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  • 1.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers Matter - But How?: Introduction2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this special issue, we start from a general policy assumption about teachers and teachingparticularly clearly summarized in the 2005 report Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developingand Retaining Effective Teachers by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation andDevelopment (OECD). The report states that teacher policy is high on national agendas andthat teachers are ‘the most significant resource in schools’ for improving efficiency and equityin school. Thus, the policy report states school improvement largely depends on ‘ensuringthat competent people want to work as teachers, that their teaching is of high quality, andthat all students have access to high quality teaching’ (OECD, 2005, p. 7). Against a backgroundof an increasingly centralized transnational and national governance of school,emphasizing international comparisons (Dale & Robertson, 2009; Lawn & Grek, 2012; Meyer& Benavot, 2013; Nordin & Sundberg, 2014; Rizvi & Lingard, 2010) and a curriculum characterizedby performativity and educational effectiveness (Ball, 2003; Kelly, 2009), we are interestedin teachers’ significance and conditions for teacher agency. However, we regard thepolicy field mainly as the background, from which we retain the fundamental claim that‘teachers matter’. In contrast to policy documents, the intention in this special issue is toexplore in what different ways, at what different times and in what different spaces teacherstruly matter, without having any answers in advance – that is, outside the area of policyhighroads but still against a backdrop of a policy of accountability and standards.

  • 2.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, NinniLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Den evidensbaserade skolan: svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Lärarutbildningens forskningsbasering2018In: Den evidensbaserade skolan. Svensk skola i skärningspunkten mellan forskning och praktik., Natur och kultur, 2018Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alvunger, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Research-based teacher education? Exploring the meaning potentials of Swedish teacher education2018In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore the meaning potentials of teacher education in terms of the significance of a research-based approach and the different pedagogic identities that such an approach implies. The study’s aim is to examine the important factors for education to be considered research-based and to identify and analyse the research base of teacher education in Sweden. The results from the analysis of a large number of course documents and from a survey administered to teachers and students in four teacher education programmes indicate that the emerging potential meaning is that teacher education is generally a strongly framed professional education with a relatively weak and adapted research base. The analysis of the classification and framing of disciplinary content and pedagogy in the Swedish teacher education curriculum points at different pedagogic identities emerging from the different meaning potentials that are made available to the students. We argue that a thorough understanding of research-based teacher education needs to be grounded in both course content and its research base as well as other possible pedagogical aspects of research-based education; the education as a whole must be included in the concept of research-based education.

  • 5.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Conflicting goals of educational action: a study of teacher agency from a transactional realism perspective2018In: Curriculum Journal, ISSN 0958-5176, E-ISSN 1469-3704, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 134-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the different ways in which teachers relatetheir situational agency and professional assignment to the nationalcurriculum content and curriculum dilemmas. It builds theoreticallyon transactional realism and empirically on analyses of interviewswith teachers, exploring the nature of teacher agency during theenactment of a new Swedish curriculum reform. To uphold a dualperspective of teachers’ relation to the curriculum as bothcollectively and individually experienced and as both an ideal andrealistic–practical relation, we term the future as ‘projectiveexperiences’, the presence as ‘practical-evaluative experiences’ andthe past ‘iterational experiences’ in relation to agency. Especially,we are interested in the ‘what’ in the curriculum – what theteachers find intriguing, important or impossible and what affectshow they relate to the curriculum as part of the multidimensionalstructures influencing their agency. This approach reveals that thecrucial issue of teacher agency is related to the policy discourse onknowledge and equity as standards and the uniformity ofassessment and its pedagogical consequences.

  • 6.
    Englund, Tomas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Quennerstedt, Ann
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för humaniora, utbildning och samhällsvetenskap.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Education as a Human and a Citizenship Right - Parents' Rights, Children's Rights, or...?: The Necessity of Historical Cotextualization2009In: Journal of Human Rights, ISSN 1475-4835, E-ISSN 1475-4843, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper serves as an introduction to three following papers, analyzing the contextual background to the different treaties - the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights , and the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child - and focusing on how the relations between parents' rights and children's rights in the matter of education were shaped during the various drafting stages. The paper forms part of a project that intends to study the meaning and consequences of the increased tendency to view education from a perspective of rights. More specifically, the project aims to focus on the implications of parental rights and to analyze potential contradictions between parents' and children's rights in education.

  • 7.
    Erixon, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    In-service training programmes for mathematics teachers nested in transnational policy discourses2016In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 94-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results in mathematics on international knowledge surveys like Programme forInternational Student Assessment and Trends in International Mathematics andScience Study have become one of the most important factors for the perceivedsuccess or failure of schools and even entire education systems in the policyarena. In this article, we explore the complex recontextualising processes thatoccur when translating educational policy into actual programmes for teachers’education. First, the transnational education policy discourse(s) of teachers’in-service training with a focus on mathematics will be explored. Second, weexamine how this transnational discourse is recontextualised in a national policydiscourse resulting in a national reform programme for in-service training ofmathematics teachers in Sweden. In a third step, concrete teacher trainingcourses in mathematics are examined. The result shows a convergence betweenthe official policy discourse and the pedagogic recontextualising field in terms ofa broad teaching repertoire and peer discussions about reflections on certaincommon objects of learning.

  • 8.
    Höstfält, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    The Recontextualisation of Policy Messages: The Local Authority as a Policy Actor2018In: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: The new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 67-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is significant is that the curriculum is always linked to institutional decision-making. Any such discussion must continually address multiple and interconnected issues: what subject matter is to be taught; what content should be selected; why this subject matter should be taught and this content selected; how it should be taught; for whom it should be useful; and whose knowledge it represents. Today, these questions are crucial as we face social, political and cultural changes that challenge ideas about educating citizens for new futures as well as ideas regarding the very core processes of teaching and learning.

  • 9.
    Lilliedahl, Jonathan
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teoribaserad utvärdering som svar på det tidiga 2000-talets frågor om utbildningsreformer2016In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 21, no 1-2, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det ökande intresset för evidensbasering av verksamheter inom utbildningssektorn har åter aktualiserat frågor om forskning, politik och pedagogisk praktik. Det finns höga förväntningar på att forskning och evidens kan bidra till att utveckla systematiskt underbyggda utbildningspolitiska reformer. Samtidigt har stark kritik väckts mot dominerande utvärderingsmodeller. Frågan är om de verkligen kan svara upp mot ett alltmer komplext styrningslandskap och de varierade villkor och variationer som kännetecknar dagens skolor? I föreliggande artikel undersöks den teoribaserade utvärderingens möjligheter att besvara 2000-talets frågor om utbildningsreformer. Som en väg framåt för att vidareutveckla den teoribaserade utvärderingsansatsen pekar författarna på senare metodologiska utvecklingar inom ”mixed methods research”. Utifrån en empirisk fallstudie av den svenska läroplansreformen Lgr 11 visar artikeln på resultat från en teoribaserad utvärdering som med hjälp av olika metoder som bygger på varandra relaterar transnationella policykontexter till nationella utbildningsreformer och skol- och klassrumskontexter. Författarnas slutsats är att det finns skäl att återuppta och vidareutveckla den teoribaserade utvärderingstraditionens kritiska potential. De lämnar därför teoretiska och metodologiska förslag på en möjlig riktning.

  • 10.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring European Education Policy through the Lens of Dewey’s Democracy andEducation2016In: European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy, ISSN 2036-4091, E-ISSN 2036-4091, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 36-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we use the basic concepts of Dewey’s pedagogical philosophy on democracy and education as analytical tools for exploring the democratic potential of a transnational education policy within the contemporary European risk discourse. A Deweyan reading of main policy documents, starting with the 2000 Lisbon Strategy, allows for critical discussion of some of the basic assumptions and consequences of the EU-advocated transnational education policy. The data sources include 28 EU policy documents from 2000 to 2014. The analysis shows that in addition to a prevailing “human capital” discourse, there is potential for a communicative “democratic discourse” that promotes social cohesion. The democratic discourse underlines the full and free communication between different groups as the only way to promote and ensure the conditions for social cohesion. In this crisis of nearby wars, terror attacks and refugees in Europe, economy and competition are not viable concepts for seeking solutions. We argue that a shift to a language adapted to the real crisis and the fear of future crises in Europe is needed. We argue that a language that understands social efficiency, communication and a moral interest in the way Dewey outlined the concepts in Democracy and Educationcorresponds to the strong need to maintain and strengthen a democratic education and a democratic way of living for all.

  • 11.
    Nordin, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring the Democratic Potential in European Education Policy within today's Crisis Discourse: a Deweyan reading2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, 22-26 August, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum and leadership: A discursive – institutionalist  approach2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational leadership research has in general focused on organizational conditions and expectations for managing and leading activities (Leithwood et al. 1994; Spillane and Healey 2010; Møller 2006), in parallel curriculum theories have offered insights into substantial societal problems that must be addressed in school and society (Hopmann 1999; Westbury 2000). In this study, we link curriculum theory both to discursive institutionalism and educational leadership policy and research.  By including discursive institutionalism (Schmidt 2012) within a framework of curriculum theory, it is possible to distinguish between different forms of discourses and their functions in forming and conveying ideas. Thus, we explore educational leadership policy using a reflexive approach to reforms as intertwined with public discourses and research.

    A transnational perspective on leadership confirms the applicability of reforms across geographical territories, relating to wider societal and cultural contexts. A basic policy supposition is that when society changes rapidly in its communication and migration patterns, a principal also needs to go beyond their own school and exercise leadership in a wider system (European Commission 2012). This enables transforming schools in a more powerful way. A policy focus on increased knowledge outcomes requires a common transnational policy of standards-based curriculum. Especially in recent policy discourse of learning leadership, it is emphasized that the principal should provoke and challenge their school system from within, to improve knowledge results (OECD 2013).

    Following an institutional-discursive approach, we argue that the ways in which social and educational questions become intertwined in actual reforms are dependent on cognitive and normative ideas in the public sphere. Thus, reforms to education leadership are related to coordinative and communicative discourses beyond the individual reform, while solutions to curriculum and leadership problems are anchored in educational policies and practices. Against this background, we argue that a deeper understanding of the meaning of educational leadership discourse and the conditions under which such a discourse is conducted is crucial.  While educational leadership research has so far focused on the organizational conditions and expectations for managing and leading activities, curriculum theories have offered insights into societal and substantive problems to be dealt with in school and in society. We suggest taking both fields into consideration in future policies and practices; however, not without a reflexivity of how reform and research are intertwined.

     

  • 13.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum and leadership in transnational reform policy: A Discursive-Institutionalist Approach2017In: Bridging educational leadership, curriculum theory and Didaktik. Non-affirmative theory of education / [ed] Michael Uljens & Rose M. Ylimaki, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 439-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following an institutional-discursive approach, it is argued in this chapter that the ways in which social and educational questions become intertwined in actual reforms are dependent on cognitive and normative ideas in the public sphere. Thus, reforms to education leadership are related to coordinative and communicative discourses beyond the individual reform, while solutions to curriculum and leadership problems are anchored in educational policies and practices. Against this background, we argue that a deeper understanding of the meaning of educational leadership discourse and the conditions under which such a discourse is conducted is crucial.  While educational leadership research has so far focused on the organizational conditions and expectations for managing and leading activities, curriculum theories have offered insights into societal and substantive problems to be dealt with in school and in society. We suggest taking both fields into consideration in future policies and practices; however, not without a reflexivity of how reform and research are intertwined.

  • 14.
    Sivesind, Kirsten
    et al.
    Oslo University, Norway.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum on the European policy agenda: Global transitions and learning outcomes from transnational and national points of view2016In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue examines curricula and their histories as they have evolved throughout the 21st century as part of transnational and national education policies. With a specific focus on the policy transitions that are taking place in Europe, the articles demonstrate how curriculum makingprocesses move in different directions, following their own reform cycles despite globalizationand internationalization. At the same time, a third wave of transnational policy transitions seems to be taking place, such that international organizations like the European Union have intervened in curriculum decisions regarding compulsory schooling within national contexts. The articles within this special issue draw on different epistemologies and methodologies and, thus, contribute to analytical frameworks and provide a variety of lenses for understanding and exploring howcurriculum making processes respond to and re-contextualize processes and expectations beyond national and global contexts.

  • 15.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum change from a teacher perspective: Exploring the new Swedish curriculum, Lgr112014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum change from a transnational perspective: Exploring the new Swedish curriculum , Lgr 112015In: Linnaeus-Humboldt Research Forum on Comparative and International Education, Humboldt University, May 27-28, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, transnational organizations and agreements are increasingly important as actors, networks and shaping forces in curriculum-making, and this also applies to the formation of the Swedish curriculum. The international education policy movement towards standards-based curriculum has been characterized by a top-down accountability and linear dissemination (Andersson-Levitt 2008, Sivesind & Karseth 2011). However, several research studies reveal how the transformation to national cultural education traditions also implies tensions and contradictions. In this study we address how the new Swedish curriculum Lgr 11 is contextualised and reconceptualised (Bernstein 2000, Wahlström & Sundberg 2012) as it is transformed from transnational policy and curriculum scripts to teaching practices.

     

  • 17.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum change in Sweden: A theory-based evaluation of the Swedish curriculum, Lgr112015In: Abstract book. NERA 2015, 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, Marketisation and Differentiation in Education, Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The curriculum has the last decade become a centre of policy interest and a focal point for the improvement of education and schools. The international education policy movement towards standards-based curriculum has been characterized by a top-down accountability on outcomes and a linear dissemination of new knowledge requirements (Andersson-Levitt 2008, Sivesind & Karseth 2010). However, several research studies reveal how the transformation to national cultural education traditions also implies tensions and contradictions. In this paper our aim is to address how the new Swedish curriculum Lgr 11 is contextualised and reconceptualised (Bernstein 2000, Wahlström & Sundberg 2012) as it is transformed from transnational curriculum scripts to teachers and their teaching practices.

    The theory-oriented evaluation project takes its starting point in curriculum theory (Lundgren 1989, Englund, 2005, Wahlström & Sundberg 2012). Theory-oriented evaluation is characterized by an explicit theory basis for the understanding of the reform, that takes account of normative values that are embedded in the reform, its socio-political and historical context, the processes and results of the reform, and critical analyses of social forces served by the reform (Schwandt, 2003). In this paper we will answer questions on the influences, translations and impacts of transnational educational policy movements into the Swedish curriculum making, and their concrete empirical results.

     

    1. What convergences and divergences in curriculum configurations can be identified in comparative analysis of international and national curricula constructions?

    2. In what ways do teachers understand the curriculum Lgr 11 as influencing the frames of teaching and the learning activities?

    3. In what ways do teachers understand the curriculum Lgr 11 as influencing the acts and practices of assessment?

    The three research questions were investigated by a three-part mixed-method approach consisted of  (1) curriculum policy text analysis, (2) a teacher questionnaire conducted in 21 different Swedish municipalities (n= 1887) during October 2013 and,  (3) a follow-up teacher interview study with 18 informants (April-August 2014).

     

    References

    Andersson-Levitt, Kathryn M. (2008). Globalization and curriculum. In: Michael F. Connelly, ed.: The Sage Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction. London: Sage Publications.

    Englund, Tomas (2005): Läroplanens och skolkunskapens politiska dimension [Curriculum as a Political Problem]. Göteborg: Daidalos.

    Lundgren, Ulf P. (1989) Att organisera omvärlden [Organising the World Around Us]. Stockholm: Utbildningsförlaget.

    Schwandt, Thomas A. (2003): Linking Evaluation and Education: Enlightment and Engagement. In: Haug, Peder & Schwandt, Thomas. A. eds. (2003): Evaluating Educational Reforms – Scandinavian Perspectives. Greenwich: Information Age Publishing Inc.

    Sivesind, Kirsten & Karseth, Berit (2010): Conceptualising curriculum knowledge within and beyond the national context. European Journal of Education( 45)1

    Sundberg, Daniel & Wahlström, Ninni (2012). Standards-based curricula in a denationalised conception of education – the case of Sweden. European Journal of Education Research Volume 11, Number 3, 2012

     

  • 18.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Den svenska läroplansutvecklingen: Begrepp och tendenser2016In: Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar: En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg / [ed] Maja Elmgren; Maria Folke-Fichtelius; Stina Hallsén; Henrik Román & Wieland Wermke, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2016, p. 271-284Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Exploring transnational standards-based curricula in classroom settings: the Swedish case2016In: ECER 2016, Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, Dublin, August 22-26, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multiplication of regulatory activities, actors, networks and constellations in the education policy sector, at both the national and transnational level, have changed the premises for national curriculum-making (Anderson-Levitt 2008). The policy exchange concerns crucial questions such as schooling for social cohesion and multicultural citizenship, for a sustainable future, for enterprise and innovation and critical literacy including digital literacy. The arguments for restructuring the curriculum and including future key competencies have stressed that in order to achieve technological progress, economic growth and social wellbeing there is a need for a mix of highly specialised and generic skills (Rychen & Salganik 2001). In this context, the European Commission wants the key competencies to be made more visible in the national school curriculum (European Commission 2007). Due to a rapid expansion of testing and standardized comparisons of high stakes outcomes there have been a shift in curriculum discourses from subject-specific to generic curriculum criteria and to an increased focus on learning outcomes (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012).

    Many European countries are facing increased performance pressures in raising curriculum standards and achievements. Sweden is one such example where the results and outcomes constitute the underlying principle for the new curriculum’s structure, with a close alignment between purpose, content, results and assessment (Swedish National Agency for Education 2011). Generally, a standards-based curriculum means there are clear expectations on students and their knowledge acquirement, that an assessment system that oversees their knowledge acquirement can be offered, and that this assessment is centrally regulated. It also means that the responsibility for education and student learning is decentralised to a local level, and that teachers and schools can be held responsible for deficits in student performance. Recent curriculum research suggests that standards-based and results-driven curricula have far-reaching consequences for education at large, including teaching and assessment practices. It is therefore crucial to explore this relation further. But although there is much research on student learning in the classroom environment, we do not know very much about how the curriculum content (as key competencies) and standardized curriculum requirements affect teachers their teaching.

    More specifically, in this paper, teachers’ content theories when they transform curriculum content to actual curriculum events in classrooms are in focus. Based on a theory of teaching as curriculum events (Doyle 1992) and a theory of different versions and repertoires of teaching (Alexander 2001) the paper elaborates a theoretical framework for describing, comparing and explaining curriculum events in classroom settings. The analysis specifically pay attention to the following three repertoires (Alexander 2008): organizing interaction (i.e. whole class teaching, group work, one-to-one activity), teaching talk (i.e. rote, recitation, instruction/exposition, discussion and dialogue), and learning talk (i.e. to narrate, explain, instruct, ask questions, receive answers, analyze and solve problems, imagine, explore and evaluate ideas, discuss, argue and reason, negotiate) and how they are recontextualised, or played, out in classroom communiation.

    The aim of this research paper is, by using the recent Swedish curriculum reform, Lgr 11 as a case, to highlight, describe, analyse and develop concepts for understanding and explaining relations between (trans-) national curriculum standards at one hand and its curriculum configurations in classroom practice on the other. In this paper our research questions are the following:

    - What organizational repertoires do teachers think are most in line with current policy and how does it differ between different school subjects?

    - What implications of standards-based curriculum reform can be distinguished in terms of pedagogical communicative repertoires, conceptualized as teaching talk and learning talk, by drawing on comparative classroom methodology? (580)

  • 20.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    From transnational curriculum standards to classroom practices: the new meaning of teaching2018In: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: The new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 133-150Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand and explain the new meanings of teaching, with all its varied expressions, the focus needs to be directed towards communication about and between different arenas. Education involves relations in large as well as small contexts. Teachers cannot be expected to create meaningful relations between students and school content alone. Schooling is embedded in larger societal narratives of the benefits and purposes of schooling, both for the individual and for society as a whole, which is the reason it is important to explore the meaning and consequences of educational reforms. All educational reforms carry a specific discourse on education that explains the ways education and its current and future prospects are understood at a certain time and in certain spaces. By studying a specific reform, it is possible to examine the types of expressions the reform content contains for different arenas as well as the affinity involved in relation to other contemporary educational policy movements.

  • 21.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro university.
    Standards-based Curricula in a Denationalised Conception of Education: the Case of Sweden2012In: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All: Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the tradition of curriculum theory, the societal arena has primarily been regarded as a national one. We would claim, however, that today international organisations such as the OECD and the EU also have to be taken into account, together with other transnational collaborations and influences, if we are to be able to interpret the societal arena for education in an adequate way and offer plausible explanations for curriculum changes (Dale & Robertson, 2009; Grek et al, 2009). Here, therefore, we will mainly discuss curriculum changes in the societal arena from an international perspective, although this does not mean that that is the whole picture. Rather, we believe that every country responds to influences from transnational arenas in its own specific way. The point is that all countries respond in some way; that is, international relations and impacts cannot be ignored. Our aim is to examine Europeanisation and cross-national collaborations and comparisons in relation to the development of the Swedish educational reform of 1991, and in particular their implications for the recently implemented curriculum reform of 2011 (National Agency for Education, 2011).

    In this paper we will answer the following questions in relation to international policy flows: How can the dominant conception of education in Sweden be understood at the beginning of the 21st century? And, as a supplementary question: What implications does this conception have for the Swedish curriculum reform of 2011?

    Our starting point is the Swedish educational reform of 1991 and its specific features. Drawing on a theoretical framework of curriculum theory, with its different arenas for analysis – the societal arena and the curriculum arena (cf. Lundgren 1989, Englund 2005) – we analyse the development of this reform from 1991 onwards. In the first part of the paper, the principles underlying the reform are explored and the societal context for education is examined. In the second part, the focus is on the concrete arena of governance and curriculum, and the conception of curriculum in the Swedish curriculum reform of 2011. In the third and final part, we draw a number of conclusions concerning changes in conceptions of education and curriculum arising from transnational policy pressures and dominant curriculum discourses.

    The societal arena is characterised by cooperation and agreements within transnational member organisations such as the OECD and the EU in arenas which used to be, for the most part, purely national concerns (Wahlström, 2010; Young, 2008). The forms of knowledge that are selected and emphasised include both basic knowledge and key competences that students are expected to be able to develop during their schooling. Thus, the discourse of the societal arena is characterised by an internationalisation of educational policy, with a focus on competences, standards and collaborating networks (f.x. The European Commission, 2008). A central issue is how formalised standards-based reforms are translated into national curriculum constructions and content. In the case of Sweden, there has been a remarkable silence in national educational politics and policymaking concerning different valid knowledge claims in the curriculum context.

     

    Method

    Our analysis draws on a critical discourse-analytical approach within curriculum theory (Sundberg 2012), by which we examine how curriculum texts are legitimised by the use of concepts and arguments in specific social practices. The analyses are conducted in three steps. In the first step, we analyse the Swedish educational reform within a societal arena. In a second step the curriculum text is examined in order to identify the changing knowledge focus within the framework of the 1991 educational reform, that is, between the earlier curriculum for compulsory education, Lpo-94, and the subsequent curriculum reform represented by Lgr 11. In the third step, the curriculum construction of Lgr 11 as a whole will be analysed in terms of the criteria of standards-based curriculum reforms, including the following six elements: (i) specified knowledge expectations of students, (ii) alignment of the different elements in the assessment system to achieving the set standards, (iii) an assessment system for the evaluation of students’ achievements, (iv) decentralisation of accountability for teaching and learning to schools, (v) support and technical services to improve the system, and (vi) incentives to reward or impose sanctions on schools and students on the basis of achieved results (Hamilton et al, 2008).

    Expected Outcomes

    A denationalised and instrumental conception of education is characterised, at a general societal level, by internationalisation and privatisation, and, in the more concrete arena of governance and curriculum, by management by requirements and control. The combination of two basically contradictory conceptions of knowledge, that is, a technical-instrumental form of curriculum and a neo-conservative view of curriculum content, is made possible by reference to decontextualised output measures, such as standards or predefined key competences. Some central elements of international standards-based curriculum reforms have been appropriated into the core construction of the Swedish national curriculum of 2011, such as standardised knowledge requirements and their alignment to grading criteria. In this regard, the Swedish curriculum is an example of a standards-based type of curriculum, in line with an international technical-instrumental curriculum discourse, combined with a neo-conservative view of curriculum as a given, and uncontested, body of knowledge. The instrumental view of schooling and teaching, although it claims to be objective, neutral and context-independent, is in fact based upon certain epistemic premises. In this sense, the Swedish curriculum can be viewed as one version of a European curriculum discourse, albeit with its own specific national connotations.

    References

    Commission (2008) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of Regions. Improving Competences for the 21st Century. An Agenda for European Cooperation on Schools. COM (2008) 425 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. Curriculum for the Compulsory School, Preschool Class and the Leisure-time Centre (2011). Stockholm: National Agency for Education. Dale, Roger & Robertson, Susan (Eds.) (2009). Globalisation & Europeanisation in Education. Oxford: Symposium Books. Englund, Tomas (2005) Läroplanens och skolkunskapens politiska dimension [Curriculum as a Political Problem]. Göteborg: Daidalos. Grek, Sotiria, Lawn, Martin, Lingard, Bob, Ozga, Jenny, Rinne, Risto, Segerholm, Christina & Simola, Hannu (2009) National policy brokering and the construction of the European Education Space in England, Sweden, Finland and Scotland. Comparative Education, 45(1), 5-21. Hamilton, Laura S., Stecher, Brian M., & Yuan, Kun (2008) Standards-based reform in the United States: History, Research, and future Directions. Unpublished paper, Center on Educational Policy, Washington, D.C. Lundgren, Ulf P. (1989) Att organisera omvärlden [Organising the World Around Us]. Stockholm: Utbildningsförlaget. Sundberg, Daniel (2012) Curriculum theory – some contemporary lines of development, in Tomas Englund, Eva Forsberg & Daniel Sundberg (Eds), Vad räknas som kunskap? Läroplansteoretiska utblickar och inblickar i lärarutbildning och skola [What Counts as Knowledge – Curriculum Theory Outlooks and Insights in Teacher Education and Schools]. Stockholm: Liber. Wahlström, Ninni (2010) A European space for education looking for its public. European Educational Research Journal, 9(4), 432-443. Young, Michael F. D. (2008) Bringing Knowledge Back In. From Social Constructivism to Social Realism in the Sociology of Education. London and New York: Routledge.

  • 22.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro University.
    Standards-based Curricula in a Denationalised Conception
of Education: the Case of Sweden2012In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 342-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the development of the Swedish educational reform of 1991 from an international and European perspective, and from the perspective of what counts as knowledge in a recently implemented Swedish curriculum reform. With effect from 2011, the Swedish government has significantly reshaped the curricula for preschool, compulsory school and upper secondary school education, but in terms of governing principles for schools, these curriculum reforms can be regarded as a continuation of the 1991 reform. We argue that this latest reform, as part of an international policy discourse, can be said to represent a denationalised and instrumental conception of education, and that the implications for the formation of knowledge within this conception can be understood as a standards-based curriculum shaped by two powerful international influences: a technical-instrumental discourse of curriculum, emphasising the form, structure and function of the curriculum; and a neo-conservative discourse of curriculum, with an emphasis on curriculum content as a given and uncontested body of knowledge.

  • 23.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Teachers’ professional agency within policy discourses: Transformation, adaptation and resistance in recent Swedish reforms2015In: Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research. ECER 2015, European Conference on Educational Research, Budapest, September 7-11, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The last frontier of standards-based curriculum reforms: Exploring Swedish teachers under performativity pressures2014In: ECER 2014 "The Past, the Present and Future of Educational Research in Europe": Network:23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Sundberg, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Using Discursive Institutionalism for analysing the relation between policy and curriculum2017In: The ECER Conference, Copenhagen, March 23-25, 2017, Network: 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce an integrated framework developed from both Vivien Schmidt’s (2008, 2010, 2012a, 2015) ‘discursive institutionalism’ (DI) and curriculum theory (CT) to provide a more multifaceted set of concepts to explore the lending and borrowing of transnational education policies and their actual application at a national and local level. The concepts have been applied as analytical tools in a research study on the most recent curriculum reform in Sweden, and they may serve as an example of how different ideas, discourses and levels can be distinguished in research studies, thereby maintaining the complexity that is always built into the field of education policy and reform. We argue that a theory of discursive institutionalism  might contribute to a deeper understanding of what happens within the ‘black boxes’ of curriculum codes (Lundgren 1989) and conceptions of education (Englund 2005) built on curriculum theory by introducing a more articulated notion of institutional change as well as drawing attention to the discursive nature of transnational policy transfer (Steiner-Khamsi 2012).

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to an on-going conceptual discussion of how to trace the influence of policy on different institutional arenas. The key question that foregrounds the conceptual inquiry in this paper is ‘What concepts can form an analytical framework that considers the different arenas, discourses and social actors through which education policies are framed and performed?’

  • 26.
    Sundström Sjödin, Elin
    et al.
    Örebro University.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Enacted realities in teachers’ experiences: bringing materialism into pragmatism2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 96-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore factors that constitute ‘the social’ for theteacher Susan, which at the same time highlights ethical aspects ofthe exercise of her profession. We meet her in a situation where she issetting grades, and our interest focuses on the relations that becomeof concern for her in her professional task to give the students theirgrades. In this exploration, we recognize the renewal of interest inrealism and examine the possible links that can be drawn betweentransactional realism, as a pragmatic view, and the new materialism,here represented by actor–network theory. Building on a narrativefrom an interview with a named teacher in a daily newspaper, theempirical study focuses on actors constituting Susan’s reality whengrading. Our argument is that in order to understand the complexlevels of aspects that influence teachers’ actions, it is necessary tostart from the local and from there trace the human and materialfactors that may affect teachers’ room for action. Bringing materialaspects into the consideration of Susan’s situation helps us see thattechnology itself changes time and spaces and moves the action ofgrading into spaces outside her professional sphere.

  • 27.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    A communicative understanding of educational cosmopolitanism2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The methodology in this paper is mainly a conceptual exploration of the concept of cosmopolitanism in a time of globalization. In the first part of my paper I will discuss cosmopolitanism in relation to curriculum theory. This has previously been done by for example Camicia and Franklin (2010). There is already a strong policy research in education, which often analyzes globalization in terms with economical connotations, as marketization, privatization, global competition etc (c.f. Ball 2007; Ozga 2009; Lundahl 2007). In this paper I will instead explore globalization in terms of the more philosophically influenced concept of cosmopolitanism, with its (also more) didactic implications. I draw on Kwame Anthony Appiah’s (2003, 2005, 2007, 2008) ethical perspective on cosmopolitanism and David Hansen’s (2008a, 2008b, 2009, 2011) concept of educational cosmopolitanism. In the discussion from which point of reference communication with ‘strangers’ becomes possible, Donald Davidson’s (1991/2001) notion of a shared world and a triangulation between one's own thoughts, others' thoughts and a common object is fruitful.  It is suggested that sharing a language of values is the essential common frame of reference for meaning-making (Appiah 2007). However, as Parker (2006) observes, listening, as an important part of conversation, requires itself special attention. We must, as Garrison (1996) puts it, put our own ideas at risk in listening with openness to others if we understand educational cosmopolitanism as reflective conversations.  

  • 28.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    A European space for education looking for its public2010In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 432-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open method of coordination (OMC) within the Lisbon strategy is discussed in terms of a European Space for Education and ‘programme ontology’. The focus is on indicators and the European dimension, and how they ‘work’ in the forming of contents and identities in this European Space for Education. The OMC is analyzed in relation to Nancy Fraser’s theoretical public-sphere approach of discourses about needs, instead of inquiry from needs. Central to the article is the problematization of the shift from national theories and methodologies to theories that might be better suited to an international European educational arena. Hence, in the final part of the article, the publicsphere theory is discussed from the point of view of globalization and within a transnational frame for education.

  • 29.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    A theoretical framework: from policy to curriculum and comparative classroom studies2018In: Transnational curriculum standards and classroom practices: The new meaning of teaching / [ed] Ninni Wahlström & Daniel Sundberg, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 31-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on Doyle’s (1992) comprehension of a curriculum as a coherent set of contexts and activities or ‘events’ sequenced over days or weeks to build students’ competencies toward desired goals, it follows that a major task of curriculum theory is to identify the frames that limit curriculum choices and to explore the pedagogic implications that follow. This approach to curriculum rejects the split between curriculum and pedagogy, in which the curriculum theory domain deals with questions of what knowledge is most valuable, while pedagogy was traditionally an affair for psychology. Curriculum exists not only as a document, but also as a set of enacted events resulting from context-specific interactions between teachers and students, understood as ‘curriculum events’. Thus, pedagogy is not viewed as a neutral form of teaching that lacks clear connections to the curriculum content and structure; rather, it is a combination of curriculum text and discursive practice in the classroom, involving the transformation of curriculum content into the subject of actual teaching. Pedagogy and curriculum are, in this sense, understood as two aspects of a social context centred on a teacher and a group of students. With reference to Alexander (2009, p. 927), ‘[p]edagogy is the observable act of teaching together with its attendant discourse of educational theories, values, evidence and justifications’ (italics in original).

  • 30.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A third wave of European education policy: Transnational and national conceptions of knowledge in Swedish curricula2016In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 298-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine how transnational concepts within educational policies influencenational curricula in the reconceptualisation of educational policy into concrete curriculum texts.Based on a critical discourse analysis and the concepts of recontextualisation, convergenceand divergence, a third wave of European policy discourse has been identified, emphasising anincreasing interest in compulsory school and curriculum. Analyses of policies and pedagogicaltexts show a convergence between a European and a Swedish knowledge discourse concerningstandards, basic skills and a performance-based curriculum; however, there is a divergence interms of transversal skills in transnational policy documents compared to an emphasis on schoolsubjects in the Swedish curriculum. In the transnational arena, the concept of knowledge is mainlyinterpreted in terms of competencies, while in the Swedish curriculum – the Curriculum forthe Compulsory School, Preschool Class and the Leisure-Time Centre 2011 – knowledge isunderstood in more traditional terms and includes abilities within subjects

  • 31.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A third-wave of European education policy: Transnational and national conceptions of knowledge in Swedish curricula2014In: Online repository. The Power of Education Research for Innovation in Practice and Policy, The American Educational Research Association (AERA) Annual meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 3-7, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine how transnational concepts within educational policy interact, converge or diverge with national curricula in the re-conceptualization of educational policy into concrete curriculum texts. Drawing on methodological cosmopolitanism (Beck 2006) and the concept of Europeanization (Lawn & Grek 2012), transnational interactions incorporate the nation-state in transnational systems. The analyses, which are based on Bernstein’s (2000) terminology, show a certain convergence between a European and a Swedish conception of schooling. By identifying a third-wave of European policy discourse, it can be somewhat pointedly said that Sweden strives to improve its competence-based PISA results using a performance model of curriculum.

  • 32.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Budget och bildning: om villkor som formar folkhögskolerektorns uppdrag2010In: Folkhögskolans praktiker i förändring II / [ed] Bernt Gustavsson, Gunnel Andersdotter, Örebro: Örebro universitet , 2010, p. 103-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur formeras villkoren för att vara rektor inom folkhögskolan i 2000-talets inledning? Folkhögskolan är en skolform som dels präglas av sin drygt hundraåriga historia, dels påverkas nära och omedelbart av samhällets förändringar. Studien tar sin teoretiska utgångspunkt i Quentin Skinners talhandlingsteori och Gunther Kress språkteori om relationen mellan språk och samhälle i annonstexter. I syfte att undersöka vilka grundläggande villkor och ramar för folkhögskolans rektorer som de språkliga handlingarna öppnar för, analyseras språkhandlingar i platsannonstexter för folkhögskolerektorer tillsammans med språkhandlingar från sju intervjuer med representanter från olika huvudmän.  Begrepp som folkbildning, huvudmannaskap, rektor och omvärldsfaktorer utgör alla så kallade omstridda begrepp som ges olika innebörder.

  • 33.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Cosmopolitanism as communication?: On conditions for educational conversations in a globalized society2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 32-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I explore the question of how a cosmopolitan perspective on education could be understood from curriculum-based activities in classrooms. Assuming that there is a cosmopolitan potential in curriculum content as such, I draw on David Hansen, Anthony Kwame Appiah and Donald Davidson to argue that cosmopolitanism at the classroom level needs to be understood from both a moral and a communicative perspective. In this article the focus is on the latter. A communicative understanding of cosmopolitanism emphasizes the relational stance to the other and to the social and physical world.  The conditions for cosmopolitan dialogues are understood in the curriculum as shared environment, cosmopolitan curiosity and reciprocal communicative respect based on the recognition on responsibilities towards others in a shared world. The characteristic of cosmopolitan conversation is its potentiality.   

  • 34.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Creating cosmopolitan meaning through conversation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I have tried to examine classroom conversations as a site for expressions of cosmopolitization. The concept allows for an understanding of cosmopolitanism as an ongoing and dynamic interaction between different societies at the same place and time. Thus, cosmopolitanism is not a goal or a distant ideal, but something societies and individuals must relate to; creating situations that they handle - of course - in different ways (Beck & Grande 2010). With the notion of ‘critical cosmopolitanism’, self-understanding and self-reflexivity are highlighted (Delanty 2006), and with the displacement from ‘translation’ to ‘transaction’ as the process for cosmopolitization, I want to emphasize the inter-subjective and transactional character of the reflexivity in a cosmopolitan perspective.

     

    I take my starting point from a cosmopolitan view that we are inhabitants of the same world (albeit in very different ways) rather than being citizens of the world (c.f. Hansen 2011). To understand the process of people coordinating their lives across personal and cultural differences, communication and imagination become crucial notions. With reference to Appiah (2006), cosmopolitanism is possible because humans have a capacity to imagine other ways of life and to learn from one another, through listening to each others’ stories. Thus, the language of values is placed at the center of communication, and conversations on values are, in this case, conversations across different boundaries. What I have tried to do in this paper is to capture these moments of learning, by listening to conversations on values in local educational arenas. This implies some methodological considerations. First, I distinguish between ‘cosmopolitan orientation’ (Hansen 2011) and ‘cosmopolitan resistance’. Secondly, I use the term ‘critical cosmopolitanism’ as an expression of self-understanding and self-reflexivity in the space in between the global and local, and between the universal and particular.  For example, I interpret the tension between ‘the global’ and the local as encounters between ‘different societies’, between different particularities, in the one and same educational setting.  Thirdly, I use Dewey's concept of transaction, to emphasize the intersubjective condition of self-understanding and self-reflexivity, and I distinguish between efferent and aesthetic-reflective experiences, to be able to capture expressions of cosmopolitization in classroom conversations in terms of cosmopolitan encounters.

     

    What I found was vivid conversations going on, not so much in general conversations on different values, but rather in 'snapshots'; a conversation that is interrupted by individual reflections and questions, the exchange of quick comments and debate, and then a continuation of the conversation in line with its original purpose. Or, put another way, the shift between efferent and aesthetic-reflective experiences which, in this examination, turned out to take the form of temporal shifts in terms of an ongoing efferent communication and its aesthetic-reflective interruptions. But even from these rapidly conducted ‘micro-conversations’ of reflections on values crossing borders, however unforeseeable and improvised they are, I suggest that these “ordinary” conversations in education contribute to reflections on cosmopolitan perspectives through their aesthetic-reflective potential. So, rather, the question is if the classrooms will remain a site for cross-border conversations in a time of increasing diversifying on the local level.

     

     

     

  • 35.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Curriculum events: Class room discourses as part of curriculum discourse and regulation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper covers both a brief general presentation of the project ‘Understanding curriculum reforms: a theory-oriented evaluation of the Swedish curriculum reform Lgr 11, Curriculum for the compulsory school,2011’ and an in-depth  study of classroom discourses in relation to whole-class teaching from a curriculum theory perspective (Deng & Luke 2008, Lundgren 1989). Based on background studies on transnational and national policy moves and the configuration of the Swedish curriculum reform into actual curriculum (Wahlström 2014, 2016, Sivesind & Wahlström 2016, Nordin & Sundberg 2016), a teacher survey with 1900 informants and 18 interviews with teachers regarding their experiences of the curriculum reform Lgr 11 has been conducted (Wahlström & Sundberg 2015).  Central for the project is a comparative classroom study comprising social studies (history, geography, religion and civics) in school year six in six classrooms in six municipalities, comprising 70 videotaped lessons.

    Theoretical and methodological approaches

     

    The purpose of the present paper is to explore how the curriculum is enacted on the classroom level, in terms of ‘curriculum events’ (Doyle 1992). More specifically, the aim is to explore how the rationality of the curriculum structure and content transforms into the rationality of the classroom teaching: How can classroom discourse be understood as part of a wider context of curriculum? What different rationalities, linked to curriculum, may underlie teachers' choice of teaching repertoires?

    Drawing on Doyle (1992), pedagogy is not viewed as a neutral form of teaching methods, but rather as a combination of curriculum text and the discursive practice created in the classroom when a specific curriculum content is transformed to be the subject of actual teaching. The main unit of analysis is ‘tasks’, defined as a continuing theme that stretch over a sequences of lessons. A thorough framework has been worked out for the coding of the 70 lessons with reference to Alexander (2001) and Klette et al. (2005) as well as complementing with a coding of content.

    Key findings

    There are significant differences in the teaching repertoire between the start, the middle and the end of a curriculum task, despite the fact that all lessons in the data are considered as whole class teaching.  In the start and the end of a task recitation is a dominating teaching repertoire, while shorter individual work and assignment-driven work in pair or small groups are the most common teaching repertoires in the middle of a task. With reference to Skidmore (2006) and Molinari et al. (2013), I explore, why recitational approaches to teaching continue to be prevalent despite the obvious problems of this approach raised by classroom researchers. I elucidate how the IRF pattern can be understood from a Swedish standards-based curriculum perspective (Sundberg & Wahlström 2012). The significance of the paper is to conceptualise classroom research from a curriculum theory perspective to gain new insights on the influence of curriculum content for teacher's choice of teaching repertoires.

     

  • 36.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Demokrati - en fråga om det genetiska eller det kosmopolitiska?: Kommentar till Jakob Klitmøller & Dion Sommer: Turboladet globalisering og den fremtidsparate skole - en vision.2016In: Nordisk tidsskrift for pedagogikk & kritikk, ISSN 2387-5739, Vol. 2, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jacob Klitmøller och Dion Sommer tar sin utgångpunkt i den snabbt ökade globaliseringen när de presenterar sin vision om den ”den fremtidsparate skole”, det vill säga en skola som förbereder dagens barn för framtidens utmaningar. Argumenten i artikeln är väl grundade och den framtidsvision som tar form utgör en ”tredje väg”, mellan det som författarna uttrycker som ”den afgrundsdybe splittelse” mellan å ena sidan ”systemteoretikerne” som förespråkar en evidensbaserad mål- och resultatstyrd skola och ”danneleseteoretikerne” som förespråkar ett bredare uppdrag för skolan att främja såväl individens personliga utveckling som utveckling till samhällsmedborgare. Den tredje vägen, som argumenteras för i artikeln, utgår i stället från modern evolutionsforskning som framställer leken som oundgänglig för barns utveckling eftersom den påverkar barns epigenetiska reglering. När denna biologiska grund för en utbildning inriktad mot framtiden väl har stakats ut i artikeln så verkar den framtidsinriktade pedagogiken att ligga förhållandevis nära en bildningsinriktad utbildningstradition, om än från dess olika utgångspunkter i biologi respektive filosofi.

    I denna kommentar till artikeln kommer jag att särskilt ta upp tre punkter, i) OECD och organisationens utbildningspolicy, ii) frågan om vad som räknas som kunskap och iii) frågan om demokrati och våra (ständiga) förhoppningar på nästa generation.

  • 37.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Den effektiva läraren: om konstruktionen av den goda läraren på en internationell utbildningsarena2012In: Föreställningar om den goda läraren / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2012, p. 247-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för läraren som företeelse och begrepp inom internationell utbildningspolicy grundar sig på antagandet att lärarens yrkesutövning är av avgörande betydelse för att eleverna ska nå de internationellt och nationellt formulerade målen. Flera internationella arenor pekar således ut den enskilde läraren som grundbulten i ett lands utbildningssystem. Intresset för lärarprofessionen är en följd av grundantagandet att en ökande internationalisering leder till snabba förändringar och ständigt ny teknikanvändning. Det kräver i sin tur att medborgarna har tillägnat sig en allmän kompetens som gör det möjligt för dem att hantera ständigt nya villkor, såväl inom arbetsmarknaden som i samhällslivet i övrigt. Läraren, konstrueras diskursivt som kontextoberoende, internationell och generell. Eftersom de kompetenser som eleverna ska uppnå är desamma i den industrialiserade världen, krävs det också samma kompetenser hos alla lärare vilket öppnar för standarder för lärarutbildning och kompetensprofiler för lärare som utformas gemensamt och samordnat inom organisationer som OECD och EU. Det är lärarens undervisningsförmåga som ska borga för effektiviteten i ett lands utbildningssystem. Med en sådan utgångspunkt är den effektiva lärare som beskrivs som ett ideal i de internationella policyinriktade utbildningstexter som har refererats till i detta kapitel att betrakta som en leverantör av utbildningstjänster.

  • 38.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dewey, Democracy and the Nation State Education: Paper presented at the symposium Postnationalism and Cosmopolitanism: Implications for Leadership and Curriculum-Making2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dewey closes one of his texts with the words “what we want and need is education pure and simple” (Dewey 1938). But even if we might agree, what does this mean for education today in a context of transnational policy reforms and national/ local diversity? Drawing on Dewey’s essay “Creative Democracy – The Task Before Us” (1939), this paper addresses the meaning of democracy and education in a globalized world, characterized by national pluralism and interdependence on the one hand and increasing nationalism on the other hand. The purpose of the study is to theorize and problematize the political, economic and cultural citizenship that is presupposed/proposed in authoritative policy texts transnationally and nationally. For this purpose, four different country reports from the transnational Organisation for Cooperation and Development (OECD) focused on the Swedish school, as well as the Swedish State’s responses to the issues raised in the OECD reports, are analyzed.

     The theoretical framework includes Dewey’s philosophical concept of "experience", understood in terms of “transactional realism” that underpins his conceptions of both democracy and education (Dewey 1916a, 1938), Dewey's interpretation of nationality (Dewey 1916b), and, finally, the concept of "rooted cosmopolitanism" (Appiah 2007, Hansen 2011, Bernstein 2000, Wahlström 2016) as a basic concept for contextualizing human interconnectedness.

  • 39.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Do we need to talk to each other?: How the concept of experience can contribute to an understanding of Bildung and democracy2010In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 293-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article it is argued that the contested concept of Bildung, with its roots in the late 18th century, remains of interest in the postmodern era, even if there is also certainly a debate about it having had its day. In the specific discussion about Bildung and democracy, it is suggested that Dewey's reconstucted concept of experience has several points in common with a more recent understanding of  Bildung, at the same time as it can provide insight into how democracy can be understood within the field of Bildung. In brief, in this article it is suggested that if we wish to discuss democracy and Bildung, Dewey's notion of experience might offer a bridge between the two concepts, as well as an understanding of subjectivity, learning, and communication as a whole. Finally, communication is a nesessary part of both democracy and Bildung - not because of certain human similarities, but because of the similarities in some of the problems which we humans encounter, and which we think are worth reflecting upon.

  • 40.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Early childhood education: Economy and pedagogy in a perfect combination?2016In: Abstract book. Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education. NERA 2016, 44th Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association, Helsinki, 9-11 March, 2016, 2016, p. 225-226Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research aim: The aim of this paper is to critically explore the discourse of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in European transnational policy documents and its potential implications for the Swedish (and Nordic) pre-school development. The point of departure for this study is one of the EU benchmarks in the Strategic Framework for Education and Training 2020 (ET 2020), with the purpose of collecting quantitative information for comparative analysis: “At least 95 % of children between the age of four and the age for starting compulsory primary education should participate in early childhood education”. The underlying assumption is that ECEC is “the essential foundation for successful lifelong learning, social integration, personal development and later employability” (European Commission 2011). In what ways do these economic and social expectations form a transnational policy discourse of ECEC? How can the Swedish Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 Revised 2010 be categorised in relation to curriculum typology, and what are the convergences and divergences in relation to European transnational policy? In the paper the Curriculum for Preschool is discussed in relation to Nordic welfare societies and curricula traditions.

    Theoretical framework: Drawing on Nancy Fraser’s theory of ‘politics of need interpretation’ in Western welfare-state societies, the focus shifts from needs to discourses about needs (Fraser, 1989). According to Fraser, the politics of need interpretation ‘tend to be nested, connected to one another in ramified chains of “in-order-to” relations’ (Fraser, 1989). When the needs are enclaved and depoliticized into the official-economic arena, the result will be limitations in the chains of in-order-to relations for interpreting people’s needs. The official-economic institutions are, according to Fraser, the most important depoliticized enclaves, in which interpretations of needs must be exceeded in order to become ‘political’ in a discourse sense; that is, to become runaway needs. The Curriculum for Preschool is analysed as a field of tension between official-economic needs and Nordic preschool traditions within a framework of curriculum typology (Kelly 2009).

    Expected conclusions: In the transnational policy arena, the pattern of in-order-to chain is clear: in order to increase the share of students in tertiary education there is a need for more students with an exam from upper secondary school; for reaching that goal, there is a need to decrease the share of early school leavers; for making that to happen there is an increased need for students to meet the requirements of compulsory school; and for that purpose, there is a need for a broad participation in ECEC, which is the last link in the chain. On a national level, a language of child's needs has largely been replaced by a language of learning (Biesta 2005). The emphasis on lifelong learning rests heavily on ECEC, with a curriculum as process and development in a mix of competencies and knowledge.

  • 41.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Educational cosmopolitanism: making meaning through reflective conversations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the theoretical framework, I draw on Kwame Anthony Appiah’s (2005, 2007) ethical perspective on cosmopolitanism and David Hansen’s (2008a, 2008b) concept of educational cosmopolitanism. In the discussion from which point of reference communication with ‘strangers’ becomes possible, Donald Davidson’s (2001) notion of a shared world and a triangulation between one's own thoughts, others' thoughts and a common object are fruitful (Wahlström 2010). Davidson’s emphasis on a shared world is in accordance with Appiah’s (2005) claim that human beings can learn from each other’s stories only if they understand that they share a single world.  According to Appiah (2007), one of the central ways to coordinate our lives with others is through language of values. Thus, conversation means to be engaged in others and others' ideas, rather than coming to a common agreement. Hansen (2008a) examines curriculum as a ‘cosmopolitan inheritance’ and pays attention to which issues the world puts forth to students today. Rizvi (2009), on the other hand, inquires into cosmopolitan learning, with an emphasis on the identity and the connectivity with the rest of the world. I will use the concept of educational cosmopolitanism in this broader meaning of global interconnectedness and actual intercultural meetings in classrooms.

    In understanding educational cosmopolitanism as conversations on values, listening becomes the crucial point.  We must, as Garrison (1996) puts it, put our own ideas at risk in listening with openness to others. A reason to take such a risk, is, according to Garrison, that we already always are vulnerable, and at risk, since we are all already members of different cultures and groups, and are already in dialogues with others, even if we perhaps are not always fully aware of it. However, in a cosmopolitan view of education, the importance of listening needs to be emphasized, and the role of the listener needs to be recognized. 

     

     

  • 42.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Embedded in a transnational context of curriculum formation - a turn towards a denationalized - instrumental conception of education in Sweden2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand the nation-state and its role in a transnational landscape of educational policy? I argue that one way to begin to sort out this extensive question is to understand these partial but significant mix of processes of globalization deep inside the national state as a hybrid – neither fully private or public, nor fully global or national (Sassen 2003b). I suggest that this hybridity is conceptualized in terms of denationalization. Following Sassen (2003a), a key element in denationalization is that the states do not only participate in common understandings of global agreements, but that their actions and role also are transformed through the specific type of work entailed in coming to an international consensus (modes of negotiations, preparatory work in different international networks and the like). Another aspect of denationalization is a reunderstanding of ‘the local’. The idea of ‘the local’ needs to be rethought, and be seen as parts of multi-scalar systems (e.g. the Mumbai housing movement, Appadurai 2013), rather than as specifically demarcated local places or as holding a special place in a hierarchy (c.f. Sassen 2003a).

    The purpose with this paper is to examine the Swedish conception of education in a transnational as well as national context. I will focus on two factors: a shift in the role of the state in the formation of educational policy and a shift in the concept of ' the citizen' in compulsory school's citizenship education. The examination includes the three most recent curriculum reforms from the early 1980s to the present day. In the first part of the paper, I explore the concepts of globalism and transnationalism and suggest how these concepts can be understood as related to the concept of nation-state, with a specific focus on educational policy and the concept of knowledge. Drawing on Sassen and Schmidt, I also suggest a theoretical framework that I will argue is helpful as a base for the analysis. In the second part of the paper, I turn to Sweden for my analysis of the two foci mentioned above. I use three official reports, related to the last three curricula in order to analyze shifts in state agency in the field of educational policy from 1970s and onwards. For the analysis of the concept of the 'citizen’ in curricula, I take my starting point in an analysis of educational conceptions in Englund (1986/2005). In the third part, finally, I discuss my results and suggest from what conditions a conception of education can be understood as denationalized .

     

     

  • 43.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Equity: policy rhetoric or a matter of meaning of knowledge?: Towards a framework for tracing the 'efficiency-equity' doctrine in curriculum documents2014In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 731-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the focus is on exploring the perspective of equity in curriculum. From a background of understanding curriculum as imbedded in wider transnational policy movements, the author suggests a framework for exploring the trajectories between equity policy and different types of curricula with implications for what counts as knowledge, drawing on the capabilities approach developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The analysis highlights the instrumental, intrinsic and positional values in terms of actual functionings, expanding the individual’s set of capabilities and a pluralistic learning environment. The results suggest that the technical form of the curriculum can have determining effects on the meaning of knowledge acquisition and that the capabilities approach offers an important frame of analysis for understanding  how different aspects of equity are included or excluded in curriculum. 

     

  • 44.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Ett nytt språk om skola?: Recensionsessä2010In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 113-118Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När AERA[1] presenterar sitt konferenstema för 2011 års konferens ställer man forskning kring ”the public good” i centrum, med en ambition att väcka en ny dialog om relationen mellan pedagogisk forskning och det offentliga skolväsendet.  AERA pekar på det till synes motstridiga i att vi å ena sidan lever i en tid av exceptionellt intresse för utbildning och utbildningsfrågor som tar sig uttryck i stor reformiver, en våg av lagstiftning inom utbildningsområdet samt en policyretorik om skolans möjligheter att öppna upp för social och ekonomisk utveckling. Samtidigt har dessa ambitioner lett till att skolans dagliga liv och frågeställningar kanaliserats in i teknokratiska och marknadsinspirerade banor vilket å andra sidan leder till ökad skolsegregation, stor tro på utvärdering och tester samt en förskjutning från ett allmänt till ett privat drivet skolsystem.

    Boken ”Why School?” av Mike Rose. Som en introduktion till 2011 års konferens på temat ”Inciting the Social Imagination: Education Research for the Public Good” relaterar AERA sitt tema till boken Why School? Reclaiming Education for All of Us” av professor Mike Rose, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Boken Why School? är såväl till omfång som till innehåll en behändig och lättillgänglig skrift. Det riktigt intressanta med boken är kanske främst dess roll som en symbol för en ny diskussion om en allmän skola genom att den på detta sätt lyfts fram av AERA, med en uppfordran att gå till botten med våra föreställningar om varför allmän utbildning behövs.

    [1] American Educational Research Association

  • 45.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Från olikhet till valfrihet2012In: Uppdrag lärare: en antologi om status, yrkesskicklighet och framtidsdrömmar / [ed] Leif Mathiasson, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets Förlag , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Internationella konventioner och debatten om fristående skolor i Sverige2011In: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller… ? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011, p. 87-127Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet belyser på vilka sätt Sveriges undertecknande av internationella konventioner, främst då Europakonventionen, har använts i den svenska debatten om fristående skolor från mitten av 1900-talet och framåt. I kapitlet ges en historisk översikt över utredningar och propositioner som har lett fram till ändringar i skollagen, från 1958 års folkskolestadga fram till propositionen om ny skollag 2010. Det material som har undersökts består huvudsakligen av offentliga utredningar, departementsskrivelser och riksdagstryck.

  • 47.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Learning to communicate or communicating to learn?: A conceptual discussion on communnication, meaning, and knowledge2010In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 431-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the conditions for students’ prospects of acquiring knowledge in school often are thought of as something that must be improved in the political rhetoric, it is also urgent, as Michael F. D. Young has argued, to ask what kind of knowledge should be the basis of the curriculum and to recognize the question of knowledge as central to the curricular debate. This article examines the grounds for a relational and communicative understanding of education. Drawing on John Dewey’s reconstruction of the concept of experience and Donald Davidson’s meaning theory in terms of three varieties of knowledge, the emphasis is on an intersubjective conceptualization of meaning and knowledge and its implications. Central themesin the analysis are communication as a condition for the acquisition of knowledge; a shared, but not identical, world as a point of reference; and an approach to specialized knowledge as judgement formation. As a conclusion it is argued that one condition for acquisition of knowledge, in terms of meaning, is to participate in and be influenced by conversations with a shared purpose, within and between different groups.

  • 48.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Örebro universitet.
    Likvärdighet och kunskap: en diskussion utifrån två mångtydiga begrepp2008In: Vadå likvärdighet?: Studier i utbildningspolitisk språkanvändning / [ed] Tomas Englund, Ann Quennerstedt, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2008, p. 120-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lyssnandets utmaningar: Om dissonans, splittring och kreativitet2014In: Den reflekterade erfarenheten: John Dewey om demokrati, utbildning och tänkande / [ed] Anders Burman, Huddinge: Södertörn högskola , 2014, p. 79-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet, som utgår från John Deweys kommunikationsbegrepp, riktas uppmärksamheten mot ett av kommunikationens villkor, nämligen lyssnandet och lyssnarens roll. Följande två frågor diskuteras: Hur tar lyssnandet form i Deweys teori om kommunikation? Om utbildning är detsamma som kommunikation, vilken roll intar då lyssnande i relation till lärande och meningsskapande i ett pluralistiskt samhälle? 

  • 50.
    Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Läroplansteori och didaktik2016 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läroplansteori och didaktik är två delar av det vetenskapliga ämnet pedagogik. Läroplansteorins grundläggande fråga är ”Vad räknas som kunskap?”. Det är en fråga som ständigt är utsatt för omprövning och debatt. En fråga som ofta väcker känslor och som aldrig kommer att få ett slutgiltigt svar. Lika omdebatterad är didaktikens grundläggande fråga om hur kunskaper, värden och erfarenheter ska organiseras i konkreta undervisnings- och lärandesituationer.

    I den här boken belyser författaren dessa två breda frågeställningar ur ett flertal olika aspekter. Som en röd tråd löper insikten att det vi håller för sant i frågor om utbildning och lärande förändras historiskt över tid och varierar geografiskt, beroende på historiska, sociala och kulturella traditioner.

    I bokens andra upplaga har tillkommit ett kapitel om hur förskolans läroplan har växt fram som del av en transnationell utbildningspolicy. Med start i 1970-talets barnstugeutredning redogörs för vilka tankar och begrepp som har format måldokumenten från Pedagogiskt program för förskolan till förskolans två första läroplaner.

    Boken avslutas med ett avsnitt som visar på hur varje läroplan mer eller mindre medvetet grundas på antaganden om ett visst medborgarideal. I en bilaga ges praktiska exempel på hur man som lärare själv kan genomföra en didaktisk läroplansanalys.

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