘iterational experiences’ in relation to agency. Especially,we are interested in the ‘what’ in the curriculum – what theteachers find intriguing, important or impossible and what affectshow they relate to the curriculum as part of the multidimensionalstructures influencing their agency. This approach reveals that thecrucial issue of teacher agency is related to the policy discourse onknowledge and equity as standards and the uniformity ofassessment and its pedagogical consequences.

  • 10.
    Dvorak, Dominik
    et al.
    Charles University, Czech Republic.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Dempsey, Majella
    Maynooth University, Ireland.
    O'Neill, Natalie
    Maynooth University, Ireland.
    Pieters, Maarten
    SLO, Netherlands.
    Lingard, Robert
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Adolfsson, Carl-Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nieveen, Nienke
    SLO, Netherlands.
    Curriculum Making and Subject Traditions: Curriculum Reforms in Social Studies and Physics and the Concept of Knowledge2019In: Presented at ECER 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a knowledge debate was initiated in the early 1990s through the official report School for Bildung (SOU 1992:94). The purpose of the report was two-fold: to widen the concept of knowledge from a one-sided cognitive meaning and to offer ‘new’ concepts of knowledge adapted to a performance model (Bernstein 2000) of school curriculum. Since this official investigation in the early 1990s, a new grading system and a standards-based and subject-based model of curriculum with prescribed ‘knowledge requirements’, have been implemented, but the knowledge base in the first part of the curriculum has remained the same. Two overarching issues are addressed in this paper: i) The transnational influence on educational knowledge concepts and ii) the transnational influence on curriculum structure resulting in standards-based curriculum. Both aspects are explored in relation to the implications for the subject of social science (civics). Thus, we especially examine what education is for (Biesta 2011) in social science, as it is expressed within the Swedish framework of curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the Swedish ‘hybrid’ curriculum, composed of a content- and subject based idea on the one hand and an idea of a result-focused, ability-centered curriculum on the other hand, in relation to social science. In the study, the following research questions, focused on curriculum making, are explored: How is knowledge in civics expressed in the Swedish curricula for compulsory and upper secondary school? What are the implications of transnational influences of the concepts of standards and competences for the subject of civics? Theoretical framework and method In the theoretical framework, we draw on Bernstein’s (2000) two pedagogical models, as well as his understanding of horizontal and vertical knowledge in order to relate the Swedish curricula Lgr 11 (compulsory school) and Lgy 11 (upper secondary school) to a theoretical model of curriculum. Following Deng & Luke (2008), we explore the character of the knowledge concept in the school subject of civics. The dominating knowledge discourse is related to a typology of civics (Barr; Barth & Shermis 1977; Englund 1997; Wahlström 2014). We specifically discuss the assessment practice and its consequences for how the knowledge in the subject is understood (Adolfsson 2018, Vogt 2017). In the analysis, we illustrate the subject tradition of social sciences in Sweden, as representative for the Nordic countries, as well as the subject’s current dilemmas in a standards-based curriculum.

  • 11.
    Englund, Tomas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Quennerstedt, Ann
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Education as a Human and a Citizenship Right - Parents' Rights, Children's Rights, or...?: The Necessity of Historical Cotextualization2009In: Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1475-4835, E-ISSN 1475-4843, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper serves as an introduction to three following papers, analyzing the contextual background to the different treaties - the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights , and the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child - and focusing on how the relations between parents' rights and children's rights in the matter of education were shaped during the various drafting stages. The paper forms part of a project that intends to study the meaning and consequences of the increased tendency to view education from a perspective of rights. More specifically, the project aims to focus on the implications of parental rights and to analyze potential contradictions between parents' and children's rights in education.

  • 12.
    Erixon, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    In-service training programmes for mathematics teachers nested in transnational policy discourses2016In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 94-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results in mathematics on international knowledge surveys like Programme forInternational Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics andScience Study have become one of the most important factors for the perceivedsuccess or failure of schools and even entire education systems in the policyarena. In this article, we explore the complex recontextualising processes thatoccur when translating educational policy into actual programmes for teachers’education. First, the transnational education policy discourse(s) of teachers’in-service training with a focus on mathematics will be explored. Second, weexamine how this transnational discourse is recontextualised in a national policydiscourse resulting in a national reform programme for in-service training ofmathematics teachers in Sweden. In a third step, concrete teacher trainingcourses in mathematics are examined. The result shows a convergence betweenthe official policy discourse and the pedagogic recontextualising field in terms ofa broad teaching repertoire and peer discussions about reflections on certaincommon objects of learning.

  • 13.
    Frank, Jeff
    et al.
    St Lawrence Universisty, USA.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Vogt, Bettina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Knowledge, Curriculum and Teaching on Matters That Concern: A Concluding Discussion2022In: Equity, Teaching Practice and the Curriculum: Exploring Differences in Access to Knowledge / [ed] Ninni Wahlström, Oxon: Routledge, 2022, 1, p. 141-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretically based conversations are not sufficient to closing the elusive performance gap between different education environments, but we believe they are a necessary part, and our hope is that the content of this book can contribute to worthwhile dialogues. A conclusion from this study is that the encounter between the teaching content, the social learning environment and the student is central to a student’s opportunity to develop new knowledge, develop a sense of citizenship and develop individual potential. The teacher’s democratic stance in the authoring of teaching content in the classroom makes a difference for what the student gets the opportunity to co-author and learn. We argue that the much-debated concept of powerful in connection with knowledge might be misleading as a basis for curricula and teaching and suggest a shift from matters of facts to matters of concern, as well as a shift from powerful knowledge to meaningful knowledge, if we really want different groups of students to direct their interest towards the teaching content and become involved in their own education.

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  • 14.
    Höstfält, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm university, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    The Recontextualisation of Policy Messages: The Local Authority as a Policy Actor2018In: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: The new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 67-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is significant is that the curriculum is always linked to institutional decision-making. Any such discussion must continually address multiple and interconnected issues: what subject matter is to be taught; what content should be selected; why this subject matter should be taught and this content selected; how it should be taught; for whom it should be useful; and whose knowledge it represents. Today, these questions are crucial as we face social, political and cultural changes that challenge ideas about educating citizens for new futures as well as ideas regarding the very core processes of teaching and learning.

  • 15.
    Jarl, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kornhall, Per
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Tre rapporter om skolan: Bakgrundsrapport till Jämlikhetskommissionen2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är ett underlag till den av regeringen tillsatta kom-missionen för ökad ekonomisk jämlikhet i samhället, Jämlikhets-kommissionen (Dir 2018:74). Kommissionens övergripande uppdrag är att lämna förslag som långsiktigt ökar den ekonomiska jämlik-heten och möjligheterna till social rörlighet i samhället och som bidrar till ökad jämlikhet och integration. Bland annat ska kommis-sionen ”föreslå åtgärder som kan bidra till att utjämna skillnader i uppväxtvillkor samt i möjligheter till god utbildning”.

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  • 16.
    Karseth, Berit
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Contemporary trends in curriculum research2023In: International Encyclopedia of Education, Fourth edition / [ed] R. Tierney; F. Rizvi & K. Ercikan, Elsevier, 2023, p. 74-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses two core questions in the field of curriculum research and theorizing. The first concerns how to understand issues of governance of the school as a societal institution, and the second draws attention to how we can understand the organization of knowledge in school. Drawing upon relevant research and theories from within and outside the curriculum field, this chapter provides an overview of developments, approaches, and concepts in curriculum research and underlines the importance of taking the global dimension into account when analyzing contemporary curricular issues.

  • 17.
    Karseth, Berit
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Volume 7: Approaches to the curriculum and its politics2023In: International Encyclopedia of Education / [ed] R. Tierney, F. Rizvi & K. Ercikan, Elsevier, 2023, 4th, p. xix-xxiChapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this, we introduce the themes and contributions that form the basis of the volume “Approaches to curriculum and its politics” within the 4th edition of the International Encyclopedia of Education. A common theme that binds these chapters together is unraveling the importance of the curriculum for different aspects and perspectives on education in general and in schools and preschools, in particular. Furthermore, two areas recur across the chapters: the curriculum as part of a framework for the governance of schools and the curriculum as an arena for competing perspectives on knowledge.

  • 18.
    Karseth, Berit
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Pizmony-Levy, Oren
    Columbia University, USA.
    Tracing Policy Networks in Education Reforms: A Comparative Study of Norway andSweden2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades, scholars have increasingly focused on the role of networks in education politics and policy. The research literature points to the importance of policy networks constituted by relationships among public agencies, advocacy groups, non-profits, and for-profit organizations. Attention has been drawn to tensions between the more neoliberal organizations in policy networks and traditional bureaucratic institutions of governance. From a Nordic and Scandinavian point of departure, reformpolicy emphasizes state-centered solutions while at the same time acknowledging the mix of governance mechanisms and institutional complexity that characterizes the public sector (Sivesind & Karseth, 2022). Our study focuses on a rather mundane part of the policy process, namely the production of white and green papers. These type of papers are produced when the government demands fundamental or incremental policy reforms. Our point of departure is the authors of the references used in the papers behind the most recent school reforms in Norway and Sweden. We use social network analysis (SNA) as it offers one approach for understanding the politics and power relationships embedded within policynetworks. The study is guided by the following research questions:

    1. What are the authors co-citation networks in Norway and Sweden?

    2. Which authors are co-cited frequently in policy documents? Which actors are more central in the network?

    3. To what extent do authors co-citation networks (in policy documents) vary between Norway and Sweden?

    As a theory of policy formations, discursive institutionalism (Schmidt, 2008, 2011) has emerged as a productive perspective for understanding how institutional change can be explored and understood. The focus in our analysis is on the “coordinative” discourse. We also draw on literature on meta-governancestrategies. For both countries, the government as well as central educational agencies unsurprisingly stand up as the most influential authors. Additionally, there are also two international authors that are co-cited frequently in both countries. One is the organization OECD and the other is the individual author John Hattie. The results also show important differences in the co-citations networks between the two countries that reflect how policy-making are orchestrated and coordinated in the two countries.

    References: Sivesind, K. & Karseth, B. (2022). Introduction: A comparative Network Analysis of Knowledge Use inNordic Education Policies. I Karseth, Berit; Sivesind, Kirsten & Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (Red.), Evidence andExpertise in Nordic Education Policy. A comparative Network Analysis. Palgrave Macmillan

  • 19.
    Lilliedahl, Jonathan
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teoribaserad utvärdering som svar på det tidiga 2000-talets frågor om utbildningsreformer2016In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 21, no 1-2, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory-based evaluation in response to the issues of education reforms in the early 2000s

    The current surge of interest in evidence based policy has re-actualised issues of research, policy and pedagogic practice. Research are expected to support the development of systematically substantiated reforms as well as evidence-based practices. At the same time, criticism has been brought against dominant evaluation models. The question is whether they really respond to an increasingly complex landscape of governance, and the varying conditions and variations that characterize today’s schools? This article examines the potential of a theory-based evaluation model in order to systematically and empirically investigate education reforms. This approach provides the ability to include analysis of how transnational, national and local discourses converge and diverge in relation to each other, to take different kinds of contexts into consideration, and how these contexts affect the recontextualisation of pedagogic discourse. In order to further develop the approach of a theory-based evaluation, the authors point to recent steps within mixed methods research in relation to the design of, and findings in an empirical case study of the Swedish curriculum reform, Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the recreation centre, Lgr 11. Based on policy analyses, four hypotheses are presented: (i) the hypothesis of reform; (ii) the hypothesis of teachers’ professional practice; (iii) the hypothesis of teaching repertoires; (iv) and the hypothesis of assessment practices. Each of these hypotheses has been followed up by questionnaire responses and interviews.  The sequential explanatory design in this study relates critically transnational policy arenas to national education reforms and pedagogic practice in order to test the weight of the empirical evidence obtained. On the grounds of conclusion, there are reasons to revive and further develop the tradition of theory-based evaluations. Therefore, the article put forward theoretical and methodological proposals for the continued direction.

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  • 20.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Uljens, Michael
    Åbo Academy University, Finland.
    Hardy, Ian
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Smeds-Nylund, Ann-Sofie
    Åbo Academy University, Finland.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Alexiadou, Nafsika
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Examining Educational Change Within and Between National Policy Spaces Using Discursive Institutionalism2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring European Education Policy through the Lens of Dewey’s Democracy andEducation2016In: European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy, E-ISSN 2036-4091, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 36-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we use the basic concepts of Dewey’s pedagogical philosophy on democracy and education as analytical tools for exploring the democratic potential of a transnational education policy within the contemporary European risk discourse. A Deweyan reading of main policy documents, starting with the 2000 Lisbon Strategy, allows for critical discussion of some of the basic assumptions and consequences of the EU-advocated transnational education policy. The data sources include 28 EU policy documents from 2000 to 2014. The analysis shows that in addition to a prevailing “human capital” discourse, there is potential for a communicative “democratic discourse” that promotes social cohesion. The democratic discourse underlines the full and free communication between different groups as the only way to promote and ensure the conditions for social cohesion. In this crisis of nearby wars, terror attacks and refugees in Europe, economy and competition are not viable concepts for seeking solutions. We argue that a shift to a language adapted to the real crisis and the fear of future crises in Europe is needed. We argue that a language that understands social efficiency, communication and a moral interest in the way Dewey outlined the concepts in Democracy and Educationcorresponds to the strong need to maintain and strengthen a democratic education and a democratic way of living for all.

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  • 22.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring the Democratic Potential in European Education Policy within today's Crisis Discourse: a Deweyan reading2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, 22-26 August, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Reform of 2015/2018 in Sweden: A gathering for school - national strategy for knowledge and equivalence2019In: NERA 2019, Education in a Global World, 6-8 March, Uppsala, Sweden: Abstract book, 2019-03-06, 2019, p. 813-814Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Reform of 2015/2018 in Sweden, the renewal entitled: A gathering for school – National strategy for knowledge and equivalence2019In: NERA 2019 Education in a Globalized World, 6-8 March 2019, Uppsala, Sweden: Abstract Book 2019-03-06, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of global competition there has been a growing demand for reliable evidence among national policy makers to raise educational performances. The challenge they face has to do with gathering and evaluating the relevant sources to include, often produced by different actors operating at different policy levels. In this paper we examine what official policy knowledge was selected and used as the evidence base for the latest Swedish compulsory school reform and how they were used to legitimate national reforms. The three research questions are: How do Swedish policy-makers draw on national and regional/international knowledge in formulating a Swedish education policy reform? What knowledge sources count as evidence in the 2015/2018 educational reform? What sort of reform does the Swedish 2015/2018 reform represent?

    The empirical data consists of one white paper and eight green papers, together making up the official evidence base for the reform and the nine source documents of the study. Using text-based network analysis, the citations and references in the source documents have been examined in order to find the social structures of policy coalitions, and interpret the various epistemic discourse coalitions they make up. The preliminary result shows that every document draws heavily on evidence, and that although the OECD plays a special (and unusual) role in this school reform since the Swedish government themselves turned to the OECD asking for guidance in setting the goals for the national educational reform agenda, domestic policy still plays an important role at the national levels. Looking at the Swedish case

  • 25.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Reform of 2015/2018, the renewal entitled: A gathering for school - national strategy for knowledge and equivalence2019In: Presented at CIES 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Teacher Quality Beyond Measurability: a Connoisseurship and Criticism Approach2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For quite some time now the premises set up for teachers and teaching within the neo-liberal project, have been heavily criticized (e. g. Apple, 2008; Ball, 2003; Hopmann, 2008; Kliebard, 1995; Nordin, 2016; Wahlström, 2015). Following Tesar (2016) we argue that thinking policy and philosophy together can open up for new imaginaries, new futures for thinking quality in education. We argue that the American curriculum theorist Elliot Eisner (1979, 2002, 2005) and his concepts of connoisseurship and educational criticism is a constructive starting point for rethinking both teacher quality and policy.

     

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first purpose involves a critical examination of the way ‘teacher quality’ is discursively constructed in transnational authoritative texts. The second purpose is to explore the possibilities of rethinking teacher quality as it is set out in a mainly neo-liberal setting, using the concepts of connoisseurship and educational criticism as productive means to explore alternative meanings, both regarding teacher quality and the character and potential of policy texts. The two research questions are: How can Eisner’s concepts of connoisseurship and educational criticism contribute to going beyond an agenda of teacher quality based on “evidence” and a dominating scientific efficiency approach? Drawing on Eisner (1979), how can a linking between philosophy and policy contribute to critically examining contemporary education policy texts by taking seriously the meaning of the term criticism as "reeducation of perception"? (Eisner 1976/2005; Dewey 1934).

     

    We make use of Eisner’s’ idea of an ‘ecology of schooling’ in trying to understand educational reforms and their impact on educational practices. To think comprehensively about school reforms, Eisner (1992/2005) identifies five dimensions which one has to take into account. The first is the intentional aspect that refers to exploring the tension between conventional arguments for what the reform aims to. Secondly, the understanding of a reform needs to observe the consequences of the structural aspects of the reform. A third aspect is the possible changes of curriculum content. The fourth aspect is the pedagogical factor that is indispensable for the transformation from an intended to an operational curriculum. The fifth dimension of a reform, finally, is evaluation. The way assessment of students’ knowledge is defined directs what should count as knowledge in a subject and how teaching takes shape in the classroom.

     

    In addition we make use of Eisner’s concept of educational connoisseurship as an alternative to technological approaches; instead of laws, professional judgments are taken as the basis for the quality of schooling (Biesta 2017).  A connoisseur ‘appreciates’ what she encounters; that is, a connoisseur is aware of and understands what is experienced. Appreciation in this context has to do with a genuine curiosity around shared interests (Hansen, 2017; Uhrmacher, et al., 2017). A necessary complement to connoisseurship is educational criticism. Eisner (1976/2005, p. 41) distinguishes between the two by pointing out the following difference. ”If connoisseurship is the art of appreciation, criticism is the art of disclosure”. The language of critics is a language where metaphors, suggestions and implications are important tools in order to help us see. Following Eisner, (1976/2005), educational criticism has to consider three interrelated aspects, a descriptive, an interpretative and an evaluative aspect of educational criticism. The descriptive aspect has to do with describing the qualities of an educational phenomenon, the interpretative aspect signifies the effort to understand the meaning various forms of action have for those involved, and the evaluative aspect, finally, asks the question: ‘What is the educational import or value of what is going on?’ (Eisner, 1976/2005, p. 44). Educational criticism directs attention to the qualitative aspects of schooling rather than the quantitative.

     

  • 27.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    The Complexity of Context in Legitimating National School Reforms: The Case of Sweden2022In: Evidence and Expertise in Nordic Education Policy: A Comparative Network Analysis / [ed] Karseth, B.;Sivesind, K.;Steiner-Khamsi, G., Palgrave Macmillan, 2022, p. 227-251Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the use of evidence in legitimating national school reforms in a globalized context. Although international policy knowledge is becoming increasingly important in legitimating national school reforms, the national context still seems to affect whether and how it is used. This chapter draws attention to the selective use of international policy knowledge in domestic policy agendas and the increasingly important role of people and institutions acting as intermediaries in selecting, interpreting, and presenting useful policy knowledge to politicians. By taking the complexity of context seriously, this chapter provides valuable insights into the multidirectional policy process that filters the expert knowledge that is ultimately used by politicians as evidence in legitimating school reforms.

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  • 28.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    The interdependence between the OECD and the nation-state in legitimizing educational reforms2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the role of the organization is to “work on establishing evidence-based international standards” in education by providing “a unique forum and knowledge hub for data and analysis, exchange of experiences, best-practice sharing, and advice on public policies” (OECD, 2022).  However, nation-states also participate in this work of setting up new frameworks of international standards and serve as places for the negotiation of transnational policies and national adaptations. A consequence of greater demands on transnational cooperation is an increased interdependence between transnational and national arenas (Steiner-Khamsi, 2004; Sassen 2013). 

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the national government and the OECD as two arenas depending on each other for their exercise of power and legitimization of education reforms. The research question is “How do the government and the political parties in Sweden use the OECD to legitimize their policy, and how does the OECD use Swedish education policy to promote its policy ideals”?    

    The study draws on discursive institutionalism for a theoretical conceptualization (Carstensen & Schmidt, 2016). From this theoretical perspective, ideas, discourses, and human agency are central for understanding how social institutions both can be maintained and change. Ideas are here seen as represented through discourse that is the interactive process by which ideas are processed, changed, and conveyed. 

    The data consists of Swedish policy documents and reports from the OECD between the years from 2014 to 2021. The analytical approach to the policy texts is critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 2010). Critical discourse analysis distinguishes between three steps in the analysis: the descriptive, interpretive and explanatory phases (Fairclough, 2001). The result reveals an interdependent, although ambivalent, relationship between the nation-state and the OECD in legitimizing educational reforms. The same political parties that emphasizes the OECD as a world-leading and neutral educational expert when being in government, a few years later argues that the OECD is partisan and ignorant in when being in opposition. The OECD, on their side, proposes a central governing of the school system in line with its ambition to influence the outcome of the national education system.  

  • 29.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Transnational policy discourses on ‘teacher quality’: an educational connoisseurship and criticism approach2019In: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 438-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we analyse key policy documents on teacher quality produced by the OECD andthe EU during the period 2005 to 2017 using an educational connoisseurship and criticismapproach. The purpose of this article is to explore how Eisner’s concepts of educational connoisseurshipand educational criticism can be understood and used to analyse educational policy,especially how teacher quality is discursively constructed in transnational authoritative texts oneducation policy. Eisner’s three aspects of criticism, description, interpretation and evaluation canbe utilised in a differentiated critical approach to the analysis of transnational policy documentson education. While the critical descriptive discourse can be viewed as ‘identifying a simplerelationship’ between social development and educational needs, the interpretative critical discoursecan be regarded as ‘recognising the complexity’ of teachers’ tasks in changing societies andthe critical evaluative discourse as ‘recognising and problematising contradictory interests’ thataffect teachers’ work. We argue that the philosophical concepts of connoisseurship and criticismcontribute to policy research by demonstrating that a multifaceted concept of teacher quality isneeded to capture the complex nature of education.

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  • 30.
    Schmidt, Catarina
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Vetter, Amy
    University of North Carolina Greensboro, USA.
    The situational in critical literacy2022In: The handbook of critical literacies / [ed] Pandya, Zacher;Mora, Raúl Alberto;Alford, Jennifer Helen;Golden, Noah Asher;de Roock, Roberto Santiago, New York: Routledge, 2022, p. 419-427Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we draw from pragmatism and transactional realism to conceptualize the meaning of critical literacy. As Sundström Sjödin (2019) writes, “[t]he critical stands for moments which are radical and urgent, political, challenging, transformative and liberating” (p. 87). Transactional realism refers to John Dewey’s version of realism, in which realism is experienced as a function of the organism–environment transaction (Biesta & Burbules, 2003). The aim of this chapter is to contribute to expanding the meaning of critical literacy in line with, for example, “reconstruction” (Janks, 2010, p. 19), “access and equity” (Luke, 2000, p. 459) or critical literacy as “embodied” (Johnson & Vasudevan, 2012, p. 34) to also include the unforeseen critical moments occurring in oral and written text situations in classrooms. These critical moments are not planned beforehand; rather, these moments emerge through interactions in the environment constituted by the teacher, the students, the teaching content, and physical objects. We argue that a transactional understanding of text situations is helpful to understand how certain situations turn into “critical moments”; that is, when students pay attention to critical aspects in text situations and act upon it. Such moments can be acknowledged, rejected, or go unnoticed by the teacher. Such critical thinking and acting might increase possibilities for equity and justice within society, resisting what Freire (1970) referred to as the culture of silence.

    In this chapter, we describe how this “renewed” concept of critical literacy can be understood as critical moments. We ask: What kinds of critical situated moments appear and what characterizes these critical situated moments? In the following sections, we present current interpretations of critical literacy and perspectives on critical literacy in relation to pragmatism and transactional realism. Next, we outline the methodology and analysis of the situated moments of critical literacy within two classrooms. Lastly, we present the findings and discussion.

  • 31.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum and leadership: A discursive – institutionalist  approach2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational leadership research has in general focused on organizational conditions and expectations for managing and leading activities (Leithwood et al. 1994; Spillane and Healey 2010; Møller 2006), in parallel curriculum theories have offered insights into substantial societal problems that must be addressed in school and society (Hopmann 1999; Westbury 2000). In this study, we link curriculum theory both to discursive institutionalism and educational leadership policy and research.  By including discursive institutionalism (Schmidt 2012) within a framework of curriculum theory, it is possible to distinguish between different forms of discourses and their functions in forming and conveying ideas. Thus, we explore educational leadership policy using a reflexive approach to reforms as intertwined with public discourses and research.

    A transnational perspective on leadership confirms the applicability of reforms across geographical territories, relating to wider societal and cultural contexts. A basic policy supposition is that when society changes rapidly in its communication and migration patterns, a principal also needs to go beyond their own school and exercise leadership in a wider system (European Commission 2012). This enables transforming schools in a more powerful way. A policy focus on increased knowledge outcomes requires a common transnational policy of standards-based curriculum. Especially in recent policy discourse of learning leadership, it is emphasized that the principal should provoke and challenge their school system from within, to improve knowledge results (OECD 2013).

    Following an institutional-discursive approach, we argue that the ways in which social and educational questions become intertwined in actual reforms are dependent on cognitive and normative ideas in the public sphere. Thus, reforms to education leadership are related to coordinative and communicative discourses beyond the individual reform, while solutions to curriculum and leadership problems are anchored in educational policies and practices. Against this background, we argue that a deeper understanding of the meaning of educational leadership discourse and the conditions under which such a discourse is conducted is crucial.  While educational leadership research has so far focused on the organizational conditions and expectations for managing and leading activities, curriculum theories have offered insights into societal and substantive problems to be dealt with in school and in society. We suggest taking both fields into consideration in future policies and practices; however, not without a reflexivity of how reform and research are intertwined.

     

  • 32.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum and leadership in transnational reform policy: A Discursive-Institutionalist Approach2017In: Bridging educational leadership, curriculum theory and Didaktik. Non-affirmative theory of education / [ed] Michael Uljens & Rose M. Ylimaki, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 439-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following an institutional-discursive approach, it is argued in this chapter that the ways in which social and educational questions become intertwined in actual reforms are dependent on cognitive and normative ideas in the public sphere. Thus, reforms to education leadership are related to coordinative and communicative discourses beyond the individual reform, while solutions to curriculum and leadership problems are anchored in educational policies and practices. Against this background, we argue that a deeper understanding of the meaning of educational leadership discourse and the conditions under which such a discourse is conducted is crucial.  While educational leadership research has so far focused on the organizational conditions and expectations for managing and leading activities, curriculum theories have offered insights into societal and substantive problems to be dealt with in school and in society. We suggest taking both fields into consideration in future policies and practices; however, not without a reflexivity of how reform and research are intertwined.

  • 33.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum on the European policy agenda: Global transitions and learning outcomes from transnational and national points of view2016In: European Educational Research Journal, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue examines curricula and their histories as they have evolved throughout the 21st century as part of transnational and national education policies. With a specific focus on the policy transitions that are taking place in Europe, the articles demonstrate how curriculum makingprocesses move in different directions, following their own reform cycles despite globalizationand internationalization. At the same time, a third wave of transnational policy transitions seems to be taking place, such that international organizations like the European Union have intervened in curriculum decisions regarding compulsory schooling within national contexts. The articles within this special issue draw on different epistemologies and methodologies and, thus, contribute to analytical frameworks and provide a variety of lenses for understanding and exploring howcurriculum making processes respond to and re-contextualize processes and expectations beyond national and global contexts.

  • 34.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo university, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Globalization and interactive power relations in school leadership policy: comparing Norway and Sweden through the lenses of an institutional-discursive approach2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper  addresses how school leadership education, constituted as a field of professional knowledge, has evolved into a new policy space that serves governance purposes while simultaneously facilitating learning among current and future leaders. By examining globalization and learning as prominent features, we show how the development of school leadership programs enables a borderless policy space through problem statements and strategies that individuals and organizations share. At the same time, we find that the solutions to these problems are both country-specific and locally defined, bordered by the limitations of the national providers who share knowledge and decide upon curriculum content and processes.

    In total, 20 policy papers were analyzed, including OECD and EU documents, white and green papers, and strategy documents and curriculum frameworks for school leadership education produced by state authorities in Sweden and Norway. Inspired by how Schmidt (2011) articulates her epistemology for studying the dynamics of change and how she conceptualizes ideas and discourses to connect theory with data, we utilize an ideational approach to research leadership education as a policy field (Béland & Cox, 2011). Following a discursive-institutionalist approach, we argue that the ways in which social and educational questions become intertwined in globalizing reforms are dependent on cognitive and normative ideas in the public sphere and the interactive discursive processes and argumentation by which these ideas are produced, conveyed, and potentially led to collective action (Schmidt, 2012). Based on foreground discursive abilities, which comprise actions through the ways in which people distance themselves from everyday institutional activities and discuss and reflect upon school leadership education is developed and designed as an institution, the paper show on a more general level, how school leadership education changes from an “outside” perspective. Thus, globalization can be explained by foreground discursive abilities that provide the basis for a coordinative discourse that is characterized by the creation, elaboration, and justification of a certain policy across the nation-states programs for educational leaders.

    By comparing two sets of country-specific policy texts about school leadership development at the national level in Norway and Sweden, the paper identifies how state authorities within two neighboring countries in Scandinavia act within a globalizing discourse while approaching their shared problems differently. We argue that a discursive-institutionalist approach helps identify how globalization emerges and how interactive power relations between the providers and the users play a role in decision courses on curriculum issues within leadership education. Finally, by addressing curriculum theory to clarify how ideas and policies connect with education reform in the selected countries (Uljens & Ylimaki, 2015; Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017), we demonstrate how policies about school leadership development connect with local practices that are partly transformed by researchers as change agents.

    The paper is based on an ongoing study of transnational policy transfer within the Nordic countries. It extends the authors’ analysis of an article (Sivesind & Wahlström, in press).

     

  • 35.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo university, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Localizing Global Discourses in School Education Policies: a comparison of Norway and Sweden by a discursive institutional approach2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, following a discursive-institutionalist approach, we argue that the ways in which social and educational questions become intertwined in globalizing reforms are dependent on cognitive and normative ideas in the public sphere and the interactive discursive processes and argumentation by which these ideas are produced, conveyed, and potentially led to collective action (Schmidt, 2015). Based on foreground discursive abilities, which comprise actions through the ways in which people distance themselves from everyday institutional activities and discuss and reflect upon how school leadership education is developed and designed as an institution, the paper show how school leadership education changes from an “outside” perspective (OECD 2011). Thus, globalization can be explained by foreground discursive abilities that provide the basis for a coordinative discourse characterized by the creation, elaboration, and justification of a certain policy across the nation-states programs for educational leaders

    The paper  addresses how school leadership education, constituted as a field of professional knowledge, has evolved into a new policy space that serves governance purposes while simultaneously facilitating learning among current and future leaders. By examining globalization and learning as prominent features, we explore how the development of school leadership programs enables a borderless policy space through problem statements and strategies formed by transnational organizations like the OECD and the EU (Sivesind & Wahlström 2017). Drawing on curriculum theory (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012) and discursive institutionalism (Schmidt 2015), we utilize an ideational approach to research leadership education as a policy field (Béland & Cox, 2011). By comparing two sets of country-specific policy texts about school leadership development at the national level in Norway and Sweden, the paper identifies how two neighboring countries in Scandinavia act within a globalizing discourse while approaching their shared problems differently. The discursive-institutionalist approach is helpful for identifying how globalization takes place inside the national arena (Sassen 2013). Combined with a curriculum theory approach (Uljens & Ylimaki, 2017; Wahlström & Sundberg, 2017) , it becomes possible to demonstrate how policies about school leadership development connect with local practices that are partly transformed by researchers as change agents.

  • 36.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum change from a teacher perspective: Exploring the new Swedish curriculum, Lgr112014In: NERA 42nd Congress, Education for Sustainable Development, Lillehammer, Norway 5-7 March, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum change from a transnational perspective: Exploring the new Swedish curriculum , Lgr 112015In: Linnaeus-Humboldt Research Forum on Comparative and International Education, Humboldt University, May 27-28, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, transnational organizations and agreements are increasingly important as actors, networks and shaping forces in curriculum-making, and this also applies to the formation of the Swedish curriculum. The international education policy movement towards standards-based curriculum has been characterized by a top-down accountability and linear dissemination (Andersson-Levitt 2008, Sivesind & Karseth 2011). However, several research studies reveal how the transformation to national cultural education traditions also implies tensions and contradictions. In this study we address how the new Swedish curriculum Lgr 11 is contextualised and reconceptualised (Bernstein 2000, Wahlström & Sundberg 2012) as it is transformed from transnational policy and curriculum scripts to teaching practices.

     

  • 38.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum change in Sweden: A theory-based evaluation of the Swedish curriculum, Lgr112015In: Abstract book. NERA 2015, 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, Marketisation and Differentiation in Education, Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The curriculum has the last decade become a centre of policy interest and a focal point for the improvement of education and schools. The international education policy movement towards standards-based curriculum has been characterized by a top-down accountability on outcomes and a linear dissemination of new knowledge requirements (Andersson-Levitt 2008, Sivesind & Karseth 2010). However, several research studies reveal how the transformation to national cultural education traditions also implies tensions and contradictions. In this paper our aim is to address how the new Swedish curriculum Lgr 11 is contextualised and reconceptualised (Bernstein 2000, Wahlström & Sundberg 2012) as it is transformed from transnational curriculum scripts to teachers and their teaching practices.

    The theory-oriented evaluation project takes its starting point in curriculum theory (Lundgren 1989, Englund, 2005, Wahlström & Sundberg 2012). Theory-oriented evaluation is characterized by an explicit theory basis for the understanding of the reform, that takes account of normative values that are embedded in the reform, its socio-political and historical context, the processes and results of the reform, and critical analyses of social forces served by the reform (Schwandt, 2003). In this paper we will answer questions on the influences, translations and impacts of transnational educational policy movements into the Swedish curriculum making, and their concrete empirical results.

     

    1. What convergences and divergences in curriculum configurations can be identified in comparative analysis of international and national curricula constructions?

    2. In what ways do teachers understand the curriculum Lgr 11 as influencing the frames of teaching and the learning activities?

    3. In what ways do teachers understand the curriculum Lgr 11 as influencing the acts and practices of assessment?

    The three research questions were investigated by a three-part mixed-method approach consisted of  (1) curriculum policy text analysis, (2) a teacher questionnaire conducted in 21 different Swedish municipalities (n= 1887) during October 2013 and,  (3) a follow-up teacher interview study with 18 informants (April-August 2014).

     

    References

    Andersson-Levitt, Kathryn M. (2008). Globalization and curriculum. In: Michael F. Connelly, ed.: The Sage Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. London: Sage Publications.

    Englund, Tomas (2005): Läroplanens och skolkunskapens politiska dimension [Curriculum as a Political Problem]. Göteborg: Daidalos.

    Lundgren, Ulf P. (1989) Att organisera omvärlden [Organising the World Around Us]. Stockholm: Utbildningsförlaget.

    Schwandt, Thomas A. (2003): Linking Evaluation and Education: Enlightment and Engagement. In: Haug, Peder & Schwandt, Thomas. A. eds. (2003): Evaluating Educational Reforms – Scandinavian Perspectives. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing Inc.

    Sivesind, Kirsten & Karseth, Berit (2010): Conceptualising curriculum knowledge within and beyond the national context. European Journal of Education( 45)1

    Sundberg, Daniel & Wahlström, Ninni (2012). Standards-based curricula in a denationalised conception of education – the case of Sweden. European Journal of Education Research Volume 11, Number 3, 2012

     

  • 39.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Den svenska läroplansutvecklingen: Begrepp och tendenser2016In: Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar: En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg / [ed] Maja Elmgren; Maria Folke-Fichtelius; Stina Hallsén; Henrik Román & Wieland Wermke, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2016, p. 271-284Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Exploring the elusive teaching gap: Equity and knowldege segregation in teaching processes2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring transnational standards-based curricula in classroom settings: the Swedish case2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, August 22-26, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multiplication of regulatory activities, actors, networks and constellations in the education policy sector, at both the national and transnational level, have changed the premises for national curriculum-making (Anderson-Levitt 2008). The policy exchange concerns crucial questions such as schooling for social cohesion and multicultural citizenship, for a sustainable future, for enterprise and innovation and critical literacy including digital literacy. The arguments for restructuring the curriculum and including future key competencies have stressed that in order to achieve technological progress, economic growth and social wellbeing there is a need for a mix of highly specialised and generic skills (Rychen & Salganik 2001). In this context, the European Commission wants the key competencies to be made more visible in the national school curriculum (European Commission 2007). Due to a rapid expansion of testing and standardized comparisons of high stakes outcomes there have been a shift in curriculum discourses from subject-specific to generic curriculum criteria and to an increased focus on learning outcomes (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012).

    Many European countries are facing increased performance pressures in raising curriculum standards and achievements. Sweden is one such example where the results and outcomes constitute the underlying principle for the new curriculum’s structure, with a close alignment between purpose, content, results and assessment (Swedish National Agency for Education 2011). Generally, a standards-based curriculum means there are clear expectations on students and their knowledge acquirement, that an assessment system that oversees their knowledge acquirement can be offered, and that this assessment is centrally regulated. It also means that the responsibility for education and student learning is decentralised to a local level, and that teachers and schools can be held responsible for deficits in student performance. Recent curriculum research suggests that standards-based and results-driven curricula have far-reaching consequences for education at large, including teaching and assessment practices. It is therefore crucial to explore this relation further. But although there is much research on student learning in the classroom environment, we do not know very much about how the curriculum content (as key competencies) and standardized curriculum requirements affect teachers their teaching.

    More specifically, in this paper, teachers’ content theories when they transform curriculum content to actual curriculum events in classrooms are in focus. Based on a theory of teaching as curriculum events (Doyle 1992) and a theory of different versions and repertoires of teaching (Alexander 2001) the paper elaborates a theoretical framework for describing, comparing and explaining curriculum events in classroom settings. The analysis specifically pay attention to the following three repertoires (Alexander 2008): organizing interaction (i.e. whole class teaching, group work, one-to-one activity), teaching talk (i.e. rote, recitation, instruction/exposition, discussion and dialogue), and learning talk (i.e. to narrate, explain, instruct, ask questions, receive answers, analyze and solve problems, imagine, explore and evaluate ideas, discuss, argue and reason, negotiate) and how they are recontextualised, or played, out in classroom communiation.

    The aim of this research paper is, by using the recent Swedish curriculum reform, Lgr 11 as a case, to highlight, describe, analyse and develop concepts for understanding and explaining relations between (trans-) national curriculum standards at one hand and its curriculum configurations in classroom practice on the other. In this paper our research questions are the following:

    - What organizational repertoires do teachers think are most in line with current policy and how does it differ between different school subjects?

    - What implications of standards-based curriculum reform can be distinguished in terms of pedagogical communicative repertoires, conceptualized as teaching talk and learning talk, by drawing on comparative classroom methodology? (580)

  • 42.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    From transnational curriculum standards to classroom practices: the new meaning of teaching2018In: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: The new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 133-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand and explain the new meanings of teaching, with all its varied expressions, the focus needs to be directed towards communication about and between different arenas. Education involves relations in large as well as small contexts. Teachers cannot be expected to create meaningful relations between students and school content alone. Schooling is embedded in larger societal narratives of the benefits and purposes of schooling, both for the individual and for society as a whole, which is the reason it is important to explore the meaning and consequences of educational reforms. All educational reforms carry a specific discourse on education that explains the ways education and its current and future prospects are understood at a certain time and in certain spaces. By studying a specific reform, it is possible to examine the types of expressions the reform content contains for different arenas as well as the affinity involved in relation to other contemporary educational policy movements.

  • 43.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro university.
    Standards-based Curricula in a Denationalised Conception of Education: the Case of Sweden2012In: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the tradition of curriculum theory, the societal arena has primarily been regarded as a national one. We would claim, however, that today international organisations such as the OECD and the EU also have to be taken into account, together with other transnational collaborations and influences, if we are to be able to interpret the societal arena for education in an adequate way and offer plausible explanations for curriculum changes (Dale & Robertson, 2009; Grek et al, 2009). Here, therefore, we will mainly discuss curriculum changes in the societal arena from an international perspective, although this does not mean that that is the whole picture. Rather, we believe that every country responds to influences from transnational arenas in its own specific way. The point is that all countries respond in some way; that is, international relations and impacts cannot be ignored. Our aim is to examine Europeanisation and cross-national collaborations and comparisons in relation to the development of the Swedish educational reform of 1991, and in particular their implications for the recently implemented curriculum reform of 2011 (National Agency for Education, 2011).

    In this paper we will answer the following questions in relation to international policy flows: How can the dominant conception of education in Sweden be understood at the beginning of the 21st century? And, as a supplementary question: What implications does this conception have for the Swedish curriculum reform of 2011?

    Our starting point is the Swedish educational reform of 1991 and its specific features. Drawing on a theoretical framework of curriculum theory, with its different arenas for analysis – the societal arena and the curriculum arena (cf. Lundgren 1989, Englund 2005) – we analyse the development of this reform from 1991 onwards. In the first part of the paper, the principles underlying the reform are explored and the societal context for education is examined. In the second part, the focus is on the concrete arena of governance and curriculum, and the conception of curriculum in the Swedish curriculum reform of 2011. In the third and final part, we draw a number of conclusions concerning changes in conceptions of education and curriculum arising from transnational policy pressures and dominant curriculum discourses.

    The societal arena is characterised by cooperation and agreements within transnational member organisations such as the OECD and the EU in arenas which used to be, for the most part, purely national concerns (Wahlström, 2010; Young, 2008). The forms of knowledge that are selected and emphasised include both basic knowledge and key competences that students are expected to be able to develop during their schooling. Thus, the discourse of the societal arena is characterised by an internationalisation of educational policy, with a focus on competences, standards and collaborating networks (f.x. The European Commission, 2008). A central issue is how formalised standards-based reforms are translated into national curriculum constructions and content. In the case of Sweden, there has been a remarkable silence in national educational politics and policymaking concerning different valid knowledge claims in the curriculum context.

     

    Method

    Our analysis draws on a critical discourse-analytical approach within curriculum theory (Sundberg 2012), by which we examine how curriculum texts are legitimised by the use of concepts and arguments in specific social practices. The analyses are conducted in three steps. In the first step, we analyse the Swedish educational reform within a societal arena. In a second step the curriculum text is examined in order to identify the changing knowledge focus within the framework of the 1991 educational reform, that is, between the earlier curriculum for compulsory education, Lpo-94, and the subsequent curriculum reform represented by Lgr 11. In the third step, the curriculum construction of Lgr 11 as a whole will be analysed in terms of the criteria of standards-based curriculum reforms, including the following six elements: (i) specified knowledge expectations of students, (ii) alignment of the different elements in the assessment system to achieving the set standards, (iii) an assessment system for the evaluation of students’ achievements, (iv) decentralisation of accountability for teaching and learning to schools, (v) support and technical services to improve the system, and (vi) incentives to reward or impose sanctions on schools and students on the basis of achieved results (Hamilton et al, 2008).

    Expected Outcomes

    A denationalised and instrumental conception of education is characterised, at a general societal level, by internationalisation and privatisation, and, in the more concrete arena of governance and curriculum, by management by requirements and control. The combination of two basically contradictory conceptions of knowledge, that is, a technical-instrumental form of curriculum and a neo-conservative view of curriculum content, is made possible by reference to decontextualised output measures, such as standards or predefined key competences. Some central elements of international standards-based curriculum reforms have been appropriated into the core construction of the Swedish national curriculum of 2011, such as standardised knowledge requirements and their alignment to grading criteria. In this regard, the Swedish curriculum is an example of a standards-based type of curriculum, in line with an international technical-instrumental curriculum discourse, combined with a neo-conservative view of curriculum as a given, and uncontested, body of knowledge. The instrumental view of schooling and teaching, although it claims to be objective, neutral and context-independent, is in fact based upon certain epistemic premises. In this sense, the Swedish curriculum can be viewed as one version of a European curriculum discourse, albeit with its own specific national connotations.

    References

    Commission (2008) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of Regions. Improving Competences for the 21st Century. An Agenda for European Cooperation on Schools. COM (2008) 425 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. Curriculum for the Compulsory School, Preschool Class and the Leisure-time Centre (2011). Stockholm: National Agency for Education. Dale, Roger & Robertson, Susan (Eds.) (2009). Globalisation & Europeanisation in Education. Oxford: Symposium Books. Englund, Tomas (2005) Läroplanens och skolkunskapens politiska dimension [Curriculum as a Political Problem]. Göteborg: Daidalos. Grek, Sotiria, Lawn, Martin, Lingard, Bob, Ozga, Jenny, Rinne, Risto, Segerholm, Christina & Simola, Hannu (2009) National policy brokering and the construction of the European Education Space in England, Sweden, Finland and Scotland. Comparative Education, 45(1), 5-21. Hamilton, Laura S., Stecher, Brian M., & Yuan, Kun (2008) Standards-based reform in the United States: History, Research, and future Directions. Unpublished paper, Center on Educational Policy, Washington, D.C. Lundgren, Ulf P. (1989) Att organisera omvärlden [Organising the World Around Us]. Stockholm: Utbildningsförlaget. Sundberg, Daniel (2012) Curriculum theory – some contemporary lines of development, in Tomas Englund, Eva Forsberg & Daniel Sundberg (Eds), Vad räknas som kunskap? Läroplansteoretiska utblickar och inblickar i lärarutbildning och skola [What Counts as Knowledge – Curriculum Theory Outlooks and Insights in Teacher Education and Schools]. Stockholm: Liber. Wahlström, Ninni (2010) A European space for education looking for its public. European Educational Research Journal, 9(4), 432-443. Young, Michael F. D. (2008) Bringing Knowledge Back In. From Social Constructivism to Social Realism in the Sociology of Education. London and New York: Routledge.

  • 44.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro University.
    Standards-based Curricula in a Denationalised Conception
of Education: the Case of Sweden2012In: European Educational Research Journal, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 342-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the development of the Swedish educational reform of 1991 from an international and European perspective, and from the perspective of what counts as knowledge in a recently implemented Swedish curriculum reform. With effect from 2011, the Swedish government has significantly reshaped the curricula for preschool, compulsory school and upper secondary school education, but in terms of governing principles for schools, these curriculum reforms can be regarded as a continuation of the 1991 reform. We argue that this latest reform, as part of an international policy discourse, can be said to represent a denationalised and instrumental conception of education, and that the implications for the formation of knowledge within this conception can be understood as a standards-based curriculum shaped by two powerful international influences: a technical-instrumental discourse of curriculum, emphasising the form, structure and function of the curriculum; and a neo-conservative discourse of curriculum, with an emphasis on curriculum content as a given and uncontested body of knowledge.

  • 45.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers’ professional agency within policy discourses: Transformation, adaptation and resistance in recent Swedish reforms2015In: Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research. ECER 2015, European Conference on Educational Research, Budapest, September 7-11, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The last frontier of standards-based curriculum reforms: Exploring Swedish teachers under performativity pressures2014In: ECER 2014 "The Past, the Present and Future of Educational Research in Europe": Network:23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Using Discursive Institutionalism for analysing the relation between policy and curriculum2017In: Presented at The ECER Conference, Copenhagen, March 23-25, 2017, Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce an integrated framework developed from both Vivien Schmidt’s (2008, 2010, 2012a, 2015) ‘discursive institutionalism’ (DI) and curriculum theory (CT) to provide a more multifaceted set of concepts to explore the lending and borrowing of transnational education policies and their actual application at a national and local level. The concepts have been applied as analytical tools in a research study on the most recent curriculum reform in Sweden, and they may serve as an example of how different ideas, discourses and levels can be distinguished in research studies, thereby maintaining the complexity that is always built into the field of education policy and reform. We argue that a theory of discursive institutionalism  might contribute to a deeper understanding of what happens within the ‘black boxes’ of curriculum codes (Lundgren 1989) and conceptions of education (Englund 2005) built on curriculum theory by introducing a more articulated notion of institutional change as well as drawing attention to the discursive nature of transnational policy transfer (Steiner-Khamsi 2012).

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an on-going conceptual discussion of how to trace the influence of policy on different institutional arenas. The key question that foregrounds the conceptual inquiry in this paper is ‘What concepts can form an analytical framework that considers the different arenas, discourses and social actors through which education policies are framed and performed?’

  • 48.
    Sundström Sjödin, Elin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Assembled teaching: A sensitized conceptualisation of didactics2022In: Comparative and international education (re)assembled: Examining a scholarly field through an assemblage theory lens / [ed] Florin D. Salajan & tavis d. jules, Bloomsbury Academic, 2022, p. 183-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to contribute to a widened and at the same time sensitized concept of didactics, illustrated by three cases that we mirror against traditional didactic triangle models. We describe assemblages of actors, both human and non-human (Latour, 2007), involved in these three specific teaching situations, how they perform and what effects they have. These cases are not presented as being representative of something larger, or as something that fits easily into comparisons, with corresponding or equivalent entities in other countries or other practices, but rather as phenomena in their own right, which nonetheless can provide more sensitized comparative research: “as incitement to ask questions about difference and similarity, about what alters in moving from one place to another” (Law and Mol 2002, p. 16). Whereas comparative research usually makes use of context as having explanatory features, our analytical focus is on the details of the assembled didactic situations, on the actors and effects of their relationships. We see didactics as a relational and situated endeavor. However, even if the actors and relations within one didactic situation does not mean the same in other situations, this approach can offer comparative insights about what assemblages that become possible and the different effects that different assemblages have and what contexts can be created from there.

     

  • 49.
    Sundström Sjödin, Elin
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Enacted realities in teachers’ experiences: bringing materialism into pragmatism2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 96-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore factors that constitute ‘the social’ for theteacher Susan, which at the same time highlights ethical aspects ofthe exercise of her profession. We meet her in a situation where she issetting grades, and our interest focuses on the relations that becomeof concern for her in her professional task to give the students theirgrades. In this exploration, we recognize the renewal of interest inrealism and examine the possible links that can be drawn betweentransactional realism, as a pragmatic view, and the new materialism,here represented by actor–network theory. Building on a narrativefrom an interview with a named teacher in a daily newspaper, theempirical study focuses on actors constituting Susan’s reality whengrading. Our argument is that in order to understand the complexlevels of aspects that influence teachers’ actions, it is necessary tostart from the local and from there trace the human and materialfactors that may affect teachers’ room for action. Bringing materialaspects into the consideration of Susan’s situation helps us see thattechnology itself changes time and spaces and moves the action ofgrading into spaces outside her professional sphere.

  • 50.
    Sundström Sjödin, Elin
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change.
    Reading in the wing chair: the shaping of teaching and reading bodies in the transactional performativity of materialities.2021In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 920-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literary education exposes students to unpredictable critical momentsin their encounters with a text. Drawing on Dewey’s transactional realism and actor-network theory, this theoretical and conceptual studyexplores the performativity of things and materials as they shapereading and teaching bodies. This transactional performativity extendsbeyond the physical positioning of the body to the power relationsenacted in text situations. The conceptual rationale is illustrated by a story about a reading chair in a detention home for detained young men—an environment where power issues come to a head. The storyillustrates a theoretical discussion of what might be characterized asperforming ‘the critical’ in reading and how potentialities for students’experiences are created in text situations by the different components involved. The purpose of the article is to explore the potentialities of performing critical aspects of reading to challenge, to transform, and to encourage resistance.

1234 1 - 50 of 168
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