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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    A social sustainability perspective on an environmental intervention to reduce ship emissions2015In: Creating Sustainable Work-environments: Proceedings of NES2015, Nordic Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Conference, 01-04 November 2015, Lillehammer, Norway / [ed] Knut Inge Fostervold, Svein Åge Kjøs Johnsen, Leif Rydstedt, Reidulf G. Watten, 2015, p. A4-12-A4-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a case study examining the effects on the shipboard work environment of an operative decision to change fuel oil type on two Swedish passenger vessels operating in the Baltic Sea. The results show positive changes in work tasks, reduced exposure to harmful pollutants evaporating from the fuel, reduced use of chemicals for cleaning, and a generally cleaner work environment. The outcome illustrates the benefit of a systems perspective when evaluating environmental interventions. Here, the intervention can be seen as an investment that not only reduces emissions to the environment, but contributes towards sustainable working life at sea.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Jane
    et al.
    Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of technology, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hilevi
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Insitutet, Sweden.
    Hägg, Göran M
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Janzon, Olle
    SSAB Europe, Occupational Health & Safety.
    Pettersson, Per Johan
    Merident Optergo AB.
    Stavervik, Mathias
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Strategies to develop and strengthen human factors and ergonomics knowledge among stakeholders in Sweden2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, Melbourne: International Ergonomics Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge and application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) has significant potential as auseful tool and solution provider in the development, design and implementation of safe, efficient and sustainable artefacts and systems. Yet, it seems that this HFE knowledge is not utilised to its full potential. In a world of competing financial and commercial priorities, HFE specialists have apparently not succeeded in selling the systems approach as a tool towards improved overall systems performance and human well-being.

    The present paper describes the strategic and practical workperformed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) to strengthen the quality of human factors and ergonomics knowledge and practice among various stakeholders in Sweden. EHSS view human factors and ergonomics as a systems and design oriented discipline that extends across all aspects of human activity. Beyond the traditional domains of specialization within the discipline, the physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomics, EHSS has identified three focus areas; visual ergonomics, voice ergonomics and ergonomics design for all.

    Practitioner Summary: This paper presents the strategic and practical work performed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) in order to strengthen the quality of human factors and ergonomics knowledge and practice in Sweden. EHSS has identified three focus areas for its strategic work: visual ergonomics, voice ergonomics and ergonomics design for all.

  • 3.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Comparing 2D and 3D models as tools for evaluation of workplaces2015In: Creating Sustainable Work Environments: Proceedings of NES2015, Nordic Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Conference, 01-04 November 2015, Lillehammer, Norwa / [ed] Knut Inge Fostervold, Svein Åge Kjøs Johnsen, Leif Rydstedt, Reidulf G. Watten, NEHF (Norwegian society for Ergonomics and Human Factors) , 2015, p. A3-11-A3-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present a comparison between 2D and 3D models as tools for evaluating workplaces. The comparison focus on differences in the comments when evaluation with 2D and 3D models. The results make strong indication that overall layout, line of sight and space are perceived differently in 2D and 3D models.

  • 4.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    The power of the dollhouse: Comparing the use of full-scale, 1:16-scale and virtual 3D-models for user evaluation of workstation design2018In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 68, p. 344-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of having users evaluate product or workplace design during the development process are well known. This is often achieved by letting users interact with one or more models of the design proposal, in order to elicit feedback. The issue for product developers is to choose what type(s) of models to use (from paper drawings to physical or virtual mock-ups or fully working prototypes) and when to use them in the development process, while making optimal use of resources like time, money and personnel.

    This paper compares three types of simple three-dimensional (3D) models (1:1 scale, 1:16 scale and CAD) representing a ship bridge workstation, examining what kind of feedback they elicit in a design evaluation with representative users. Participants were asked to assess the proposed design and to compare the models' relative merits. The study found that while all three types of 3D models elicited several types of useful design feedback, there were differences in both quantity and content of the feedback elicited by each model type. The physical models elicited more feedback than the CAD model, both regarding content richness (direct and indirect design feedback) and quantity. The tangibility of the models seems to greatly influence acceptance and credibility.

  • 5.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Using 2D and 3D models as tools during a workplace design process: a question of how and when2014In: Proceedings of the 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, 2014, p. 799-804Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of involving users in a development process are well described. This paper describes a procedure for using 2D and 3D models in a workplace design process, which is based on three rounds of user studies within the maritime domain. The process includes various kinds of models that can be used in order to elicit design feedback in a cost-effective manner. Design teams can greatly benefit from using such mediating objects to draw out the users’ previous experiences. It was found that different model types allow different levels of reflection and questioning of the design from the prospective users.

  • 6.
    Boström Cars, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mind the Gap!: Maritime education for gender-equal career advancement2015In: Maritime Women: Global Leadership / [ed] M. Kitada, E. Williams & L. L. Froholdt, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2015, 1, p. 143-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafaring as an occupation, and the maritime community as a whole, is still a male-dominated industry. In order to encourage more women to engage in a career at sea, a number of campaigns have been launched by various stakeholders. Since gender gaps in education generally are larger in the developing world, while steadily closing in the developed countries, it is both understandable and appropriate that efforts largely have been directed towards enabling women in developing countries to engage in professional education and training, may it be maritime or other. However, is opening the door and encouraging women to participate in maritime training sufficient to keep and encourage women to embark on a maritime career?

    In this paper, we set out to examine how gender equality is addressed in the curricula of maritime education. A document analysis was performed, examining official study plans and curricula from eight maritime universities in Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Philippines; all nations ranked in the top five in the Global gender Gap Index. The results show that gender issues are not explicitly mentioned or addressed in these documents, indicating a lack of clear strategies for these matters. Educational institutions are important bearers of societal norms and values. Without effective gender-inclusive strategies and pedagogical and didactic approaches, there is a risk of reproducing inequality, instead of producing equality. Increasing numbers of female students will not alone close the gender gap in the maritime industry. Gender issues must be well defined, operationalised and included in educational policy and curricula-making at individual, structural as well as symbolical levels.

  • 7.
    Boström Cars, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mind the gap! Maritime education for gender-equal career advancement2014In: Maritime Women: Global Leadership 2nd International Conference, Malmö, March 31 - April 1, 2014 / [ed] Maria Carolina Romero & Momoko Kitada, Malmö, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafaring as an occupation and the maritime community as a whole is still a male-dominated industry. In order to encourage more women to engage in a career at sea, a number of campaigns have been launched by various stakeholders. Since gender gaps in education generally are larger in the developing world while steadily closing in the developed countries, it is both understandable and appropriate that efforts largely have been directed towards enabling women in developing countries to engage in professional education and training, may it be maritime or other. However, is opening the door and encouraging women to participate in maritime training sufficient to keep and encourage women to embark on a maritime career?

    In this paper, we set out to examine how gender equality is addressed in the curricula of maritime education. A document analysis was performed, examining official study plans and curricula from in all eight maritime universities in Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Philippines, all ranked in the top five in the Global gender Gap Index. The results show that gender issues are not explicitly mentioned or addressed in these documents, indicating a lack of clear strategies for these matters. Educational institutions are important bearers of societal norms and values. Without effective gender inclusive strategies and pedagogical and didactic approaches, there is a risk of reproducing inequality instead of producing equality. Increasing numbers of female students will not alone close the gender gap in the maritime industry. Gender issues must be well defined, operationalized and included in educational policy and curricula making at individual, structural as well as symbolical level.

  • 8.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Improving operational safety during icebreaker operations2017In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper aims at investigating what safety measures that can be taken to improve the operational safety during icebreaker operations in the Baltic Sea. During icebreaker operations, the icebreaker and the assisted vessel operate in close proximity to each other, a distance which can be even smaller if weather and ice conditions are severe. This poses a severe threat to the operation, since the extremely short distance between the vessels leaves no room for error. The results, which are based on data collected through individual interviews and questionnaires, indicate several possible improvements. Firstly, on a regulatory level, the introduction of an ice navigation certificate for deck officers would set a minimal level of formal competency. Secondly, on a knowledge level, more ice navigation training and better language skills work in favour for the safety. Thirdly, on a technical level, having an electronic chart with target tracking capability increases the efficiency and safety of the passage through ice. In addition to these results, this study shows a need to further research the communication and language situation during icebreaker operations.

  • 9.
    Glimne, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Brautaset, Rune
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Visual Ergonomics in Control Room Environments: A Case Study from a Swedish Paper Mill2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018) / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 180-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a case study at a Swedish papermill. The study is part of a larger ongoing research project aiming to investigatevisual ergonomics in control room environments. Visual conditions were measuredand evaluated in five control rooms, and nine process operators answeredquestions about perceived workload and visual experience.The participating operators rated their mental workload as being the highest,but also mentioned a high physical load and time pressure. Six operators indicatedthat they had work-related eye problems and experienced pronounced eyefatigue, as well as eye discomfort, sore eyes and blurred vision.In one of the visited control rooms, where the operators indicated that theyoften experienced eye problems, the operators were clearly subjected to glare.Light was reflected within the field of view from a steel plate outside the controlroom windows. Compared to recommendations for office workplaces, the illuminancelevels were low in all control rooms except one, causing contrast glaresince computer screens generally had a higher luminance. Low contrasts werealso identified in the computer screens between background and characters. In conclusion, the measured visual conditions could be related to an increasedvisual load, leading to visual discomfort. This may lead to pain in the neck, shoulders, and contribute towards an unnecessary high mental load. Recommendations are suggested of how lighting conditions van be improved.

  • 10.
    Glimne, Susanne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Eye symptoms and reading abilities of computer users subjected to visually impaired direct glare2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 173-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer work is a visually demanding task associated with adverse eye symptoms. Frequent use of digitaldisplays is known to cause a deterioration of the so-called binocular control. Direct glare further reduces thecapacity for binocular coordination during computer work, leading to reduced reading ability and increased eyesymptoms.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different luminance levels of direct glare on binoculareye movement control and reading ability in a computer work environment.Sixteen participants with normal binocular vision performed equal reading tasks in a balanced study. Threecontrolled lighting conditions of direct glare (2000, 4000 and 6000 cd/m2) were tested, in addition to no glare.After each trial, the participants answered survey questionnaires regarding their understanding of the text, aswell as their subjective experience of workload and perceived vision. Horizontal fixation disparity (FD) wasmeasured before and after the reading tasks to evaluate binocular eye movement control.When comparing the responses of visual experience, a significant difference in reported eye symptoms wasfound between lighting conditions. Based on the variation (SD), a significant difference was found within meanvalues of repeated measurements of horizontal FD and a significantly higher variation in a comparison of initialFD values measured during lighting conditions of no glare, to final measured values in all three glare conditions.Reading ability was found to be significantly negative affected with the adversity of lighting conditions.This study supports the contention that binocular eye movement control is reduced caused by direct glare.Even lower degree of disability glare caused eye symptoms. The results establish the argument that working withflat screens raises visual demands.

  • 11.
    Hammander, Mats
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Karlsson, Pär
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    How Do You Measure Green Culture in Shipping?: The Search for a Tool Through Interviews with Swedish Seafarers2015In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 501-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the shipping industry faces important environmental challenges to reduce the impact of sea transport to the marine environment. In order to enhance compliance and encourage safe and efficient maritime operations, the implementation of a safety culture in both shore organisation and on board ships has been advocated. Similarly, it can be argued that a conscious ‘greening’ of an organisation’s culture may be necessary in order to meet legislative and societal demands, as well as embrace environmentally responsible values, beliefs and behaviours. The present pilot study describes the development and evaluation of a model designed to capture attitudes and perception among seafarers with regards to proactive environmental work in the shipping industry. The overall aim of the model is to enable measurement of the extent to which a ‘green culture’ is present within the shipping industry, and to identify factors that either facilitate or act as barriers to a green culture. Evaluation of the model was done through qualitative individual and focus group interviews with, in all, 13 active Swedish seafarers during the autumn of 2014. The findings show that the model captures the sought after mechanisms fairly well and shows some promise. Future work is needed to further refine and test the model in a larger setting, in order to provide a robust picture of the seafarers’ view on ‘green’ shipping.

  • 12.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Swedish Seafarers’ Occupational Commitment in Light of Gender and Family Situation2015In: Safety of Marine Transport: Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation / [ed] Adam Weintrit and Tomasz Neumann, 2015, p. 41-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on the pattern of Swedish seafarers’ occupational commitment relative to gender and family situation. Statistical analyses are employed, using a survey material of Swedish seafarers randomly collected from a national register in 2010. It was hypothesized that the effect from having children at home should be negative on commitment to seafaring occupation. However, the effect was found to be strongly positive and statistically significant for women and close to significant for men. Another important family effect was, as expected, the positive effect of having a relative working, or having worked, at sea. This effect was, however, only significant for male seafarers in the age group below the early 40’s. When controlling for possible mediating effects due to gender distribution in the onboard departments, it became clear that working in the catering department comes with a strong negative effect on commitment to the seafaring occupation, but only so for women. This effect did not, however, alter much of the already observed gender patterns. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations put forward.

  • 13.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    The Impact of Family and Job Content on Swedish Seafarers' Occupational Commitment: A Gendered Issue?2016In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing research has indicated important effects on seafarers’ occupational commitment due to gender and family situation. In this study, these findings have been elaborated further by controlling for the effect of perceived work content. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of Swedish seafarers collected from a national register in 2010. The results showed that the effect on occupational commitment of having children at home is strongly positive and statistically significant for women. However, the significance was dependent on the level of satisfaction with the job content. It was suggested that the seafaring occupation could be viewed as a cooping strategy, although only appropriate if the job content is agreeable. Another important family effect was, as expected, the positive effect of having a relative working, or having worked, at sea. This effect was, however, only significant for male seafarers in the age group below the early 40’s. It was concluded that this effect is mainly emotionally driven and not particularly influenced by the actual job content. The results further showed that working in the catering department comes with a strong negative effect on commitment to the seafaring occupation for women. This effect, however, lost its significance after control for job content. It was concluded that the effect of satisfaction with job content on occupational commitment is generally important, with the exception of women, without children, working in the catering department.

  • 14.
    Hult, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Försäkringskassan Sjöfart.
    Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö: arbetsmiljö, arbetsupplevelser, motivation och sjukskrivningar på passagerarfartyg2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här projektet undersöker arbetsmiljön för intendenturpersonalen på svenska passagerarfar-tyg. Bakgrunden till projektet ligger i upptäckten att intendenturpersonal ombord passagerar-fartyg år 2010 uppvisade en betydligt högre upplevelse av utmattning, jämfört med andra per-sonalgrupper. Utmattningsupplevelsen indikerades med ett utmattningsindex bestående av ett flertal upplevelseaspekter rörande trötthet och stress i arbetet. Passagerarfartygens intendentur-personal har även rapporterat högre ohälsotal än andra personalkategorier i svensk sjöfart.Projektet innefattar en jämförelse av svenskregistrerad sjöpersonals upplevelser av utmattning fördelat på ombordfunktioner och fartygstyp vid mellan 2010 och 2015, samt förhållandet mel-lan arbetstillfredsställelse, motivation och utmattningsupplevelse inom intendenturen år 2015. I projektet analyseras även Försäkringskassans sjukskrivningsstatistik för åren 2011–2014 med avseende på sjuktalen för långa sjukskrivningar över 60 dagar och diagnosfördelning för inten-denturpersonalen, samt om det möjligt att göra en analytisk koppling till upplevelsen av utmatt-ning. Genom intervjuer och observationer med chefer och medarbetare ombord och iland un-dersöks vilka fysiska, organisatoriska och sociala faktorer som upplevs vara av betydelse för arbetsmiljön.Det övergripande målet är att identifiera friskfaktorer för att minska risken för utmattning och ohälsa som kan leda till långa sjukskrivningar och lämna välgrundade rekommendationer för branschen.Resultaten visar att passagerarfartygens besättning rapporterar högst utmattningsupplevelse både 2010 och 2015. Intendenturpersonalen är också klart överrepresenterade i sjukskrivnings-statistiken och sjuktalen, vilket kan kopplas till upplevelsen av utmattning.Enkätundersökningen 2015 visar att intendenturpersonalen rapporterar mest negativa upplevel-ser av arbetssituation, kamratskap och ledarskap jämfört med andra avdelningar. Det är dock en generellt motiverad yrkesgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. Friskfaktorer som visat sig lindra utmattningsupplevelsen (bemanning, vila, ledarskap, relationer till andra avdelningar) stärker personalens motivation att arbeta till sjössÖkad delaktighet hos intendenturpersonalen i arbetsmiljöarbete och arbetsplatsens utformning kan minska de negativa och höja de hälsofrämjande effekterna av förändringsarbete ombord. Den sociala arbetsmiljön är en viktig del av arbetet till sjöss och omfattar även den lediga tid som tillbringas ombord. Arbetsmiljöarbete bör därför omfatta åtgärder som bryter ner gränser mellan avdelningar, skapar sammanhållning och en gemensam identitet för intendenturen och besättningen i stort.

  • 15.
    Insanic, Jasmina
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Rose, Linda
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Expert user perspectives of the Ergo-Index model for analysis of work tasks2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: Joy at work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund: Lund University , 2017, p. 313-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate an updated beta version of Ergo-Index, adigital tool for ergonomic risk assessments. The evaluation was performed with 15expert users who assessed type, distance, height and exposure time of certain worktasks, as well as the usability of the tool. In conclusion, the users find the presentstate of the Ergo-Index suitable as a first screening method. Assessments of liftingwork have the greatest inter-rater reliability. Further development of the digitalizedversion of the tool is needed to improve accuracy assessing input regardingpushing and pulling work tasks, and to increase usability.

  • 16.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Bloom, Erica
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Indoor Environment On-Board the Swedish Icebreaker Oden2014In: Proceedings of Indoor Air 2014 / [ed] Indoor Air Technical Committee, Hong Kong: International Society for Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)ISIAQ. , 2014, article id HP0293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor air quality (IAQ) on-board the Swedish icebreaker Oden was examined during two field campaigns, in winter and in summer 2013. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate and concentration of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, ozone, SO2, volatile organic compounds (VOC), formaldehyde, PAH, PM10, PM2.5 and submicron and ultrafine particles. Several indoor spaces of both living and working environments were investigated from the top to the bottom of the ship and outdoor air reference samples were collected at the same time. The results show in general that the IAQ on the ship is good with respect to the existing, recommended indoor air guideline values and occupational limit values. Concentrations in the living spaces were comparable with those in Swedish homes. The majority of the indoor air pollutants on the ship originated from the ship fuel evaporative emissions and operation of the main and auxiliary engines and boilers.

  • 17.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    God innemiljö på svenska fartyg: Kartläggning av innemiljön och förslag på förbättringsåtgärder2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljön ombord på fartyg är viktig för besättningens välbefinnande hälsa ocharbetseffektivitet. Inomhusluftens kvalitet och termisk komfort är viktiga delar avinnemiljön som inte har studerats så mycket på fartyg. Vid långa resor som vararveckor eller månader och kan passera flera klimatzoner finns inget sätt att byta miljöoch ingen utväg från fartyget, och då blir god innemiljön extra viktig eftersom denutgör både arbetsmiljö och boendemiljö (innemiljö). Syftet med denna studie var attkartlägga hur innemiljön på svenska fartyg ser ut, föreslå en enkel övervakningsmetodikför innemiljö samt föreslå förbättringsåtgärder där det behövs.Inom projektet har mätningar gjorts på nio fartyg under elva mätomgångar; ettfartyg undersöktes både vinter och sommar och ett annat fartyg före och efter byte avbränsle. Temperatur och relativ luftfuktighet som beskriver inneklimat, halterna avgasformiga luftföroreningarna koldioxid, kväveoxider, svaveldioxid, flyktiga organiskaämnen, polycykliska aromatiska kolväten, formaldehyd och partiklar (PM10, PM2.5 ochnanopartiklar) mättes i både maskinutrymmen och innemiljöer med diffusiva (passiva)provtagare och direktvisande instrument.Innemiljö och luftkvalitet på de undersökta fartygen var överlag god. Halter avluftföroreningar var under och mycket under både de hygieniska gränsvärdena förarbetsmiljö och rekommenderade riktvärden för god innemiljö. Även om det inteförekom hälsofarliga halter av luftföroreningarna, förekom stora skillnaderna i halterbåde inom och mellan fartyg. Principalkomponentanalys utpekade typ av bränsle somfrämsta indikator för luftkvalitet i maskinutrymmen samt bränslet och fartygensframdrivningssätt för andra innemiljöer på fartyget. Inom projektet har ”Indoor AirPollution Index” för fartyg utvecklats och använts för att rangordna fartygen medavseende på kvalitet av innemiljö.För att ytterligare höja kvaliteten på fartygens innemiljö, arbets- och boendemiljöhar följande förslag på tekniska och organisatoriska åtgärder för befintliga fartyg ochvid nybyggnation identifierats. För befintliga fartyg gäller framförallt kontroll ochunderhåll av ventilationssystem, ordning och reda särskilt i maskinutrymmen samt vidbehov användning av lämplig skyddsutrustning. Vid planering och design av nya fartygbör främst fartygets framdrivningssätt med tillhörande bränsle beaktas, eftersomanvändning av bränslen med bättre kvalitet än tjockolja också innebär förbättringar försåväl luftkvalitet som arbetsmiljö. Andra viktiga aspekter för upprätthållande av godinnemiljö är ventilationsanordning där man effektivt separerar avluftningar frånmaskinutrymmen från friskluftsintag till andra inneutrymmen samt utformning avarbetsplatser och innemiljöer med särskilt tonvikt på ett separat rengöringsrum imaskinutrymmen.

  • 18.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Österman, Cecilia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Influence of fuel change on indoor environmental quality on-board a passenger ferry2016In: Proceedings of Indoor Air 2016, International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate - ISIAQ , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study intends to investigate how a change of fuel type from Heavy Fuel Oil to a ultra-low sulphur hybrid oil affects the indoor air quality on board a passenger ferry. The indoor air quality was assessed with respect to the concentration of NO2, SO2 and TVOC, temperature and relative humidity. The efficiency of the ventilation system on the ferry was estimated by measurements of the levels of CO2. The air on-board the ferry was rather dry and in the engine space also warm. CO2 levels exceeded 1 000 ppm extremely seldom, thus indicating well designed and functioning ventilation. The concentrations of the air pollutants were below the guidelines values for good IAQ. They were also much below the occupational limit values. Living and working on-board this ship is comparable to any other indoor environment. The change of the fuel influenced only the concentrations of SO2.

  • 19.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Strandberg, Bo
    Lund University.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Riskbedömning av svenska sjömäns yrkesmässiga exponering för toxiska luftföroreningar: Mätningar och enkätundersökning2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett fartyg utgör både en arbetsmiljö och en boendemiljö och besättningen vistas ofta långa tider ombord. Ombordtjänstgöringen kan vara i veckor eller månader och kan ibland passera flera klimat­zoner. Eftersom vi tillbringar den största delen av vår tid inomhus är det där vi främst exponeras. På ett fartyg kan det vara svårt att påverka sin exponering för kemiska ämnen eftersom möjligheten att byta miljö är liten. Det är därför extra viktigt att innemiljön är god.

    Luften ombord präglas till stor del av de kemiska ämnen som har sitt ursprung i fartygets bränsle, smörjoljor och motoravgaser. Det är en komplicerad blandning som innehåller mest koldioxid, kol­monoxid, svaveldioxid, kväveoxider men också kolväten såsom bensen, toluen, xylener, och poly­cykliska aromatiska kolväten. Flera av dessa ämnen är cancerframkallande eller hälsoskadliga på annat sätt. Det finns dock få vetenskapliga studier som undersökt den personliga exponeringen för farliga luftföroreningar som de sjömän som arbetar ombord utsätts för.

    Syftet med projektet som presenteras i denna rapport var att kartlägga den personliga exponeringen för de toxiska luftföroreningarna bensen, kvävedioxid (NO2) och polycykliska aromatiska kolväten (PAH) som alla kan spåras till fartygs-bränslet och bränsleavgaser. Den uppmätta exponeringen har analyserats för att kunna identifiera eventuella skillnader mellan typ av fartyg och mellan olika avdelningar och befattningar ombord. De uppmätta halterna har jämförts med svenska lagkrav men också med internationella, icke bindande riktlinjer för innemiljöer, för att få en uppfattning om halternas storlek. Dessutom har vi undersökt hur besättningen själva upplever sin luftkvalitet ombord. Projektets övergripande mål var att utveckla en metod för riskbedömning av exponeringen som kan användas av branschen, samt att formulera praktiska råd och rekommendationer.

    Den personliga exponeringen har mätts med passiva diffusionsprovtagare som burits i andnings­zonen av personer som arbetar ombord. Totalt har vi resultat från 124 personer på 11 olika fartyg med olika typ av framdrivningsmaskineri och som går på olika bränslen. En enkät med frågor om upplevd luftkvalitet på arbetsplatsen och i hytten har delats ut till alla personer i besättningen på de besökta fartygen. Enkäten har besvarats av totalt 308 personer viket motsvarar en svarsfrekvens på 78%.

    Resultaten visar att samtliga uppmätta personliga exponeringar låg långt under Arbetsmiljöverkets hygieniska gränsvärden som också gäller svenskflaggade fartyg genom Transportstyrelsens föreskrifter. En del personer har exponerats för halter i nivå med och i vissa fall något över Världshälsoorganisationens hälsobaserade rekommenderade riktvärden för innemiljöer. Dessa riktvärden är dock satta för innemiljöer utan industriell verksamhet och med tanke på att barn, sjuka och äldre kan vistas i sådana innemiljöer under en längre tid. Även om fartyget utgör en boendemiljö för de som arbetar ombord, så kan besättningen förväntas ut­göras av friska personer i arbetsför ålder. Däremot pekar resultatet på vikten av att arbeta system­atiskt med att minimera exponeringen för farliga luftföroreningar så långt som det är möjligt. Världshälsoorganisationen menar att det inte finns säkra halter av bensen och benso(a)pyren. Därför kan de arbetsuppgifter som innebär en något högre exponering för dessa farliga ämnen behöva riskbedömas särskilt, till exempel sådana som innebär kontakt med bränslen, smörjoljor, hydrauloljor eller andra kemikalier, eller exponering för fordonsavgaser eller stekos.

    En jämförelse av hela besättningens exponering på de olika fartygen visade att det fanns skillnader både mellan fartyg och inom fartyg. Här har multivariata analyser av resultaten gett en sammansatt bild av exponeringen och bekräftar individuella ämnen. Fartygets funktion och bränsle är indikativa determinanter för exponeringens storlek. Fartyg som fraktar marint bränsle och de som drivs på tjockolja uppvisar högre exponeringsgrad än andra typer av fartyg.

    Vid en jämförelse mellan befattning och avdelning ser vi att maskinmanskap generellt har högst upp­mätta halter, följt av personal inom däcksavdelningen och intendenturen som har lägst halter. Vid en jämförelse av resultaten för befäl och manskap på alla fartyg ser vi ingen skillnad i exponering.

    Resultaten av enkätundersökningen visar att luftkvaliteten i stort upplevs som acceptabel. När vi bryter ner resultaten per avdelning ser vi att driftpersonalen, däck- och maskinavdelningarna, är mer nöjda med sin luftkvalitet än intendenturen. Skillnaden mellan avdelningarna syns också när det gäller luktens intensitet, där däck- och maskinavdelningarna upplever liten till måttlig lukt på sin arbetsplats och i sin hytt och intendenturpersonalen upplever en starkare lukt på sin arbetsplats, från måttlig till stark lukt.

    Exponering för mer än ett ämne med liknande effekt innebär en så kallad additiv, hygienisk effekt. Ett kumulativt riskindex har därför tagits fram utifrån summan av kvoterna mellan uppmätt halt för ämnena NO2, bensen, benso(a)pyren och naftalen och deras respektive hälsobaserade riktvärde fram­taget av Världshälsoorganisationen. Detta riskindex har använts för att jämföra exponeringen med normalbefolkningen i Sverige, samt för att identifiera skillnader mellan fartyg, befattningar och avdelningar. Kumulativt riskindex kan användas för riskbedömningar av arbeten och arbetsuppgifter med syfte att eliminera och minimera kända exponeringar så långt som möjligt.

    Åtgärder för att minska den personliga exponeringen kan vara både tekniska och organisatoriska. Det är viktigt att säkerställa en god allmänventilation för såväl arbetsplatser som hytter. Vissa utrymmen kan behöva särskilda utsug, såsom arbetsplatser för svetsning och maskinbearbetning, rengöring av motordelar, blandning av färg, över stekbord i köket och liknande, för att fånga upp luftföroreningar nära källan. Alternativt kan befintliga utsug behöva förbättras. Det är också viktigt att ha bra rutiner för rengöring och underhåll av arbetsutrustning och ventilationsanläggningar. Organisatoriska åtgärder kan vara att planera och fördela arbetet för att minska exponeringen för den enskilde individen genom arbetsrotation, arbetsväxling och möjligheter till paus i utrymme med lägre exponering.

    De skillnader i upplevelsen av luftens kvalitet som ses mellan avdelningarna kan dels förklaras av olika typer av arbetsuppgifter och exponeringar som personalen inom de respektive avdelningarna har men upplevelsen styrs också av psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer som hög arbetsbelastning, höga krav i arbetet och liten möjlighet att själv kunna påverka sin arbetssituation, samt lågt socialt stöd och låg arbetstillfredsställelse. Här kan helt andra typer av arbetsmiljöåtgärder behöva diskuteras för att öka upplevelsen av inflytande, delaktighet och stöd i arbetet.

  • 20.
    Liwång, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden;Swedish National Defence College, Sweden.
    Sörenson, Karl
    KTH Royal Instute of Technology, Sweden;Swedish National Defence College, Sweden.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ship security challenges in high-risk areas: manageable or insurmountable?2015In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 201-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Piracy can lead to risks so high that they, according to the InternationalMaritime Organization, are tolerable only if risk reduction is not practicable or isdisproportionate to the benefits achieved. Therefore, there is a need for reducing shipsecurity risks in relation to antagonistic threats such as piracy. The aim of this study isto identify challenges for ship operators when developing their ship security management.Furthermore, this study also investigates two central aspects in the analysis:understanding the threat and understanding how a security threat affects the crew andoperation of the ship. It is clear from the analysis that the importance of subjectiveaspects beyond a ship operators’ direct control is high. This seems to be the fact for allaspects of the risk management process. The situation is also dynamic as the securityrisk, as well as the risk perception, can change dramatically even though there are noactual operational changes. As a result, the ship security management process is highlyiterative and depends on situations on board as well as conditions out of the shipoperator’s control. In order to make ship security manageable, the risk management hasto put particular focus on methodological understanding, relevant system understandingand well-defined risk acceptance criteria as well as on including all levels of theorganization in the risk reduction implementation and on a continuous monitoring.

  • 21.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Have a Healthy Lifestyle or Organize Work: Creating Healthy Shipboard Work Environments2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VI: Transport Ergonomics and Human Factors (TEHF), Aerospace Human Factors and Ergonomics / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 455-464Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a study concerning the work environment on board Swedish passenger vessels. The study explored workrelated experiences of personnel in the service department (hotel, restaurant, catering, shops) based on individual and group interviews, observations, survey data and social insurance statistics concerning sick leave longer than 60 days. The results of this paper are based on ten semi-structured individual and group interviews with 16 respondents. The respondents were HR personnel from six shipping companies and crewmembers working onboard. The results show that in the HR personnel’s perception, healthy work environments are often associated to individual personal health activities, such as access to a gym or healthcare, lectures or other measures directed towards the individual seafarer. Aspects of the organizational and social work environments were barely mentioned as stressors or as contributing factors to an increasing number of sick absences. The interviewed crewmembers, however, highlighted the need for both organizational and social measures to foster healthy work environments. The need for employee participation within the organizational design and decision-making processes, including methods on how to conduct risk assessments prior to physical and organizational changes and follow up their consequences were emphasized. Thus, to create safe and sustainable work environments on board, more attention needs to be directed towards including shipboard personnel in the physical and organizational design of their own work environment rather than promoting a healthy lifestyle through measures directed towards the individual worker.

  • 22.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Strategies and measures to improve the work environment of service crew on board Swedish passenger vessel2018In: TransNav, International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, ISSN 2083-6473, E-ISSN 2083-6481, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 587-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from three workshops focused on the physical, organizational and social work environment of service crew working on board Swedish passenger vessels. The first workshop aimed to identify underlying causes of long‐term sick leave among employees in the service department, and potential measures that can be taken to reduce ill‐health. The second and third workshop explored knowledge of available methods to identify occupational safety and health risks, and suggest health‐promotion strategies at individual, team and company levels. A total of 58 persons from the Swedish maritime cluster participated in the workshops. During the workshops, open and structured brainstorming was used to create affinity diagrams to systematically summarize the identified causes, risks and strategies. Although the results presented in this article stem from a research project focused on Swedish passenger vessels, many of the findings may be transferable to an international maritime setting towards a deeper understanding of seafarers’ work environment and working conditions.

  • 23.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Underlying Causes of and Potential Measures to Reduce Long-term Sick Leave Among Employees in the Service Department on Board Swedish Passenger Vessels2017In: Safety of Sea Transportation: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation (TransNav 2017), June 21-23, 2017, Gdynia, Poland / [ed] Adam Weintrit and Tomasz Neumann, Leiden: CRC Press, 2017, p. 287-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings from a workshop focused on the physical, social and organizational work environment in the service department on board Swedish passenger vessels. Twentyseven maritime professionals participated to provide input to potential causes and measures for long-term sick leave. During the workshop, an affinity diagram was created to systematically order the input of the respondents. The results show a wide range of causes and potential measures across multiple organizational levels. Unclear leadership, ambiguous or high demands with limited decision latitude, as well as aspects of work organization, i.e. manning, pressure for effectiveness, and extensive working hours were identified as important contributors to long-term sick leave. Although the findings are based on a workshop with Swedish maritime professionals, the results may be transferable to the international maritime sector to gain a deeper understanding of how to create, organize and promote a safe and efficient work environment.

  • 24.
    Rose, Linda, M
    et al.
    KTH School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry.
    Österman, Cecilia
    KTH School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry.
    Developing an International Master’s Programme in Ergonomics at a Technical University in Sweden2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018) / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 429-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the rationale for, and the development process of, a new international master’s programme in Ergonomics, here framed as ‘Technology, Work and Health’, at KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. The masters’ programme is designed for two years of full-time studies (120 credits).

    A challenge during this development process, has been to decide not only what to include in the programme, but also what to exclude. The systems-oriented discipline of ergonomics now covers all aspects of human work. Thus, two tracks of specialization are offered: Work Environment Engineering (WEE) and Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE).

    The programme is given for the first time in the autumn 2018. After the first year it is necessary to evaluate the programme from student and teacher perspectives, to capture effects and improvement possibilities. Naturally, this evaluation includes the usual course evaluations that are done during and after each course. But also, from a recruiting perspective, when we now how many students, from where, and of which background that eventually were awarded a MSc degree. Finally, a programme review with an emphasis on outcomes is essential to establish that the programme meets academic standards, professional discipline expectations among employers of the graduates, and student expectations and satisfaction. The results from this review will provide the incentive for necessary major and minor changes to maintain an up-to-date and high-quality curriculum in a discipline that continues to evolve.

  • 25.
    Sandberg, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sjöström, John
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet.
    DN Debatt: Ett hållbart arbetsliv kräver medbestämmande2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, article id 2016-03-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    REPLIK. Arbetsmiljöverket ser information som lösningen på arbetsmiljöproblemen. Och ibland räcker information, men inte när intressen är delvis motstridiga. Ska arbetslivet bli hållbart krävs stärkt inflytande för skyddsombud och de anställdas och fackets medbestämmande i frågor om sättet att organisera och styra arbetet, skriver fyra forskare.

  • 26.
    Sandberg, Åke
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöström, John
    Linköping University.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Walldius, Åke
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Prioritera forskning om att organisera för hälsa i arbetet2016In: Universitetsläraren, ISSN 0282-4973, article id 16-11-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationsforskning om och för bra arbetsplatser faller mellan stolarna. Det hävdar sex forskare inom olika ämnen, som nu föreslår en rad övergripande förändringar. Bland annat ett eget forskningsråd för arbetslivsforskning.

  • 27.
    Vänje, Annika
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Österman, Cecilia
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Nyman, Teresia
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan (KTH).
    Verksamhetsnära arbetsmiljöarbete: nyttiggörande av branschspecifika kunskaper om arbetsmiljöarbete Implementering av nätverk inom verkstadsindustrin och den kommunala hemtjänsten2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är ett FoU projekt om branschspecifika arbetsmiljökunskaper inom verkstadsindustri och kommunala hemtjänst med företagshälsovård i fokus. Branscherna är varandras motsatser när det gäller aspekter som resurser för ledning och styrning av verksamheten, verksamhetsinriktning, traditioner kring systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete och könsfördelning.

    Projektets övergripande syfte, var att utveckla tre metoder för att samla in, sprida och nyttiggöra branschspecifik kunskap om arbetsmiljöarbete. De tre metoderna är kompetensnätverk, webbportal för utveckling och spridning av branschspecifika kunskaper om arbetsmiljö samt vidareutbildning för yrkesverksamma inom arbetsmiljöområdet.

    Kunskapsutbyten har varit kärnan i kompetensnätverket för verkstadsindustrin, strategier för att möta motstånd och lösa så kallade problemprojekt identifierades. Viktiga aspekter var ett nära samarbete med kundorganisationen och medarbetare i verksamheten, tvärfunktionella projekt och att medverka från start i förändringsprojekt. I anslutning till dessa faktorer efterlystes tydliga stödstrukturer för ett integrerat och proaktivt arbetsmiljöarbete.

    Två orsaker till sjukskrivningar inom hemtjänsten som kompetensnätverkets medforskare lyfte fram var stora arbetsgrupper samt en hög personalomsättning. Vad som sågs som väsentligt för att motverka dessa två faktorer var ökad delaktighet vid resursfördelning och arbetsplanering. Det sågs även som centralt för utvecklingen av arbetsmiljön i denna bransch att identifiera och synliggöra motivatorer till att vara i arbete inom hemtjänsten. Vidare finns ett identifierat behov av en webbportal där information och kunskaper om arbetsmiljö är samlad. Innehållet i vidareutbildningen baseras på identifierade kunskapsbehov som att bedriva ett integrerat och proaktivt arbetsmiljöarbete.

    Den övergripande slutsatsen kring det branschspecifika är att det finns behov av kunskaper i att leda och driva arbetsmiljöarbete och förstå hur organisationen runt den lokala arbetsplatsen fungerar. Detta gäller för båda branscherna och skulle kunna beskrivas i termer av ett mesoperspektiv på arbetsmiljöarbetet, istället för ett microperspektiv.

  • 28.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Beyond the ethic case: a value proposition of proactive human factors management2013In: AMET Maritime Journal, ISSN 2347-274X, no 1, p. 14-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on the work presented in Österman, C. (2012), ‘Developing a value proposition of maritime ergonomics’, PhD thesis, Department of Shipping and Marinetechnology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    There is a large body of knowledge available on the role of human factors for successful (andunsuccessful) systems. Domain specific handbooks, guidelines and standards can be found alsofor the maritime industry. Yet, the deteriorating figure of maritime casualties and the highincidence of occupational accidents suggest this knowledge is not utilised to its full potential.

    The purpose of this paper is to present a value proposition of maritime human factors,positioning the potential core values that can be delivered to stakeholders within and outside themaritime transport system.

    The paper adopts an exploratory research approach, investigating thelink between human factors and operational performance from several different angles. Methods for data collection include literature studies, individual and focus group interviews, and a casestudy involving a shipping company.

    The synthesis of the results is presented in terms of a value proposition that describes the valuefor the employee in terms of improved health and well-being, learning, skill discretion andindependence in life. Values for the company include increased operational performance and flexibility, advantages in recruiting and retaining personnel. Values for the sector includecompetitive strength, attractiveness of work and increased learning across the industry. Values for the society include reduced costs for health care and social security, reduced environmentalimpact, and a sustainable working life.These results are a first step to make visible the effects of human factors management on overallsystems performance in the maritime domain.

  • 29.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Granskning av ritningar ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv: En handbok för att undersöka arbetsmiljön på fartyg vid ny- och ombyggnad2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handbok är ett resultat av ett forskningsprojekt som syftar till att förenkla granskningen av fartygsritningar ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv. Forskningsprojektet genomfördes på Chalmers tekniska högskolas institution för produkt- och produktionsutveckling, avdelningDesign & Human Factors, och finansierades av Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus. Projektledare vid Chalmers har varit Anna-Lisa Osvalder.

    För att minska risken för olyckor och ohälsa och är det viktigt att ta hänsyn till arbetsmiljön redan när man planerar att bygga ett nytt fartyg eller bygga om delar av ett fartyg. Det är i planeringsskedet som det är lättast att påverka hur arbetsmiljön kommer att bli. När fartyget väl är byggt kan det vara både svårt och dyrt att göra ändringar. Metoden för granskning som denna handbok beskriver har till stordel utvecklats med hjälp av sjömän och deltagare vid SEKO Sjöfolks skyddsombudsutbildningar.

  • 30.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Knowledge ergonomics: linking islands of knowledge to promote sustainable shipping2013In: Proceedings NES2012. Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann - Beth Antonsson , Göran M Hägg, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Health, Division of Ergonomics , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Performance influencing factors in maritime operations2012In: Human Element in Container Shipping / [ed] Burkhard Lemper, Thomas Pawlik, Susanne Neumann, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, p. 87-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is run by people and for people. Thus, the main element in shipping is the «human element» – the mariners at all levels. Since the human element aboard vessels – being in and coping with a very special environment – is the crucial point of every transport chain, it is important to take a closer look at maritime human resource management issues which are scarcely tackled in scientific literature. This book deals with topics such as the criminalization of seafarers, piracy as part of shipping companies’ risk management, corporate social responsibility and human error in shipping.

  • 32.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bligård, Lars-Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Involving users in a ship bridge re-design process using scenarios and mock-up models2016In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 53, p. 236-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context for this study is the maritime domain and the design of shipboard workspaces. Due to the globalized nature of shipping, the traditional approach to a participative ergonomics process can be a logistical challenge since stakeholders like designers, manufacturers and operators are often scattered both geographically and organizationally.

    The participative design study presented in this paper addresses this challenge by exploring the ability of three types of simple three-dimensional (3D) models to act as mediating objects for representative users in order to elicit design feedback in a use scenario workshop format. The study found that all three types of 3D models, when coupled with a scenario description, elicited several types of useful design feedback that served not only as direct input to changing proposed design parameters, but also as an unprompted long-term learning opportunity for the design team to gain insight into the lives and challenges of their users, who both work and live on board.

    Relevance to industry: The paper presents a procedure for a participatory design process in the maritime domain where the involved stakeholders are geographically and organizationally dispersed. Mock-up models coupled with use scenario descriptions elicited useful design feedback and an unprompted long-term learning opportunity for the design team.

  • 33.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Multi-method approach for evaluating visual conditions incontrol room environments2019In: Proceedings of the 50th Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society Conference / [ed] Broberg, O. & Seim, R., Kongens Lyngby: DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark , 2019, p. 184-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increased automation and implementation of information and communicationtechnology in occupational settings, more people are working in control room environments across various sectors. The work often involves continuous visual assessments of several screens. Poor visual conditions can cause eye-related problems and musculoskeletal disorders.The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the rationale for, and the procedures of, a methodological approach for evaluating visual conditions in control room environments. The paper draws from experiences gained at four field studies in Sweden, where 13 different control rooms have been assessed and involving 30 control room operators. The multi-methodapproach produces a comprehensive and contextualized understanding of the visual requirements, as well as of the operators’ perceived work load, visual experience and eyerelatedhealth. The experiences support the relevance of providing an optimized visual environment when designing control room work for a safe, sustainable and inclusive working life.

  • 34.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Administrative burdens and over-exertion in Swedish short sea shipping2016In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite significant changes in work tasks performed on board, towards more sedentary monitoring and administrative work, the incidence of occupational injuries and disorders remains high among seafarers. In order to improve safety standards, industry stakeholders increasingly require written documentation of numerous routines, procedures and tasks performed on board. These increased demands have however added to the administrative burden. Some say, to the extent that administrative work has become a safety risk in itself. This paper presents the result of a survey investigating how Swedish seafarers perceive their own level of fatigue, stress and over-exertion related to work. The material consists of 1309 respondents originating from a random selection procedure, of which 651 reported to be employed in short sea shipping. Multiple regression analysis (OLS regression), allowing adjusted effects, were applied in several steps of the analysis. The highest levels of exertion were reported by employees in the catering department, positions not generally associated with high administrative burden. Perceived high levels of administrative work do increase the level of exertion, but cannot explain the observed pattern. Future ship and trade-specific studies on physical and mental well-being and complementary studies on the catering department’s working conditions and work environment are necessary.

  • 35.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Occupational safety and health for service crew on passenger ships2020In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 121, p. 403-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The service crew is a vital part of the customer experience on board passenger ships, but also has important duties in the safety organization in case of emergencies. Yet, they are not always recognized as seafarers and have received less attention in research that addresses occupational safety and health in the maritime domain.

    This study explores the occupational safety and health for the service crew working on Swedish passenger ships.The purpose is to analyze causes of work-related ill-health, investigate and identify important aspects of the physical, organizational and social working conditions. The study has adopted a mixed methods approach, including survey questionnaires, register data on reported long-term sick leave, and field visits on board.

    Key findings show that service crew on passenger ships report the highest levels of perceived exertion. They also have the highest rates of long-term sick leave lasting 60 days or more. Most diagnoses are related to musculoskeletal and psychological disorders. Important factors in the shipboard work environment include high physical load and strenuous working postures, poor workplace design, long working hours, limited time for recovery, and the perceived mental and emotional load that comes with unclear boundaries between work and recreation and the social interaction with customers and colleagues. The most prominent health promotive factors to reduce the perceived exertion are appropriate manning, time to rest, working with managers that attend to problems and experiencing good working relations with other departments on board.

  • 36.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Lindblad, Mats
    Sjukt kul jobb.: Servicepersonalens arbetsmiljö, sjukskrivningar och arbetstillfredsställelse på passagerarfartyg2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stundtals tufft men ändå givande. Så skulle arbetssituationen kunna sammanfattas för de som jobbar inom intendenturen med service och försäljning till gäster på passagerarfartyg. Många arbetsmoment innebär hög fysisk och mental arbetsbelastning med liten möjlighet att själv kunna påverka sina arbetsförhållanden. Men trots att servicepersonalen är överrepresenterade bland de långa sjukskrivningarna är det en motiverad arbetsgrupp med hög arbetstillfredsställelse. I den här rapporten sammanställer vi några av de viktigaste resultaten från forskningsprojektet Intendenturpersonalens arbetsmiljö som genomfördes vid Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet under åren 2015–2017. Både projektet och den här rapporten har finansierats av Stiftelsen Sveriges Sjömanshus.

  • 37.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd..
    Moldanová, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd..
    Personal exposure of seafarers to air pollutants and perceived indoor air quality on a passenger ferry2016In: Proceedings of Indoor Air 2016, International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate - ISIAQ , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine crew members’ personal exposure and perceived air quality on board a Swedish passenger ferry before and after a change of fuel type. Personal exposure was measured in the breathing zone of 20 crew members and quantified in terms of concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) with focus on benzene. Measured concentrations are compared with international indoor air quality guidelines and occupational exposure limit values. The perceived indoor air quality was assessed through a self-reporting questionnaire. The results show that the measured personal exposure was largely below Swedish occupational exposure limit values and international guideline values. Elevated levels were found especially in the engine crew samples. The subjective assessment of the air quality showed the air to be perceived as just acceptable with a slight odour, and a sense of the air being dry and stuffy.

  • 38.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Magnusson, Mathias
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    A systemic review of shipboard SCR installations in practice2013In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 63-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing customer demands and more stringent regulations to reduce harmful air emissions from ships have resulted in an increased interest for the installation of shipboard abatement technologies. Specifically, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) was early adopted by several Swedish shipping companies. The potential NOx reduction efficiency of the SCR is well established, but the practical experiences of shipboard installations have been less documented. This paper reviews from a systems perspective the practical experiences of marine SCR installations in Swedish shipping. The aim is to identify important not only technical but also human and organizational conditions necessary for safe, efficient, and sustainable SCR operations at sea. Further, to investigate to what extent the capabilities and limitations of human operators and maintainers are taken into account in the design and installation phase of the systems. Two focus group interviews (n010) and five individual interviews were held with relevant stakeholders in the industry, following a semi-structured schedule on the themes installation, operation, maintenance, and training. The results show that deficiencies in the overall system design—with a combination of technical issues, maintenance access problems, and untrained operators with inadequate understanding of the SCR process—have led to inefficient, costly, and unsafe operations. It is concluded that installations and operations of marine SCR systems, and possibly other forthcoming abatement technologies, would benefit from the use of traditional ergonomic principles and methods. This would in turn contribute towards increased sustainability and a reduced environmental impact from shipping.

  • 39.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Magnusson, Mathias
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    A systems perspective on practical experiences of marine SCR installations2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Research Conference on Short Sea Shipping / [ed] Dr Ana Casaca, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Human element in maritime logistics2012In: Maritime Logistics: A complete guide to effective shipping and port management / [ed] Dong-Wook Song, Photis M. Panayides, London: Kogan page, 2012, 1, p. 59-74Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Human elements in maritime logistics2015In: Maritime Logistics: A Guide to Contemporary Shipping and Port Management / [ed] Dong-Wook Song & Photis M Panayides, London: Kogan page, 2015, 2, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Frohm, Jörgen
    Trafikverket.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hägg, Göran M.
    ErgoMusic.
    Janzon, Olle
    SSAB Europe.
    Pettersson, Per Johan
    MeridentOptergo AB.
    Stavervik, Mathias
    SHL Group AB.
    Ahlin, Jane
    Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS).
    Conceptual and Practical Strategy Work to Promote Ergonomics/Human Factors in Sweden2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018) / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 4, p. 320-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the results of the conceptual and practical strategy work performed by the Swedish Ergonomics and Human Factors Society (EHSS) today. The rationale of EHSS is to strengthen the quality of ergonomics/human factors knowledge and practice in Sweden and form a multidisciplinary platform across disciplines and professions for collaboration and for knowledge sharing. EHSS gathers about 350 members, representing different occupations in industry, academia and the public sector. Together,EHSS members hold knowledge and experience in physical, cognitive andorganizational ergonomics and its application in working life and society. The overall aim of this paper is to inspire related societies and stakeholders to initiate discussions about strategies and future projects that allow for collaborationa nd knowledge sharing. Proposedly follow the EHSS model where we have formed a multidisciplinary platform for collaboration across disciplinesand professions. The activities initiated and supported by EHSS are one steptowards broadening the knowledge and application of HFE in Sweden, and to comprise new arenas of specialization. By participating in the key areas in society such as teaching, standardization, product development and occupationalsafety and health, the work of EHSS is one piece of the puzzle to improvehuman activities in the future. The vision is that together, we can improve safety, efficiency and well-being for all.

  • 43.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praetorius, Gesa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Hult, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Work environment challenges and participatory workplace interventions on passenger ships2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Nordic Ergonomics Society (NES) Conference Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund University , 2017, p. 452-459Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a larger research project investigating working conditions for employees in the service department on board passenger ships. A mixed methods approach was adopted, and this paper focuses on the findings related to the physical work environment. The main findings show the physical factors to be largely related to high physical load and time pressure. The design of workplaces and equipment is a cornerstone for a sustainable work environment. Participatory design practices open the opportunity to foster employee engagement in workplace design, contributing towards increased employee health and well-being.

  • 44.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing financial impact of maritime ergonomics on company level: a case study2015In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 555-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a case study examining a conceptual framework for assessing financial impact of occupational maritime ergonomics in a Swedish shipping company. Specifically, the aim was to study the availability and applicability of suggested determinants for operational performance; routines for estimating the effects of ergonomics; and the customer’s (sea transport buyer’s) demands for ergonomics management on the case company.

    The results show that the determinants and sub-categories for operational performance in terms of productivity, efficiency and quality are present and applicable, albeit not measured to any large extent. No routines or specific methods for measuring or estimating cost and effects of ergonomics investments, accidents and operational disturbances were found. Further, the results show that the sea transport buyers increasingly express interest for and place demands related to maritime ergonomics, for instance through compliance of specific standards and guiding principles linked to maritime ergonomics. It is concluded that in order to support and enable managers’ ability to make well informed decisions and prioritizations, between investments, ergonomic or other, increased knowledge is needed of the financial effects of ergonomics on company core value processes. There is also a need to develop and implement usable tools to simplify these measuring procedures.

  • 45.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Exploring Maritime Ergonomics from a Bottom Line Perspective2010In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a study composed of three research activities exploring theeconomics of ergonomics in a shipping context. First, a literature study aimed to reviewprevious studies on the economics of ergonomics in general and within the maritimedomain in particular; and moreover, to ascertain the key ergonomic factors addressedin contemporary maritime ergonomic research. Second, the concept of ergonomics wasprobed from a stakeholder perspective through nine semi-structured qualitative interviews.Third, structured interviews were held with representatives of ten Swedish shippingcompanies to investigate if the shipowners are aware of and calculate the economiceffects of ergonomics.The results show that severalmodels and methods have been developed to estimate costsand benefits of ergonomics in other industries, but no studies were found from the shippingindustry.Whether these methods can be readily adapted to the shipping industry hasto be investigated further. While contemporary maritime ergonomic literature showed afocus on physical ergonomic and health and safety issues, the results of the stakeholderinterviews indicated a focus on organizational ergonomics. The Swedish shipownerscalculate the costs of sick-leave, but do not estimate the economic effects of ergonomicson a regular basis.

  • 46.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Schmidt, Lisa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sanne, Johan M
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Antonsson, Ann-Beth
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Preventing workplace violence and threats among professional cleaners: how not to be in the ‘wrong place at the wrong time’2017In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, "Joy at work": Joy at Work / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund: Lund Universitet , 2017, p. 460-467Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional cleaners work in a complex work environment, subjected to various physical and mental loads. This paper focuses on work related violence and threats and practical suggestions for its prevention and mitigation. By organizing and designing cleaning work in time and space it is possible to reduce the risk of cleaners being in the 'wrong place at the wrong time’. Cleaners need to have sufficient knowledge of how their work can be carried out as safely as possible; how to act when threatening or precarious situations occur, and feel confident in managerial support if they need to interrupt work in a threatening situation.

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