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  • 1.
    Antai, Imoh
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Mutshinda, Crispin
    Mount Allison University, Canada.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    A 3-R principle for characterizing failure in relief supply chains’response to natural disasters2015In: Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2042-6747, E-ISSN 2042-6755, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 234-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    principle for characterizing failure in humanitarian/relief supply chains’ response to natural disasters,and describes a Bayesian methodology of the failure odds with regard to external factors that mayaffect the disaster-relief outcome, and distinctive supply chain proneness to failure.Design/methodology/approach – The suggested 3Rs combine simplicity and completeness,enclosing all aspects of the 7R principle popular within business logistics. A fixed effects logisticregression model is designed, with a Bayesian approach, to relate the supply chains’ odds for success indisaster-relief to potential environmental predictors, while accounting for distinctive supply chains’proneness to failure.Findings – Analysis of simulated data demonstrate the model’s ability to distinguish relief supplychains with regards to their disaster-relief failure odds, taking into account pertinent external factorsand supply chain idiosyncrasies.Research limitations/implications – Due to the complex nature of natural disasters and the scarcityof subsequent data, the paper employs computer-simulated data to illustrate the implementation ofthe proposed methodology.Originality/value – The 3R principle offers a simple and familiar basis for evaluating failure in reliefsupply chains’ response to natural disasters. Also, it brings the issues of customer orientation withinhumanitarian relief and supply operations to the fore, which had only been implicit within thehumanitarian and relief supply chain literature.

  • 2.
    Dadzie, Samuel Ato
    et al.
    Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Understanding establishment mode choice of foreign manufacturing firms in Ghana2015In: International Journal of Emerging Markets, ISSN 1746-8809, E-ISSN 1746-8817, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 896-920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the foreign direct investment (FDI) strategies ofmanufacturing firms in Ghana using the eclectic model in order to understand how ownership, location and internalization factors impact FDI to developing countries like Ghana.

    Design/methodology/approach – The authors use a quantitativemethodology in order to statistically explore the relationships between dependent and independent variables. The data comes from a sample of 75 multinational enterprises that invested in the manufacturing sector between 1994 and 2008.

    Findings – The results reveal that large firm size, extensive international experience and large market size lead to the choice of acquisition mode of entry, while high cultural distance, high country risk, high proprietary assets and incentives lead to the choice of greenfield mode in the context of Ghana.

    Research limitations/implications – The results imply that the different economic, business

    and legal (locational) conditions of developing countries create different FDI strategies and paths of companies compared to developed markets.

    Practical implications – Policy makers in developing countries should make efforts to improve market size, the institutional and regulatory environment, as well as the availability of human capital in order to attract FDI.

    Originality/value – FDI studies have mainly analysed establishment mode strategies of firms in advanced markets. There is an increasing amount of research on FDI in emerging markets but very little on developing countries and African markets. Therefore, this study enables the authors to develop implications for existing theory and generate practical implications for firms and policy makers related to African and developing country markets.

  • 3.
    Dadzie, Samuel Ato
    et al.
    Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Amoako, Kwarteng
    Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Aklamanu, Alphonse
    Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Ghana.
    Do strategic motives affect ownership mode of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) in emerging African markets?: evidence from Ghana2018In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 279-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to examine the influence of ownership, location, and internalization-specific factors, as well as strategic motives on ownership choice of foreign subsidiaries in Ghana. The authors use a quantitative methodology in order to statistically explore the relationships between dependent and independent variables by using the logistic regression model. The analysis was based on 115 manufacturing investments made by multinational corporations (MNCs) from different countries in 1994–2013. The results indicate that contractual risk leads to the choice of whollymowned subsidiary while cultural distance and country risk lead to the choice of the joint venture. In the case of the motives, efficiency-seeking and resource-seeking FDIs lead to the choice of the joint venture.

  • 4.
    Kauppinen-Raisänen, Hannele
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Abeeku-Bamfo, Bylon
    KNUST School of Business, Department of Marketing.
    Brand salience of OTC pharmaceuticals through package appearance2012In: International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, ISSN 1750-6123, E-ISSN 1750-6131, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 230-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The changing health care market is affecting consumers who are now expected to take greater responsibility for their health. Their means for doing this include purchasing self-medication and medical self-service, which coincides neatly with an increase in the number of over-the-counter (OTC) pharmaceuticals. Additionally, OTC pharmaceuticals are progressively becoming available in a wider range of stores, where the pharmacists’ knowledge of the OTC products is absent. This study aims to examine packaging as media that conveys the product message at the point of purchase, and to explore the impact of its extrinsic verbal and visual product cues.

    Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory conjoint analysis was conducted in Finland, the USA, and Ghana. In total, 89 respondents conducted conjoint tasks for two product types, i.e. a painkiller and sore throat medicine.

    Findings – The results showed differences and similarities in the impact of the packaging product cues across Finland, the USA, and Ghana. Differences and similarities were also detected across the two different, but related, product types. The study found that the impact of product cues is contextual, varying across the samples and product types.

    Practical implications – The results are limited by the exploratory nature of the conjoint analysis.

    They highlight that medical marketers should recognize the varying impact of salient cues on

    consumers’ product preferences and choices.

    Originality/value – The study deals with a mostly unexplored issue and provides exploratory

    insights into the phenomenon

  • 5.
    Mbare, Otieno
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Habiyakare, Evariste
    Helia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Implementing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Africa: a conceptualisation and propositions2011In: Leadership & management studies in Sub-Sahara Africa: volume II and III / [ed] Romie F. Littrell & Pieter S. Nel, San Diego: University Readers , 2011, 1, p. 192-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is gaining increasing importance for contemporary companies. Various groups like governments, non-governmental organisations, international multilateral organisations, shareholders and consumer groups are joining the debate and encouraging companies to pursue CSR. Many corporations are making strategic decisions to incorporate CSR into their business models. CSR is seen as representing best practices and as a tool to achieve sustainable development. From the corporate perspective, CSR can establish the company as a good corporate citizen and could lead to improved productivity of the workforce. In spite of the fact that CSR regulations are generally lax in African countries, it is important for companies doing business in Africa to implement it, as the material needs of the workers and the rest of the population are inadequately provided for. In this paper we present a conceptualisation of CSR in a developing country context and present propositions for achieving the strategy in Africa.

  • 6.
    Nnamdi, Oguji
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Africa as a source location: literature review and implications2014In: International Journal of Emerging Markets, ISSN 1746-8809, E-ISSN 1746-8817, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 424-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to explore the scope of sourcing research in Sub-Sahara African (SSA) from scholarly journals published from 1980 to 2013 on sourcing-related issues. The study identifies what is known about sourcing from this region and the implications for managers and researchers in supply chain management.

    Design/methodology/approach– Totally, 40 scholarly journals (supply chain journals and other journals publishing on diverse business topics) were found relevant and reviewed. Content (all field) search using the names of each SSA countries (e.g. Nigeria, South Africa, Ghana, etc.) was carried out in the supply chain journals to filter out articles discussing sourcing-related topics. For other business journals, keyword search was performed (procurement, sourcing, purchasing, outsourcing, supplier relations, supplier selection, supplier development, supply management, offshore, supply chain and logistics).

    Findings– The literature review suggests that studies discussing sourcing issues in SSA have focussed mainly on challenges of sourcing from SSA, and they provide some insights on implementation of supply chain tools such as total quality management, negotiating and selecting suppliers from SSA, and just-in time purchasing. However, the authors found that there is an under-representation of this region in supply chain management literature. More so, the articles discussing sourcing issues in Africa are limited in scope empirically and theoretically in comparison with the large amount of contributions in other emerging economies of Asia and developed economies.

    Research limitations/implications– The limited amount of publications and contributions does not allow us to provide an integrated framework for sourcing from SSA.

    Practical implications– There is a need for future research to explore how the SSA context could enhance theorizing in supply chains. Also, there is need for researchers to extend the sourcing debate from the over emphasis on technology sourcing, knowledge intensive service outsourcing and component sourcing to other lower value-added products such as agricultural products and other raw materials sourced in SSA.

    Originality/value– This paper is one of the first to explore the scope of sourcing in Africa. As the findings suggest, there have been limited amount of papers published about this region. The review provides a perspective for researchers to explore this region and to aid theory development in supply chains. It also provided implications on how to support research publication focussing on this region and how to inform managerial perceptions on sourcing from SSA.

  • 7.
    Oguji, Nnamdi
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Acquisitions entry strategies in Africa: the role of institutions, target-specific experience, and host-country capabilities - The case acquisitions of Finnish multinationals in Africa2017In: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 209-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acquisition is an important entry strategy for multinational enterprises (MNEs) seeking to gain faster entry into new and emerging markets and remain competitive in the global marketplace. MNEs utilize partial-, staged-, and full-acquisition strategies when entering into foreign markets. This research analyzes how and why firms opt for these acquisition strategies in the context of Africa. The study applies institutional theory and explores constructs derived from the Uppsala internationalization process model. Using a case study of five Finnish acquisitions in Africa (Egypt, Morocco, Kenya, and South Africa), it was found that Finnish MNEs opt for partial acquisition rather than staged and full acquisition in the context of acquisitions made prior to late 1990s without earnout arrangements. Finnish MNEs opt for the choice of staged acquisition rather than partial and full acquisition in the contexts of mild regulatory framework in host countries and when the acquired firm business requires extensive improvements and the target host market structure is fragmented. Finnish MNEs opt for the choice of full acquisition rather than partial and staged acquisition in three contexts specifically: (1) when the acquiring Finnish MNE possesses host-country capability, target-specific experience, and ensures the retention of top management personnel of the acquired target; (2) when the size of the acquired target is relatively very small compared to the acquiring MNE; and (3) when the nature of the acquired firm business is well developed and the target host-market structure is consolidating.

  • 8.
    Oguji, Nnamdi
    et al.
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Larimo, Jorma
    Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Determinants of equity changes in partial acquisitions of Finnish multinationals in foreign markets2019In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 268-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose When entering foreign markets, multinationals can acquire part of a foreign firm and can increase or decrease their equity stake over time. However, extant studies have mainly focused on equity stake acquired during initial market entry. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach This study fills this gap by using the Uppsala model to analyze six cases of international acquisitions of Finnish multinationals in global markets. Findings The authors found that firms change their equity stake in partially acquired foreign subsidiaries: when they have learned about the host country and businesses of the partially acquired firms, when they have gained target-specific experience, when they build trust and ensure relationship commitment and finally, when they jointly develop and exploit opportunities. Originality/value This study is one of the first to apply the Uppsala model to empirically analyze international acquisitions, thus paving the way for behavioral and process-oriented approaches. The study contributes to knowledge of post-entry strategies of multinationals.

  • 9.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Project marketing to Africa: lessons from the case of IVO Transmission Engineering and Ghana’s national electrification scheme2002In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 523-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for new models for foreign business and investment in Africa. The world's "poorest" continent has a massive deficit in infrastructural, production and other facilities. The foreign business and investment dividends expected from economic liberalization and democracy that have been implemented by most African countries since the mid-1980s are yet to be achieved. In this paper, project business is suggested as a model for foreign firms to do business in Africa, in the short to medium-term. Thereby, they will establish relationships and networks and gain valuable knowledge and experience of African economies. Such experience, relationships and networks can be used to do profitable business in the short to medium-term. In the long term, economic growth in African economies will expand opportunities, and the firms in question will be well placed to take advantage of them.

  • 10.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Habiyakare, Evariste
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    African Regional Cooperation and Growth Triangle Strategies2007In: Leadership and Management Studies in Sub-Sahara Africa: Volume 1 / [ed] Romie F. Littrell & Prem Ramburuth, San Diego: University Readers , 2007, 1, p. 114-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas Africa has witnessed failure to achieve economic growth through formal regional cooperation efforts, Asia combined these efforts with other strategies and has been able to achieve positive results. Through formal regional cooperation and conscious support to key potential growth zones, Asian countries used growth triangle strategies (GT) that were aimed at increasing their competitiveness. This paper discusses the GT concept and proposes that African countries could benefit by adopting GT strategies. We illustrate our key arguments by comparing two regional cooperation processes in Africa: the East African Community (EAC) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

  • 11.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Centre for Relationship Marketing and Services Management (CERS), Finland.
    Habiyakare, Evariste
    HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Managing risk and turbulence in internationalization of foreign companies to South Africa: Lessons from seven Finnish business-to-business firms2011In: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 219-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the authors examine how seven Finnish business-to-business firms have managed risk and turbulence in their internationalization to South Africa. Thirty interviews with managers and other relevant informants were conducted. The study finds that the levels of perceived risk and turbulence were high in the market and the firms have used networks, alliances, gradual involvement, and a combination of entry modes to deal with the situation. The study contributes to the literature on business in Africa by providing implications for why and how firms develop their involvement in African markets and how they deal with challenges and opportunities.

  • 12.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Mutshinda, Crispin M.
    Mt Allison Univ, Canada.
    Antai, Imoh
    Jönköping Int Business Sch.
    Dadzie, Kofi Q.
    Georgia State Univ, USA.
    Winston, Evelyn M.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, USA.
    Which UGC features drive web purchase intent?: A spike-and-slab Bayesian Variable Selection Approach2016In: Internet Research, ISSN 1066-2243, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 22-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify user-generated content (UGC) features that determine web purchase decision making. Design/methodology/approach - The authors embed a spike-and-slab Bayesian variable selection mechanism into a logistic regression model to identify the UGC features that are critical to web purchase intent. This enables us to make a highly reliable analysis of survey data. Findings -The results indicate that the web purchase decision is driven by the relevance, up-to-dateness and credibility of the UGC information content. Research limitations/implications - The results show that the characteristics of UGC are seen as positive and the medium enables consumers to sort information and concentrate on aspects of the message that are similar to traditional word-of-mouth (WOM). One important implication is the relative importance of credibility which has been previously hypothesized to be lower in the electronic word-of-mouth (e-WOM) context. The results show that consumers consider credibility important as the improved technology provides more possibilities to find out about that factor. A limitation is that the data are not fully representative of the general population but our Bayesian method gives us high analytical quality. Practical implications - The study shows that UGC impacts consumer online purchase intentions. Marketers should understand the wide range of media that provide UGC and they should concentrate on the relevance, up-to-dateness and credibility of product information that they provide. Originality/value - The analytical quality of the spike-and-slab Bayesian method suggests a new way of understanding the impact of aspects of UGC on consumers.

  • 13.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Mostaghel, Rana
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Welch, Catherine
    Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Activities and resources of institutional actors in international development projects2015In: Ideas in Marketing: Finding the New and Polishing the Old, Springer, 2015, p. 386-386Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Sandhu, Maqsood
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Kock, Sören
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Project business: a distinct mode of internationalization2007In: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 695-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The aim of the paper is to elaborate a framework of project business as a distinct mode of internationalization. The uniqueness and complexity of project business as a core mode are portrayed by comparing it with other internationalization modes. It is agreed that a single project sale is a discrete form of direct involvement in a foreign market. However, this provides opportunities for network interactions that can facilitate further project business openings in a foreign market and on a global level.

    Design/methodology/approach– Using the abductive method, the paper constructs a comparative framework of project business and other forms of internationalization. It illustrates the discussion with a longitudinal case study of a company that uses project business as its strategic choice for its internationalization.

    Findings– The paper finds that, using project business as its core internationalization mode, the company has expanded its global business as well as entering and succeeding in foreign business networks. It proposes that the network and relationship‐based project business approach is viable as a strategic alternative for internationalization on its own or in combination with other modes.

    Research limitations/implications– The study provides a framework for positioning project business as a separate internationalization mode. It provides a comparative framework for internationalization modes.

    Practical implications– This study provides managers with an understanding of project business as a distinct and profitable mode of internationalization. It illuminates the network and relationship‐building aspects of project business.

    Originality/value– According to the research, this is the first study that proposes project business as a distinct mode of internationalization. Much previous research has either not mentioned project business or subsumed it as an unimportant part of exports. The framework developed in this study should spur new research on the issue.

  • 15.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Vaaland, Terje
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    What is a responsible supply chain?2012In: International Journal of Business and Management, ISSN 1833-3850, E-ISSN 1833-8119, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 154-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the concept of responsible supply chain based on two dimensions, the core processes of a supply chain and the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). It is suggested that a responsible supply chain is achieved through manifested core values of the supply chain actors, strategies and tactics. The paper further discusses the individual sujpply chain actors' responsiblity in securing a responsible supply chain beyond the actors' direct control. A conceptual model and a definition of a responsible supply chain are offered. Our model not only provides structure to the extant research but also develops new constructs and relationships that improve the conceptualization of the responsible supply chain. The paper is based on a review of 81 research articles published between 2000 and 2010 in which elements of CSR and supply chin processes are included.

  • 16.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Vaaland, Terje I.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    A business network perspective on local content in emerging African petroleum nations2016In: International Journal of Energy Sector Management, ISSN 1750-6220, E-ISSN 1750-6239, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 594-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The paper aims to identify and analyze the actors and their interrelationships in realizing local content objectives in African oil- and gas-producing nations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper includes content analysis of relevant research papers and reports within the oil and gas industry, local content and industrial networks published between 2000 and 2014.

    Findings – The study developed a framework that integrates the literature on local content with the industrial network theory. The framework classifies the various critical actors for achieving local content, proposing that achieving local content requires the development of business network links and a resource alignment among local companies and institutions and foreign companies and institutions, in addition to multinational oil companies.

    Research limitations/implications – The framework of this study contributes to an emerging

    theory on local content by integrating the industrial network theory, which provides specific

    frameworks for analyzing embedded business environments, along with the previous economic and legal-based studies of local content achievement.

    Practical implications – The way the relevant actors organize their resources and business

    networks provides potential for local content in an emerging oil and gas industry in Africa.

    Originality/value – The paper is one of the few to integrate studies of local content with the industrial

    network theory. The literature review provides a summary window of the research on the subject over a 14-year period.

  • 17.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Vaaland, Terje I.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Achieving local content in extractive industries of African countries2016In: Economic and Social Development: Book of Proceedings / [ed] Marin Milkovic, Goran Kozina & Dinko Primorac, Varazdin, Croatia: Varazdin Development and Entrepreneurship Agency, , 2016, p. 74-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local content defines the extent of participation of local industry in extractive industries like mining, oil and gas. These industries are major destinations of foreign direct investments. They are very important revenue streams for governments of developing and emerging economies. In many countries, however, local industry is not participating enough. Recently researchers are bringing new perspectives into research and policy on the subject. We discuss the issue based on a review of relevant literature including a study in Nigeria in the wake of the passage of the new local content laws. Our study finds that the achievement of local content depends on the collaboration of a range of actors. Local political and legal institutions, local businesses, MNCs, universities and research organizations, international development partners and donors have to contribute their political and economic resources to achieve local content. 

  • 18.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    et al.
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    Welch, Catherine
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    The buying network in international project business: a comparative case study of development projects2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 147-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While previous research has found project buying to be distinct from other buying situations, in that it typically involves a multi-organizational network, to date there has been very little empirical research on this phenomenon. Our aim in this paper is therefore to investigate the structure and decision-making processes of the project buying network during the project cycle and its interactions with project sellers. We first develop a preliminary conceptual framework for analyzing the project buying network, which is then applied to a comparative case study of three development projects. The findings from the case study allow us to propose a revised conceptual framework for analyzing the dynamics of the project buying network during the project cycle, as well as interaction with sellers. Our findings also contribute an understanding of development projects, in particular the role of financiers.

  • 19.
    Ramburuth, Prem
    et al.
    University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Buatsi, Paul N.
    Ministry of Education, Ghana.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland.
    The Chinese Dragon Engages Africa2010In: Thirty Years of China's Economic Reform: Institutions, Management Organizations and Foreign Investment / [ed] Yue Wang, Prem Ramburuth, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010, 1, p. 155-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China and Africa have been trading partners for centuries, and China is now Africa's third-largest trading partner. This chapter explores the extent of China's economic engagement in Africa, its strategies and approaches, and implications for African development. The interpretative approach adopted in this chapter involves a comprehensive review of current literature, and draws on recent data to highlight China's activities in Africa and identify areas of expansion and development. Specifically, it draws attention to China's bilateral trade with Africa, and its growth from under $10 billion in 1995 to $106 billion in 2008. Currently, 80% of China's imports from Africa are from the extractive industry, and the most significant import is oil. China's intentions seem to be divided between acting as a facilitator for Africa's development and an extractor of its resources. It has adopted a "soft diplomacy" strategy in its pursuit of global growth, and is supporting the increased presence of Chinese SOEs and privately owned enterprises in Africa. Clearly, there are benefits to Africa's development. However, in weighing the benefits of China's engagement in Africa, African countries must consider issues of sustainability for long-term economic development and develop strategies to leverage the benefits of their rich resources, without being dependent on external agencies for their development.

  • 20.
    Vaaland, Terje I.
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Soneye, Alabi S.O.
    University of Lagos, Nigeria.
    Owusu, Richard A.
    University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Local content and struggling suppliers: a network analysis of Nigerian oil and gas industry2012In: African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 1993-8233, E-ISSN 1993-8233, Vol. 6, no 15, p. 5399-5413, article id 7951B7E23428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how local content can be enhanced in the oil and gas industry in a developing country  like  Nigeria.  The  empirical  base  was  18  in-depth  interviews  of  professionals  directly  or indirectly  related to  the  Nigerian oil  and gas  industry. The interviews  revealed  barriers  for  indigenous companies   in   accessing   the   industry.   These   were   related   to   three   major   capabilities;   capital, competence and delivery possibilities. It is suggested that the barriers can be solved by recognition of the interdependencies between actors associated with these capabilities. The actors include in addition to  the  foreign  companies  and  the  indigenous  companies,  educational  institutions,  legal  system, educational  and  R  and  D  institutions,  financial  institutions,  industrial  regulators  and  providers  of infrastructure. The paper suggest framework for understanding the oil industrial network of Nigeria. The findings  have  implications  for  local  content  in  all  developing  nations  having  a  significant  natural resource extraction industry

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