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  • 1.
    Backman, Stina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Samuelsson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet.
    Engstrand, Åsa-Karin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ljungemyr, Kristin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Gender equality, gender mainstreaming and equal opportunities – how to establish a sustainable model?2012In: Book of abstracts of the 7th European Conference on Gender Equality in Higher Education, Universitetet i Bergen, 2012, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Beausang, Angela
    et al.
    Berg, Lena
    Carlsson, Ninni
    Cederberg, Daniel
    Danielsson, Ingela
    Edin, Kerstin E.
    Eliasson, Mona
    Enander, Viveka
    Eriksson, Maria
    Jigmo, Kerstin
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Kruse, Anita
    Holmberg, Carin
    Lehtinen, Ullaliina
    Mannheimer, Moa
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Norlén, Anna
    Sundborg, Eva
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tingberg, Björn
    Ohlsson, Carina
    Wendt, Eva
    Westerståhl, Anna
    Wiklund, Ingela
    Åhlund, Agneta
    "Möjligheten att rädda några av dessa kvinnors liv har inte vägts in"2014In: Dagens MedicinArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Namnet på Socialstyrelsens vägledning lyder: Hur upptäcka våldsutsatthet? Ja, det kan man verkligen fråga sig efter att ha läst detta föga vägledande dokument, skriver ett stort antal kritiska debattörer.

  • 3.
    Brüggemann, A. Jelmer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Patients’ silence towards the healthcare system after ethical transgressions by staff: associations with patient characteristics in a cross-sectional study among Swedish female patients2012In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To identify which patient characteristics are associated with silence towards the healthcare system after experiences of abusive or ethically wrongful transgressive behaviour by healthcare staff.

    Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire study using the Transgressions of Ethical Principles in Health Care Questionnaire.

    Setting: A women's clinic in the south of Sweden.

    Participants: Selection criteria were: consecutive female patients coming for an outpatient appointment, ≥18-year-old, with the ability to speak and understand the Swedish language, and a known address.

    Questionnaires were answered by 534 women (60%) who had visited the clinic, of which 293 were included in the present study sample.

    Primary outcome measure: How many times the respondent remained silent towards the healthcare system relative to the number of times the respondent spoke up.

    Results: Associations were found between patients’ silence towards the healthcare system and young age as well as lower self-rated knowledge of patient rights. Both variables showed independent effects on patients’ silence in a multivariate model. No associations were found with social status, country of birth, health or other abuse.

    Conclusions: The results offer opportunities for designing interventions to stimulate patients to speak up and open up the clinical climate, for which the responsibility lies in the hands of staff; but more research is needed.

  • 4.
    Brüggemann, A. Jelmer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    What contributes to abuse in health care?: A grounded theory of female patients’ stories2013In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 404-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In Sweden, 20% of female patients have reported lifetime experiences of abuse in any health care setting. Corresponding prevalence among male patients is estimated to be 8%. Many patients report that they currently suffer from these experiences. Few empirical studies have been conducted to understand what contributes to the occurrence of abuse in health care.

    Objectives

    To understand what factors contribute to female patients’ experiences of abuse in health care.

    Design

    Constructivist grounded theory approach.

    Settings

    Women's clinic at a county hospital in the south of Sweden.

    Participants

    Twelve female patients who all had reported experiences of abuse in health care in an earlier questionnaire study.

    Methods

    In-depth interviews.

    Results

    The analysis resulted in the core category, the patient loses power struggles, building on four categories: the patient's vulnerability, the patient's competence, staff's use of domination techniques, and structural limitations. Participants described how their sensitivity and dependency could make them vulnerable to staff's domination techniques. The participants’ claim for power and the protection of their autonomy, through their competence as patients, could catalyze power struggles.

    Conclusions

    Central to the participants’ stories was that their experiences of abuse in health care were preceded by lost power struggles, mainly through staff's use of domination techniques. For staff it could be important to become aware of the existence and consequences of such domination techniques. The results indicate a need for a clinical climate in which patients are allowed to use their competence.

  • 5.
    Brüggemann, A. Jelmer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    A first online intervention to increase patients’ perceived ability to act in situations of abuse in health care: reports of a Swedish pre-post study2015In: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 16, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Efforts to counteract abuse in health care, defined as patient-experienced abuse, have mainly focused on interventions among caregivers. This study is the first to test an online intervention focusing on how patients can counteract such abuse. The intervention aimed at increasing patients’ intention and perceived ability to act in future situations where they risk experiencing abuse.

    Methods

    Participants were recruited through a nephrology clinic in Sweden. The intervention consisted of an online program that aimed to stimulate patients to think of possible actions in situations in which they risk experiencing abuse. The program comprised stories and exercises in text and comic form. The participants filled out a questionnaire immediately before and after going through the program, as well as during follow-up four to eight weeks later.

    Results

    Forty-eight patients (39 %) participated in the study and spent, on average, 41 min responding to questions and going through the program. Both men and women, of various ages and educational backgrounds, participated. An increase in participants' self-reported ability to identify opportunities to act in a given situation was seen immediately afterwards, as well as during follow up.

    Conclusion

    The current study suggests that it is feasible and most likely useful to a variety of patients to work with the provided material that has the aim of counteracting abuse in health care. It would be of interest to further develop ways of using comics and to test similar interventions in other health care settings.

  • 6.
    Brüggemann, Adrianus Jelmer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Abuse in health care: a concept analysis2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives:  To analyse the concept of abuse in health care. This analysis also covers how abuse in health care is different from the related concepts of medical error, patient satisfaction and personal identity threat.

    Background:  Abuse in health care is an emerging concept in need of a clear analysis and definition. At the same time, boundaries to the related concepts are not demarcated.

    Design:  Concept analysis as developed by Walker and Avant.

    Method:  The databases Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Medline, and Google Scholar were used to obtain articles published between 1997 and 2009. A total of eleven articles are referred to on abuse in health care, four on medical error, six on patient satisfaction and three on personal identity threat.

    Results:  Abuse in health care is defined by patients’ subjective experiences of encounters with the health care system, characterized by devoid of care, where patients suffer and feel they lose their value as human beings. The events are most often unintended. We also found differences with the aforementioned related concepts: medical error does not share the patients’ perspective, and patient satisfaction does not offer room for patients’ abusive experiences. The concept of personal identity threat shares all attributes with abuse in health care, but it lacks an antecedent that signifies the social structures underlying the phenomenon.

    Conclusions:  Abuse in health care covers a phenomenon that has severe consequences but is invisible if seen from a medical error or patient satisfaction perspective.

  • 7.
    Brüggemann, Jelmer
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköping University.
    Anmälningsplikt för kränkningar bör inkluderas i lex Maria2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 5, p. 217-217Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lex Maria bör bygga på ­samma filosofi som lex Sarah, och det systemtänkande som lex Maria är född ur bör gälla för ­kränkningar lika väl som för rent medicinska misstag.

  • 8.
    Brüggemann, Jelmer
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    Staff silence about abuse in health care: an exploratory study at a Swedish women’s clinic2014In: Clinical Ethics, ISSN 1477-7509, E-ISSN 1758-101X, Vol. 9, no 2-3, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background It has been well documented that patients can feel abused in health care and that many patients suffer from these experiences. Insight lacks into contributing factors behind such events. Silence surrounding the abuse has been suggested as a possible mechanism. The present study explores silence surrounding the abuse as a possible contributing factor. We have explored whether this silence is connected with the staff’s hierarchical position and with the staff’s own experiences as patients abused in health care.

    Methods During January 2008, a paper questionnaire was sent to all staff members at a Swedish women’s clinic. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemography and profession and multiple questions about abuse in health care. After univariate testing, a binary logistic regression model including variables concerning profession and staff’s own experiences of abuse was built.

    Results Our data show that in contrast to midwives and gynaecologists, auxiliary nurses seldom report hearing about cases of abuse in health care. Staff who themselves experienced abuse in health care as patients, so-called wounded healers, were more likely to have heard about abuse in health care during the last 12 months.

    Conclusions This study suggests that a form of silence reigns over events of abuse in health care that is not randomly distributed over staff. Professional hierarchies and staff’s own experiences of abuse as patients could be considered in the design of interventions to break the silence surrounding patients’ experiences of abuse in health care.

  • 9.
    Brüggemann, Jelmer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Patients’ silence following healthcare staff’s ethical transgressions2012In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 750-763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent patients remained silent to the health care system after they experienced abusive or wrongful incidents in health care. Female patients visiting a women’s clinic in Sweden (n = 530) answered the Transgressions of Ethical Principles in Health Care Questionnaire (TEP), which was constructed to measure patients’ abusive experiences in the form of staff’s transgressions of ethical principles in health care. Of all the patients, 63.6% had, at some point, experienced staff’s transgressions of ethical principles, and many perceived these events as abusive and wrongful. Of these patients, 70.3% had remained silent to the health care system about at least one transgression. This silence is a loss of essential feedback for the health care system and should not automatically be interpreted as though patients are satisfied.

  • 10.
    Chalise, P.
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway;Kathmandu Univ Sch Med Sci, Nepal.
    Manandhar, P.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway;Kathmandu Med Coll, Nepal.
    Infanti, J. J.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Campbell, J.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, USA.
    Henriksen, L.
    Oslo Metropolitan Univ, Norway.
    Joshi, S. K.
    Kathmandu Med Coll, Nepal.
    Koju, R.
    Kathmandu Univ, Nepal.
    Pun, K. D.
    Kathmandu Univ Sch Med Sci, Nepal.
    Rishal, P.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Simpson, M. R.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Skovlund, E.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schei, B.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway;St Olavs Univ Hosp,Norway.
    Lukasse, M.
    Univ South Eastern Norway, Norway.
    Addressing Domestic Violence in Antenatal Care Environments in Nepal (ADVANCE) - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial evaluating a video intervention on domestic violence among pregnant women2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDomestic violence (DV) prior to, and during pregnancy is associated with increased risks for morbidity and mortality. As pregnant women routinely attend antenatal care this environment can be used to offer support to women experiencing DV. We have developed a video intervention that focuses on the use of behavioral coping strategies, particularly regarding disclosure of DV experiences. The effectiveness of this intervention will be evaluated through a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a concurrent process evaluation.MethodsAll pregnant women between 12-22 weeks of gestation attending routine antenatal care at two tertiary level hospitals in Nepal are invited to participate. DV is measured using the Nepalese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen (N-AAS). Additionally, we measure participants' mental health, use of coping strategies, physical activity, and food security through a Color-coded Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview (C-ACASI). Irrespective of DV status, women are randomized into the intervention or control arm using a computer-generated randomization program. The intervention arm views a short video providing information on DV, safety improving actions women can take with an emphasis on disclosing the violence to a trusted person along with utilizing helplines available in Nepal. The control group watches a video on maintaining a healthy pregnancy and when to seek healthcare. The primary outcome is the proportion of women disclosing their DV status to someone. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of anxiety and depression, coping strategies, the use of safety measures and attitudes towards acceptance of abuse. Follow-up is conducted after 32 weeks of gestation, where both the intervention and control group participants view the intervention video after completing the follow-up questionnaire. Additionally, a mixed methods process evaluation of the intervention will be carried out to explore factors influencing the acceptability of the intervention and the disclosure of DV, including a review of project documents, individual interviews, and focus group discussions with members of the research team, healthcare providers, and participants.DiscussionThis study will provide evidence on whether pregnant women attending regular antenatal visits can enhance their safety by disclosing their experiences of violence to a trusted person after receiving a video intervention.Trial registrationThe study is registered in ClinicalTrial.gov with identifier NCT05199935.

  • 11.
    Colombini, Manuela
    et al.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, UK.
    Mayhew, Susannah H.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, UK.
    Lund, Ragnhild
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Singh, Navpreet
    AstraZeneca PLC, UK.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Infanti, Jennifer
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Schei, Berit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Wijewardene, Kumudu
    Univ Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.
    Factors shaping political priorities for violence against women-mitigation policies in Sri Lanka2018In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 18, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Although violence against women (VAW) is a global public health issue, its importance as a health issue is often unrecognized in legal and health policy documents. This paper uses Sri Lanka as a case study to explore the factors influencing the national policy response to VAW, particularly by the health sector. Methods: A document based health policy analysis was conducted to examine current policy responses to VAW in Sri Lanka using the Shiffman and Smith (2007) policy analysis framework. Results: The findings suggest that the networks and influences of various actors in Sri Lanka, and their ideas used to frame the issue of VAW, have been particularly important in shaping the nature of the policy response to date. The Ministry of Women and Child Affairs led the national response on VAW, but suffered from limited financial and political support. Results also suggest that there was low engagement by the health sector in the initial policy response to VAW in Sri Lanka, which focused primarily on criminal legislation, following global influences. Furthermore, a lack of empirical data on VAW has impeded its promotion as a health policy issue, despite financial support from international organisations enabling an initial health systems response by the Ministry of Health. Until a legal framework was established (2005), the political context provided limited opportunities for VAW to also be construed as a health issue. It was only then that the Ministry of Health got legitimacy to institutionalise VAW services. Conclusion: Nearly a decade later, a change in government has led to a new national plan on VAW, giving a clear role to the health sector in the fight against VAW. High-level political will, criminalisation of violence, coalesced women's groups advocating for legislative change, prevalence data, and financial support from influential institutions are all critical elements helping frame violence as a national public health issue.

  • 12.
    Dahal, Pranab
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Joshi, S. K.
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    The prevalence of gender inequalities and violence in the Eastern Nepal2019In: Kathmandu University Medical Journal, ISSN 1812-2027, E-ISSN 1812-2078, Vol. 17, no 68, p. 298-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Gender inequality and gender based violence is more established in societies with stratification and stronger gender norms. Objective To determine prevalence of gender violence, perception on gender issues and awareness on sexual trafficking and rights among men and women in Morang district of Nepal. Method This cross sectional study was conducted among 810 men and 1190 women in twenty different VDCs of Morang district using self-administered computer based self-interview methods during October-November 2016. Result Male in comparison to female reported more physical abuse during their lifetime. Females (n=259, 21.7%) reported more severe lifetime emotional abuse (n=148, 18.2%) compared to the males. Lifetime severe sexual abuse was reported by a close to five percent (n=95) of both sexes. The severe forms of partner violence include choking, threat or use of weapon and setting on fire was identified to be perpetrated by both the sexes. More than 50% (n=1095) of the respondents had known someone using physical violence against their partner in the community. The involvement of female in key economic decision-making was reported by less than 12%. Nearly 72% (n=1441) were aware of occurrence of sexual trafficking from Nepal while only 46% (n=918) were aware of sexual trafficking occurring from their vicinity. Conclusion The study confirms that despite awareness on gender equality and sexual trafficking, the prevalence of violence and adherence to stronger gender stereotypes, stigmas and roles indicates much need of awareness for establishing equalities and reducing gender violence. © 2019, Kathmandu University. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Dahal, Pranab
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Joshi, Sunil Kumar
    Kathmandu Med Coll, Nepal.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    A qualitative study on gender inequality and gender-based violence in Nepal2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 2005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Gender inequality and violence are not mutually exclusive phenomena but complex loops affecting each other. Women in Nepal face several inequalities and violence. The causes are diverse, but most of these results are due to socially assigned lower positioning of women. The hierarchies based on power make women face subordination and violence in Nepal. The study aims to explore participants' understanding and experience to identify the status of inequality for women and how violence emerges as one of its consequences. Furthermore, it explores the causes of sex trafficking as an example of an outcome of inequality and violence. Method The study formulated separate male and female groups using a purposive sampling method. The study used a multistage focus group discussion, where the same groups met at different intervals. Six focus group discussions, three times each with male and female groups, were conducted in a year. Thirty-six individuals, including sixteen males and twenty females, were involved in the discussions. The study used constructivist grounded theory for the data analysis. Results The study participants identify that a power play between men and women reinforce inequality and increases the likelihood of violence for women. The findings suggest that the subjugation of women occurs due to practices based on gender differences, constricted life opportunities, and internalization of constructed differences among women. The study identifies that interpersonal and socio-cultural violence can result due to established differences between men and women. Sex trafficking, as an example of the outcome of inequality and violence, occurs due to the disadvantageous position of women compounded by poverty and illiteracy. The study has developed a concept of power-play which is identified as a cause and consequence of women's subordination and violence. This power play is found operative at various levels with social approval for men to use violence and maintain/produce inequality. Conclusion The theoretical concept of power play shows that there are inequitable power relations between men and women. The male-centric socio-cultural norms and practices have endowed men with privilege, power, and an opportunity to exploit women. This lowers the status of women and the power-play help to produce and sustain inequality. The power-play exposes women to violence and manifests itself as one of the worst expressions used by men.

  • 14.
    Dahal, Pranab
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Joshi, Sunil Kumar
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Does Forum Theater Help Reduce Gender Inequalities and Violence? Findings From Nepal2022In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 37, no 13-14, p. NP12086-NP12110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender inequality and violence against women are present in every society and culture around the world. The intensities vary, however, based on the local guiding norms and established belief systems. The society of Nepal is centered on traditional belief systems of gender roles and responsibilities, providing greater male supremacy and subordination for the females. This has led to the development and extensive practices of social gender hierarchal systems, producing several inequalities and violence toward women. This study has utilized Forum Theater interventions as a method of raising awareness in 10 villages in eastern Nepal. The study aimed to understand the perception and changes in the community and individuals from the interactive Forum Theater performances on pertinent local gender issues. We conducted 6 focus group discussions and 30 individual interviews with male and female participants exposed to the interventions. The data analysis utilized the constructivist grounded theory methodology. The study finds that exposure and interactive participation in the Forum Theater provide the audience with knowledge, develop empathy toward the victim, and motivate them to change the situation of inequality, abuse, and violence using dialogues and negotiations. The study describes how participation in Forum Theater has increased individual’s ability for negotiating changes. The engagement by the audience in community discussions and replication of efforts in one of the intervention sites show the level of preparedness and ownership among the targeted communities. The study shows the methodological aspects of the planning and performance of the Forum Theater and recommends further exploration of the use of Forum Theater in raising awareness.

  • 15.
    Dahal, Pranab
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Joshi, Sunil Kumar
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    'We are looked down upon and rejected socially': a qualitative study on the experiences of trafficking survivors in Nepal2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, p. 1-9, article id 29267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The successful reintegration of sexual trafficking survivors into Nepalese society is challenging. This paper aims to explore the trafficking process, abuses faced during sexual slavery, and the challenges faced by women and girl survivors for successful reintegration. Method: This exploratory study used qualitative methods to identify that poverty, illiteracy, lack of opportunities, and varied social stigma initiate the victimization process, and continuity of this vicious circle increases the risk for (re) entrapment. Result: The reasons for sexual trafficking have also become the reasons for restricting survivors from opportunities for growth and mainstreaming. Conclusion: Non-existent support systems, detachment from familial ties, being outcast by society, and an uncertain livelihood make reintegration difficult for survivors.

  • 16.
    Danehorn, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Smirthwaite, Goldina
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swedish exchange students' alcohol use, drug use, risky sexual behaviour, mental health, and self-rated health: A follow-up study2023In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 287-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To follow up on exchange students' alcohol use, drug use, mental health, self-rated health, and risky sexual behaviour after a semester abroad and to compare them with students who remained on campus. Methods: The study design was a follow-up study based on a previous baseline survey of 114 prospective exchange students and 451 campus students. Of the original 565 students, 48 (42.1%) prospective exchange students and 209 (43.3%) campus students responded to the follow-up. Both the baseline survey and the follow-up survey included the General Health Questionnaire 12, one single item from Self-Rated Health, and nine items from Knowledge, Attitudes and Sexual Behaviour in Young People in Sweden. Results: We found a statistically significant increase in the weekly consumption of alcohol among exchange students after their semester abroad. A larger proportion of exchange students had sex with a new partner and sex with more than three partners during their semester abroad compared to follow-up campus students. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that exchange students consume alcohol more frequently during their semester abroad and indulge in sexually risky behaviour. Exchange students' use of alcohol and sexually risky behaviour could be associated with even greater risks due to them being in an unknown environment, unfamiliar culture, and with limited support from family and friends. This highlights the need for further research on exchange students' experiences, especially concerning alcohol use and sex while abroad.

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  • 17.
    Danehorn, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Smirthwaite, Goldina
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mental health, self-rated health, risky sexual behaviour, alcohol use, and drug use among students who intend to spend a semester abroad - a cross-sectional study2023In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, article id 1116497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Our aim was to investigate potential differences in mental health, self-rated health, risky sexual behaviour, alcohol use, and drug use between (1) Prospective exchange students and campus students separated by sex, and (2) male and female students as a group. Method: Comparative cross-sectional design using an online survey containing the following instruments: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Behaviour in Young People in Sweden; Self-Rated Health Questionnaire; and General Health Questionnaire 12. One-hundred and fourteen prospective exchange students and 451 campus students participated in the study. Results: Male prospective exchange students rated their mental health as being better and had used cannabis more often compared with female prospective exchange students. Male prospective exchange students also rated their mental health as being better than male campus students. Female students, in general, rated their mental health as worse than male students. A larger proportion of male prospective exchange students had sex together with alcohol compared with male campus students, and a larger proportion of female prospective exchange students had sex with a new partner and drank more alcohol compared to female campus students. Conclusion: The result shows that risky alcohol use and sexually risky behaviour is prominent amongst prospective exchange students. It is possible that they will continue, and even increase their risky behaviour whilst abroad as they find themselves in a new social context, and free from influence of the rules and restrictions that they might have at home. With limited knowledge of the local culture, native language, and in an unfamiliar environment, it is possible that the risks will be enhanced and possibly decrease their health. This highlights the need for proactive interventions, conceivably with some variations in content between sexes.

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  • 18.
    Davidsson Simmons, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Benjaminsson, Gabriella
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Association between experiencing rape, police reporting, and self-reported health among women visiting three gynecology clinics in Sweden2009In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 88, no 9, p. 1000-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To describe the frequency of police reporting among rape victims based on two hypotheses: (1) victims of rape more often report poor health than those who have not been victims of any abuse, and (2) victims who report abuse to the police are more likely to state poor self-reported health than those who do not report any abuse. Design. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Setting. Three Swedish departments of obstetrics and gynecology. Sample. From an original sample of 2,439 women, those who had experienced rape and those who had no history of abuse were included (n = 1,319). Method. Analysis of associations between self-reported poor health, rape, and police reporting among rape victims were assessed by multivariate models adjusted for type of abuse, perpetrator, and sociodemographic factors. Main outcome measures. Odds ratios (ORs) for poor health among rape victims. Results. Rape was seldom reported to the police (23.5%, 44/187). Both hypotheses were confirmed; rape victims more often state poor health than non-abused women (adjusted OR 3.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.4–6.3), and women who had reported abuse to the police stated poor health more often than those who had not reported abuse to the police (adjusted OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.1–8.1). Conclusions. Three of four rape victims had not reported any abuse to the police, and those who had were more likely to report poor health. Rape myths are prevalent in society and affect how victims of sexual abuse are treated both by formal and informal support providers, which in turn may affect the recovery and health of victims. Our results send an urgent message to the current debate on sexual abuse against women: Why do women not report rape to the police?

  • 19. Elmerstig, E.
    et al.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    Why continue to have vaginal intercourse despite pain?: Reasons and associated factors among young Swedish women2011In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 8, no Supplement s3, p. 121-121Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Elmerstig, Eva
    et al.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Unit Gender & Med, S-58183 Linköping.
    Prioritizing the partner's enjoyment: a population-based study on young Swedish women with experience of pain during vaginal intercourse2013In: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, E-ISSN 1743-8942, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the prevalence of women who continue to have vaginal intercourse (VIC) despite pain, avoid telling the partner, and feign enjoyment. It also considers the reasons for this behavior. A sample of 1566 female senior high school students (aged 18-22 years) completed a questionnaire concerning their experiences and attitudes toward their body and sexuality. Forty-seven percent (270/576) of those women who reported pain during VIC continued to have VIC despite the pain. The most common reasons were that they did not want to spoil sex for or hurt the partner by interrupting VIC. Feigning enjoyment and not telling the partner about their pain were reported by 22 and 33%, respectively. Continuing to have VIC despite pain was associated with feelings of being inferior to the partner during sex, dissatisfaction with their own sex lives and feigning enjoyment while having pain. Pain during VIC is reported by every third young Swedish woman, and almost half of those still continue to have VIC. The major reason given is noteworthy - prioritizing the partner's enjoyment before their own - and indicates that young women who continue to have VIC despite pain take a subordinate position in sexual interactions.

  • 21.
    Elmerstig, Eva
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Young Swedish women's experience of pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse2009In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 98-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To study experience and prevalence of (1) pain related to first sexual intercourse; (2) pain and/or discomfort associated with sexual intercourse during the previous month; and (3) associations between these experiences. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. A youth center in southeast Sweden. Sample. Three hundred consecutive women, aged 13–21 (response rate 98%). Method. During a two-month period, women consulting a youth center, participated in a questionnaire study. Main outcome measures. Pain and/or discomfort during sexual intercourse. Results. The majority of the participants, 98%, had had sexual intercourse and of those, 65% reported pain related to first sexual intercourse. Forty-nine percent (99/203) of those who reported sexual intercourse during the previous month had experienced coital pain and/or discomfort during that period, and for almost every second woman (46/99), those experiences constituted a problem. We found no association between experience of pain during first sexual intercourse and pain and/or discomfort during the previous month. Conclusions. Prevalence of pain and/or discomfort associated with sexual intercourse is high among women visiting a youth center. Our results show that coital pain in young women is a problem which needs to be further explored.

  • 22.
    Elmerstig, Eva
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköping University.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Being “good in bed”: body concerns, self-perceptions and gender expectations among Swedish heterosexual female and male senior high-school students2017In: Journal of sex & marital therapy, ISSN 0092-623X, E-ISSN 1521-0715, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 326-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated gender differences regarding body perceptions, self-perceptions, values and expectations in sexual situations, and factors associated with expectations, among Swedish heterosexual female and male high-school students. A total of 2,765 students (aged 18 to 22) completed questionnaires. Women reported lower satisfaction with themselves and their body appearance (p < 0.001), and felt more inferior to their partner (p < 0.001). Men felt more superior to their partner, and felt higher expectations (p < 0.001). Male sex, difficulty saying no to sex, dissatisfaction with the body, feeling inferior or superior to partner, and considering partner's satisfaction as more important, were all associated with feeling expectations during sex.

  • 23.
    Ghimire, Narayani Paudel
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Joshi, Sunil Kumar
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Dahal, Pranab
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Women's Experience of Disrespect and Abuse during Institutional Delivery in Biratnagar, Nepal2021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 18, article id 9612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, a large number of women experience disrespectful and abusive behavior from care providers during childbirth. This violates the rights of women to attain respectful care. This study aimed to find out the women's experience of disrespect and abuse during institutional delivery. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two hospitals of Morang district situated in eastern Nepal. Two hundred eighteen women from a public hospital and 109 women from a private hospital (N = 327) with normal vaginal delivery were selected purposively for this study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire based on the Disrespectful and Abusive Scale by Bowser and Hill. All women had experienced at least one type of disrespect and/or abuse during labor and delivery, most common being non-consented care (100%), non-dignified care (72%), and non-confidential care (66.6%), respectively. Discriminatory care and physical abuse were experienced by 32.33% and 13.23%, respectively. Ethnicity, religion, place of delivery, and numbers of living children were the main predictors of reporting disrespect and abuse. Overall, the occurrence of disrespect and abuse during institutional delivery was found to be very high.

  • 24. Hilden, Malene
    et al.
    Schei, Berit
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    Halmesmäki, Erja
    Langhoff-Roos, Jens
    Offerdal, Kristin
    Pikarinen, Ulla
    Sidenius, Katrine
    Steingrimsdottir, Tora
    Stoum-Hinsverk, Hildegun
    Wijma, Barbro
    A history of sexual abuse and health: a Nordic multicentre study2004In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 111, no 10, p. 1121-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives  To determine if a history of sexual abuse is associated with objective and subjective indicators of health and if certain abusive incidents had a stronger impact on health than others.

    Design  A cross-sectional, multicentre study.

    Setting  Five gynaecological departments in the five Nordic countries.

    Sample  Three thousand five hundred and thirty-nine gynaecology patients.

    Methods  The NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) on abuse history and current health was mailed to all patients who consented to participate.

    Main outcome measures  Reason for index visit at the gynaeocological clinic as well as several questions on health were recorded. General health status was measured as self-estimated health, psychosomatic symptoms (headache, abdominal pain, muscle, weakness, dizziness), number of health care visits and number of periods on sick leave.

    Result  A history of sexual abuse was reported by 20.7% of respondents. A history of sexual abuse was significantly associated with chronic pelvic pain as reason for index visit (P < 0.01), laparoscopic surgery (P < 0.01), psychosomatic symptoms (P < 0.01), self-estimated poor health (P < 0.01), many health care visits (P < 0.01) and high incidence of sick leave (P < 0.01). Several subgroups within the group of sexually abused women were more likely to report poor health: women abused as both children and adults, women who experienced additional emotional and/or physical abuse and women abused by a person they knew.

    Conclusion  Sexual abuse has a profound impact on women's health. Taking a history of sexual abuse seems particularly warranted when the patient presents with chronic pelvic pain or symptoms of a vague and diffuse nature.

  • 25.
    Infanti, Jennifer J.
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Lund, Ragnhild
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Muzrif, Munas M.
    Univ Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.
    Schei, Berit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Wijewardena, Kumudu
    Univ Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.
    Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives2015In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 145, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles and responsibilities of health care professionals in responding to and preventing domestic violence.

  • 26.
    Infanti, Jennifer J.
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Zbikowski, Anke
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Wijewardene, Kumudu
    Univ Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Feasibility of Participatory Theater Workshops to Increase Staff Awareness of and Readiness to Respond to Abuse in Health Care: A Qualitative Study of a Pilot Intervention Using Forum Play among Sri Lankan Health Care Providers2020In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 17, no 20, p. 1-14, article id 7698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women globally experience mistreatment by health providers during childbirth. Researchers have identified strategies to counteract this type of abuse in health care, but few have been evaluated. We used a theater technique, Forum Play, in a brief training intervention to increase awareness of abuse in health care and promote taking action to reduce or prevent it. The intervention was implemented in four workshops with 50 participating physicians and nurses from three hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka. This article reports the views of 23 workshop participants who also took part in four focus group discussions on the acceptability and feasibility of the method. The participants reported that the intervention method stimulated dialogue and critical reflection and increased their awareness of the everyday nature of abuses experienced by patients. Participants appreciated the participatory format of Forum Play, which allowed them to re-enact scenarios they had experienced and rehearse realistic actions to improve patient care in these situations. Structural factors were reported as limitations to the effectiveness of the intervention, including under-developed systems for protecting patient rights and reporting health provider abuses. Nonetheless, the study indicates the acceptability and feasibility of a theater-based training intervention for reducing the mistreatment of patients by health care providers in Sri Lanka.

  • 27.
    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Sia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Univ Akureyri, Iceland.
    Steingrimsdottir, Thora
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland;Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Thome, Marga
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Oskarsson, Guomundur Kristjan
    Univ Akureyri, Iceland.
    Lydsdottir, Linda Bara
    Univ Iceland, Iceland;VIRK Vocat Rehabil Fund, Iceland.
    Olafsdottir, Halldora
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
    Univ Iceland, Iceland;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland;Reykjav Univ, Iceland.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pain management and medical interventions during childbirth among perinatal distressed women and women dissatisfied in their partner relationship: A prospective cohort study2019In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 69, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible associations between distress in pregnant women and their use of pain management and medical interventions. Furthermore, we assessed the effects of reported dissatisfaction in relationship with their partner, or weak social support. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Setting: Women were invited to participate while attending prenatal care at participating Icelandic health care centres. Birth outcome data were obtained from the hospitals where these women gave birth. Participants: Women in this study participated in a research project where 2523 women were screened three times during pregnancy for anxiety and depression. Women who had positive results at screening were invited to a semi-structured interview during pregnancy as well as every fourth woman who had negative results. Five hundred and sixty-two women participated in the interviews and the final sample was 442 women. Measurements: Distress was defined as symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression. The Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS) were used for screening purposes. During the interview, the women answered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the Adverse Experienced Interview (AEI). The main outcome variables that were obtained from the women's childbirth records were: (1) use of pain management, categorized as: epidural analgesia, non-pharmacological pain management, nitrous oxide, pharmacological medication, or no pain management; (2) medical interventions categorized as: induction, stimulation, and episiotomy; and (3) mode of childbirth. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for significant covariates, was conducted. Findings: A significant association was found between perinatal distress at 16 weeks gestation and use of epidural as single pain management. Overall, distressed women were 2.6 times more likely than non-distressed women to use epidural as a single pain management. They were also less likely to go through childbirth without use of any pain management method. Women who were dissatisfied in their relationship were significantly more likely to undergo induction of childbirth, an episiotomy and/or a vacuum extraction than those who were satisfied in their relationship, regardless if they were distressed or not. No association was found between social support and the outcome variables. Key conclusions: Women with perinatal distress were more likely to use an epidural than non-distressed women. The use of an epidural might help them manage pain and uncertainties related to childbirth. Women who were dissatisfied in their partner relationship may be more likely to undergo induction of childbirth, episiotomy and/or vacuum extraction. Implication for practice: Midwives need to acknowledge the possible association of distress and use of an epidural during childbirth and screen for distress early in pregnancy. It is important to offer counselling and help during pregnancy for expectant parents who are distressed or dissatisfied in their relationship. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Sia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Univ Akureyri, Iceland.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Thome, Marga
    Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kristjan
    Univ Akureyri, Iceland.
    Lydsdottir, Linda Bara
    Univ Iceland, Iceland;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Olafsdottir, Halldora
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
    Univ Iceland, Iceland;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland;Reykjavik Univ, Iceland.
    Steingrimsdottir, Thora
    Univ Iceland, Iceland;Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland.
    Pregnancy complications, sick leave and service needs of women who experience perinatal distress, weak social support and dissatisfaction in their partner relationships2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 167-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Although perinatal distress is acknowledged as a burdening condition for pregnant women, its effects on pregnancy are not well known. This study was conducted to increase knowledge regarding the effects of distress on pregnancy-related problems. The study also assessed women's need for sick leave and increased prenatal care due to distress, and the effects of weak social support and dissatisfaction with their partner relationships. Methods In total, 2523 women were screened for perinatal distress three times during pregnancy in this quantitative cohort study. Structured psychiatric interviews were conducted following the screening, with 562 of the participants. Data from participants' pregnancy records were also analysed. The study was conducted in primary healthcare centres in Iceland after receiving approval from the Icelandic National Bioethical Committee. The main outcome measures were pregnancy problems, sick leave issued and prenatal service needs. Results Data from 503 women were analysed. The perinatal distress group (PDG) was significantly more likely than was the nondistressed group (NDG) to experience fatigue, vomiting and pelvic pain after controlling for background variables. Distressed women who reported weak family support experienced symptoms of nausea and heartburn. The PDG needed more frequent prenatal care than did the NDG and was issued sick leave for up to 42 days longer. Dissatisfaction in the partner relationship and with the division of household tasks and childcare was strongly associated with distress, the development of complications and the need for sick leave. Discussion Identification of perinatal distress by midwives and other healthcare professionals is important, since distress may be linked to women's complaints of fatigue, vomiting, pelvic pain and need for prolonged sick leave, and additional prenatal care services will be needed. Perceived dissatisfaction in the partner relationship and with the division of household tasks should also form part of clinical practice and assistance provided.

  • 29.
    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Sia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Akureyri, Iceland.
    Thome, Marga
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Steingrimsdottir, Thora
    Landspitali University Hospital, Iceland ; University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Lydsdottir, Linda Bara
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
    University of Iceland, Iceland ; Landspitali University Hospital, Iceland ; Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Olafsdottir, Halldora
    Landspitali University Hospital, Iceland.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Partner relationship, social support and perinatal distress among pregnant Icelandic women2017In: Women and Birth, ISSN 1871-5192, E-ISSN 1878-1799, Vol. 30, no 1, p. e46-e55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is inferred that perinatal distress has adverse effects on the prospective mother and the health of the foetus/infant. More knowledge is needed to identify which symptoms of perinatal distress should be assessed during pregnancy and to shed light on the impact of women's satisfaction with their partner relationship on perinatal distress.

    AIM: The current study aimed to generate knowledge about the association of the partner relationship and social support when women are dealing with perinatal distress expressed by symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress.

    METHODS: A structured interview was conducted with 562 Icelandic women who were screened three times during pregnancy with the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Of these, 360 had symptoms of distress and 202 belonged to a non-distress group. The women answered the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. The study had a multicentre prospective design allowing for exploration of association with perinatal distress.

    FINDINGS: Women who were dissatisfied in their partner relationship were four times more likely to experience perinatal distress. Women with perinatal distress scored highest on the DASS Stress Subscale and the second highest scores were found on the Anxiety Subscale.

    CONCLUSION: Satisfaction in partner relationship is related to perinatal distress and needs to be assessed when health care professionals take care of distressed pregnant women, her partner and her family. Assessment of stress and anxiety should be included in the evaluation of perinatal distress, along with symptoms of depression.

  • 30. Josephson, Agneta
    Praktisk kunskap i att förhindra kränkningar. Rapport om dramapedagogiskt arbete med vårdpersonal.2011Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Joshi, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College.
    Kharel, Jagannath
    Suwal, Bhim
    Wijma, Barbro
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    I have been to hell: rescued Nepalese girls and women’s experiences of trafficking to brothels in India2012In: GEXcel work in progress report volume XII: getting rid of violence : TRANSdiciplinary, TRANSnational and TRANSformative feminist dialogues on embodiment, emotions and ethics: GEXcel theme 7: Getting rid of violence, autumn 2010 / [ed] Barbro Wijma, Alp Biricik and Ulrica Engdahl, Linköping: Institute of Thematic Gender Studies, Department of Gender Studies, Linköping University , 2012, 1, p. 101-115Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interview study described in this chapter was performed in cooperation with two Nepalese non government organizations called Community Action Nepal (CAC Nepal) and Shakti Samuha. Informants were eight trafficking survivors who were independently living in various parts of Kathmandu Valley and six trafficking survivors who were currently staying at a rehabilitation centre. After being rescued, five of the informants now earned their living as prostitutes, one was a housewife, one had her own shop, and five were at a rehab centre. Most of the informants had been tricked into being trafficked. The most commonly used bait was a nice job in Kathmandu or abroad with a good salary, which would allow the informant to buy 'nice clothes' and eat 'good food'. To this need to be added that the migration decision of the informants (which turns out to be trafficking) takes place in an interface between economic hardships, the informant’s own desire for better work and a better life, and pressure on her to assist sustaining her family.The trafficker was most often a known person, male or female, who had spent time and efforts in building a good relationship with the informant before taking off for the ‘good job’. Life at the brothel was described as a prison, where the informants instantly and at any time of the day and night had to obey the brothel owner (who often was a woman, and sometimes Nepalese), and her 'guards' (male or female). If they refused or did not act accordingly they were severely punished often by physical means. The informant’s life was reduced into one purpose ‘how to satisfy brothel’s customers’. The owners of the brothels were usually sitting at the main entrance and other guards were always around. The doors were always locked when the informants had some time off. Most informants had not been allowed to leave the house, and a few of them did not understand where they were until they later on could ask someone.The relief of finally returning home to Nepal was often clouded by difficulties. Only one of the informants could go directly back home to her family. She was well accepted by her husband and in-laws, but she had to face a lot of resistance from other community members. Later on she decided to leave her husband, as she realized that he was also to blame for her being trafficked.The informants revealed that their experiences while being trafficked were usually kept a secret during and after trafficking. According to several studies, the trauma of having been trafficked is often complicated by societal refusal upon return from the brothels. Survivors know who the traffickers are, but their reputation for cruelty and the failure of the police and legal system to enforce the law, contribute to creating an attitude that there is no point in making official reports.A puzzling fact is finally presented: during the last two decades Nepal has made great improvements in designing anti-trafficking programmes and implementing new anti-trafficking laws. Yet, trafficking seems to have become an increasing problem in Nepal during the same period. This poses an urgent challenge on both researchers and society.

  • 32.
    Joshi, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Trafficking of women and girls from Nepal to India for prostitution: what is known about its history, nurturing factors, health effects and prevention?2012In: GEXcel work in progress report volume XII: getting rid of violence : TRANSdiciplinary, TRANSnational and TRANSformative feminist dialogues on embodiment, emotions and ethics: GEXcel theme 7: getting rid of violence, autumn 2010 / [ed] Barbro Wijma, Alp Biricik and Ulrica Engdahl, Linköping: Institute of Thematic Gender Studies, Department of Gender Studies, Linköping University , 2012, 1, p. 89-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Karim, K.M. Rabiul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Habib, Tanzima Zohra
    Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Arefin, Sadequl
    Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Hafijur
    Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Suchona
    Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Differences in the acceptance of wife abuse among ethnic minority Garo and Santal and mainstream Bengali communities in rural Bangladesh2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1-19, article id e0236733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on wife abuse in Bangladesh predominantly include the mainstreamBengalipopulation, although there are at least 27 ethnic minority communities including a few 'female-centered' matrilineal groups living in the country. This study explored ethnic differences in the attitudinal acceptance of wife abuse among matrilineal ethnic minorityGaro, patrilineal ethnic minoritySantal, and mainstream patriarchalBengalicommunities in rural Bangladesh. Adopting a cross-sectional design, the study included 1,929 women and men randomly selected from 24Garo,Santal, andBengalivillages. Multivariate Poisson regression was performed to predict the number of contextual events, where the respondents attitudinally endorsed wife abuse. Of the sample, 33.2% were fromGaro, 33.2% fromSantal, and 33.6% from theBengalicommunities. The acceptance of wife abuse was high in the sample; specifically, 34.1% of the respondents accepted physical wife abuse, 67.5% accepted emotional abuse, and 71.6% accepted any abuse (either physical or emotional) at least on one contextual reason provided in a 10-item scale. The mean for accepting any abuse was 3.0 (SD= 2.8), emotional abuse 2.3 (SD= 2.2), and physical abuse 0.8 (SD= 1.4). The study showed that the rates of accepting any abuse and physical abuse were respectively 16% and 56% lower amongGaroas well as 14% and 33% lower amongSantalthan that of theBengalicommunity. Data also revealed that individual level factors like younger age, higher education, prestigious occupation as well as family level factors such as higher income, female mobility, and female family authority were inversely associated with the acceptance of wife abuse in the sample. It appears that the gender regime of a society has a great influence on the attitudes toward wife abuse. We argue that a comprehensive socio-cultural transformation of the patriarchal societies into a gender equal order is imperative for the prevention of widespread wife abuse in the country.

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  • 34.
    Karim, K.M. Rabiul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Hafijur
    Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Suchona
    Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Habib, Tanzima Zohra
    Univ Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gender differences in marital violence: a cross-ethnic study among Bengali, Garo, and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 5, article id e0251574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on marital violence (MV) in Bangladesh have primarily focused on the women of the mainstream Bengali people, although half of the population is men, and there are also ethnic minority communities with diverse gender constructions. The current study examined the gender differences in MV among the matrilineal ethnic minority Garo, patrilineal ethnic minority Santal, and the patrilineal mainstream Bengali communities in rural Bangladesh. Adopting a cross-sectional design, we randomly included 1,929 currently married men and women from 24 villages. We used cross-tabulations as well as multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the ethnic and gender differences in MV. Data revealed that women were widely exposed to different types of MV, while only a few men experienced such abuses. It showed that 95.6% of the women experienced emotional abuse, 63.5% physical abuse, 71.4% sexual abuse, and 50.6% poly-victimization, whereas these rates were quite low among the men (emotional = 9.7%, physical = 0.7%, sexual = 0.1%). No men reported poly-victimization. The odds ratio (OR) for emotional, physical, and sexual MV were respectively, 184.44 (95% CI = 93.65−363.24, p<0.001), 449.23 (95% CI = 181.59−1111.35, p<0.001), and 2789.71(95% CI = 381.36−20407.08, p<0.001) for women compared to men. Data further revealed that matrilineal Garo women experienced less MV (emotional = 90.7%, physical = 53.4%, sexual = 64.0%, poly = 38.8%) than the patrilineal Santal (emotional = 99.4%, physical = 67.3%, sexual = 71.3%, poly = 53.9%) and Bengali women (emotional = 96.6%, physical = 69.6%, sexual = 78.8%, poly = 58.9%). Multivariate regressions also showed that the Bengali society perpetrated more physical (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.27−2.85, p = 0.002) and sexual (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.34−3.10, p = 0.001) MV than the Garo society. It appears that MV is largely a gendered issue in the country. Though both women and men can be the victims of MV, the nature/extent of victimization noticeably differs according to the social organization. Matrilineal society appears to be less abusive than the patrilineal one. Interventions aimed to prevent domestic violence in rural Bangladesh should take these findings into account.

  • 35.
    Karim, K.M. Rabiul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Suchona
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Hafijur
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Habib, Tanzima Zohra
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Arefin, Sadequl
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Does Childhood Experience of Family Victimization influence Adulthood Refusal of Wife Abuse? Evidence from Rural Bangladesh.2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 6, article id e0252600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how different forms of childhood family victimization are associated with the attitudinal (not actual action) refusal of wife abuse among women and men in rural Bangladesh. It included 1,929 randomly selected married women and men. Of the sample, 31.3% (Men = 49.3%, Women = 13.5%) attitudinally refused overall wife abuse, 38.5% (Men = 53.2%, Women = 23.8%) refused emotional abuse, 67.0% (Men = 82.5%, Women = 51.6%) refused physical abuse, 78.0% (Men = 88.6%, Women = 67.4%) refused abuse on wife’s disobeying family obligations, and 32.3% (Men = 50.3%, Women = 14.6%) refused abuse on challenging male authority. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the odds ratio (ORs) of the attitudinal refusal of overall wife abuse were 1.75 (p = .041) for the childhood non-victims of emotional abuse and 2.31 (p < .001) for the victims of mild emotional abuse, compared to the victims of severe emotional abuse. On the other hand, the ORs of the overall refusal of abuse were 1.84 (p = .031) for the non-victims of physical abuse and 1.29 (p = .465) for the victims of mild physical abuse, compared to the childhood victims of severe physical abuse. Data further revealed that the childhood non-victimization of physical abuse increased all types of attitudinal refusal of wife abuse, e.g., emotional abuse, physical abuse, abuse on disobeying family obligations, and abuse on challenging male authority. Compared to the childhood experiences of severe emotional abuse, data also indicated that childhood exposure to mild emotional abuse might increase the attitudinal refusal of wife abuse on a few issues, e.g., abuse on disobeying family obligations, abuse on challenging male authority, and physical abuse. It appeared that childhood experiences of family victimization greatly influence different types of attitudinal refusal of wife abuse. We argue that the issue of childhood victimization should be brought to the forefront in the discourse. We recommend that state machinery and social welfare agencies should expend significant efforts to stop child abuse within the family and in other areas of society in rural Bangladesh.

  • 36.
    Karim, K.M. Rabiul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Development of the Social Acceptance of Wife Abuse Scale in Rural Bangladesh2021In: Partner Abuse, ISSN 1946-6560, E-ISSN 1946-6579, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 21-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to develop and validate the Social Acceptance of Wife Abuse Scale (SAWAS) in a Bangladeshi context. A total of 18 initial items were generated through literature review and focus group interviews with 16 university students. After meetings with 3 experts and 4 research students having extensive fieldwork experiences on domestic violence issues in rural Bangladesh, 12 items remained. These 12 items were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with a sample of 186 university students. This produced a 2-factor, 6-item scale. We labeled the two factors, the circumstances where wife abuse is socially accepted: “disobeying family obligations” and “challenging male-authority.” Using a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the factor solution was further tested with another sample of 1,929 rural citizens. The SAWAS showed very good internal consistency and validity. The SAWAS can serve as a protocol to direct measures in the effective prevention of widespread wife abuse in Bangladesh.

  • 37.
    Karim, K.M. Rabiul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Does female authority prevent male marital violence?: Evidence from rural Bangladesh2021In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 36, no 11-12, p. 5055-5074, article id 886260518801023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While relative resource status between husband and wife is widely discussed in the explanation of male marital violence (MMV) behaviors, the influence of relative family authority between husband and wife on the violence has been generally overlooked in previous studies. An examination can provide a better understanding of the issue. This study examined how various levels of female authority within the family are associated with MMV against women in rural Bangladesh. The study adopted a cross-sectional design and included 342 married men randomly selected from five northwest villages. Negative binomial regression was performed to predict the frequency of self-reported MMV behaviors in a 1-year recall period which estimated the ratios comparing absolute male authority to egalitarian authority within the family. Of the sample, 37.4% were the egalitarian/fair female authority, 41.2% were the higher male authority, and 21.4% were absolute male authority families; 71.1% of the men revealed that they had resorted to at least one incident of MMV (psychological or physical or sexual) against their wives in the year preceding the survey. The mean of yearly MMV occurrences was 6.29 ( SD = 7.58), ranging from 0 to 42. The study revealed that the frequency of MMV against women was 1.96 times higher among absolute male authority families than in egalitarian families. It further revealed that the frequency of psychological abuse was 1.63 times, physical attack 2.89 times, and sexual coercion 1.88 times higher among absolute male authority families than among egalitarian/fair female authority families. Higher male authority did not appear to be different from egalitarian authority in MMV occurrences. The study suggests that increased female authority within the family unit may prevent women from being exposed to MMV in a patriarchal social order.

  • 38.
    Karim, K.M. Rabiul
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Wahab, Nazia
    Asia Pacific University, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Delwar
    Begum Rokeya University, Bangladesh.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gender and Awareness of Laws on Intimate Partner Violence: A Study Among Bengali, Garo, and Santal Ethnic Communities in Rural Bangladesh2023In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 38, no 1-2, p. 6013-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Bangladesh rarely focused on the effectiveness of primary prevention strategies like legal remedies. There is also a lack of studies on the issues among the ethnic minority communities in the country. This study examines the awareness of laws on IPV (such as recognizing the abusive acts and knowing the sanctions) among the ethnic Garo and Santal and mainstream Bengali communities in rural Bangladesh. The study randomly included 1929 married women and men from 24 villages. It appeared that the respondents were not adequately aware of the relevant legal provisions. There were also gender and ethnic differences in the issues. On average, the respondents maintained a low score on recognizing abusive acts. The awareness was further lower among the women compared to the men. In addition, multivariate analysis indicated that the Bengali women had relatively a better understanding of the issues than the Garo and Santal women. However, the Garo men showed poorer awareness of recognizing the abusive acts than the Bengali and Santal men. On the other hand, the respondents also maintained a very insufficient knowledge of the sanctions against such abusive acts, whereas women also showed a lower awareness compared to their male counterparts. Data further revealed that the Santal women had a more inadequate understanding of the issues than the Bengali and Garo women. However, the Garo men had more awareness of the sanctions than the Bengali and Santal men. The study reveals that people are unfamiliar with the laws governing IPV. It shows that understanding legal issues is another field of gender and ethnic inequality in the country. We suggest that there should be intervention to make aware the citizen, mainly women of all ethnicities, to ensure the efficacy of the laws.

  • 39. Leander, Karen
    et al.
    Berlin, M
    Danielsson, M
    Eriksson, A
    Gillander Gådin, K
    Hensing, G
    Krantz, G
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    Våld2009In: Fokhälsorapporten 2009 / [ed] Maria Danielsson, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2009, p. 339-367Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Leander, Karen
    et al.
    karolinska Institutet.
    Berlin, Marie
    Eriksson, Annika
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Hensing, Gunnel
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Krantz, Gunilla
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Violence: Health in Sweden: The National Public Health Report 2012. Chapter 122012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 9 suppl, p. 229-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and in other countries, it has become increasingly common to view violence from a public health perspective. This chapter presents a description of interpersonal violence with an emphasis on violence in close relations, particularly in partner relationships.

    According to the Swedish Crime Survey 2010, approximately one in ten inhabitants was exposed to violence, threats or harassment of some kind in 2009. Young people and single mothers with small children are particularly vulnerable to violence. According to Statistics Sweden’s ULF surveys (Survey on Living Conditions) for 2004–2005, 17 per cent of men and 12 per cent of women aged 16–24 years reported having been subjected to violence or serious threats at some time in the previous 12 months.

    Boys and men are more frequently subjected to lethal violence and to violence resulting in hospitalisation than girls and women. Similarly, men also make up a majority of the victims of assaults reported to the police. On the other hand, domestic violence and work-related violence more often involve women than men, and sexual violence is chiefly directed at girls and women. Most women and children who are subjected to assault are acquainted with the perpetrator, while this only applies to a minority of male victims. Women are four to five times as likely to be killed by a partner as men. Partner assaults against women, rapes, and gross violations of a woman’s integrity account for a fifth of all reported crimes of violence (against women and men combined).

    Violence in partner relationships has significant consequences for physical and mental health; between 12,000 and 14,000 women seek outpatient care each year as a result of violence committed by a partner. Violence can also have serious social repercussions: isolation, financial difficulties, sick leave from work, unemployment, etc., and women subjected to this 

  • 41.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Motamedi, Atbin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Westerlind, Bjorn
    Linköping University, Sweden;Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Simmons, Johanna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Responding to Elder Abuse in GERiAtric care (REAGERA) educational intervention for healthcare providers: a non-randomised stepped wedge trial2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e060314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Elder abuse is prevalent and associated with different forms of ill health. Despite this, healthcare providers are often unaware of abusive experiences among older patients and many lack training about elder abuse. The overall aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention on healthcare providers' propensity to ask older patients questions about abusive experiences. Methods and analysis Healthcare providers at hospital clinics and primary healthcare centres in Sweden will undergo full-day education about elder abuse between the fall of 2021 and spring of 2023. The education consists of (1) theory and group discussions; (2) forum theatre, a form of interactive theatre in which participants are given the opportunity to practise how to manage difficult patient encounters; and (3) post-training reflection on changing practices. The design is a non-randomised cluster, stepped wedge trial in which all participants (n=750) gradually transit from control group to intervention group with 6-month interval, starting fall 2021. Data are collected using the Responding to Elder Abuse in GERiAtric care-Provider questionnaire which was distributed to all clusters at baseline. All participants will also be asked to answer the questionnaire in conjunction with participating in the education as well as at 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Main outcome is changes in self-reported propensity to ask older patients questions about abuse post-intervention compared with pre-intervention. Linear mixed models including cluster as a random effect will be used to statistically evaluate the outcome. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority. The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings. If the intervention is successful, a manual of the course content will be published so that the education can be disseminated to other clinics.

  • 42.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Nicolina
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Simmons, Johanna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Experiences of elder abuse: a qualitative study among victims in Sweden2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Elder abuse is underreported and undertreated. Methods for prevention and intervention are being developed, but the knowledge guiding such measures is often insufficiently based on the victims’ own voices due to a paucity of studies. The aim of this study was therefore to explore experiences of elder abuse among the victims themselves.

    Methods

    Consecutive inpatients ≥ 65 years of age at a hospital clinic in Sweden were invited to participate, and 24 victims of elder abuse were identified. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted, and transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The analysis generated four themes that together give a comprehensive picture of elder abuse from the participants’ subjective perspectives. The participants’ experiences of abuse were similar to previous third-party descriptions of elder abuse and to descriptions of abuse among younger adults, but certain aspects were substantially different. Vulnerability due to aging and diseases led to dependance on others and reduced autonomy. Rich descriptions were conveyed of neglect, psychological abuse, and other types of abuse in the contexts of both care services and family relations.

    Conclusions

    Elder abuse is often associated with an individual vulnerability mix of the aging body, illnesses, and help dependence in connection with dysfunctional surroundings. As individual differences of vulnerability, exposure to violence, and associated consequences were so clear, this implies that components of prevention and intervention should be individually tailored to match the needs and preferences of older victims.

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  • 43.
    Muzrif, Munas M.
    et al.
    Univ Sri Jayawardenapura, Sri Lanka.
    Perera, Dinusha
    Univ Sri Jayawardenapura, Sri Lanka.
    Wijewardena, Kumudu
    Univ Sri Jayawardenapura, Sri Lanka.
    Schei, Berit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU, Norway;Trondheim Reg & Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Domestic violence: a cross-sectional study among pregnant women in different regions of Sri Lanka2018In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 2, article id e017745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aims of this study were to assess the regional differences in domestic violence among pregnant women in the capital district and in the tea plantation sector of Sri Lanka, to explore potential contributory factors and to assess whether healthcare workers addressed domestic violence and disclosure among survivors. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out using interviewer-administered Abuse Assessment Screen. Setting Fifty-seven antenatal clinic centres in the capital district and 30 in the tea plantation sector. Participants Pregnant women between 6 and 40 weeks of gestational age. In the capital district, 1375 women were recruited from antenatal clinic centres in the urban (n= 25) and in the rural areas (n= 32), and 800 women from 30 centres in the tea plantation sector. The response rate in the capital district was 95.6% and 96.7% in the tea plantation sector. Results Among the total sample of pregnant women (n= 2088), the prevalence of 'ever abused' was 38.6%, and the prevalence of 'currently abused' was 15.9%. 'Ever abused' (31.5% vs 50.8%) and 'currently abused' (10% vs 25.8%) were significantly higher (P< 0.001) among the women living in the tea plantation sector. 'Ever abused' was associated with living in the tea plantation sector, being employed, living far from gender-based violence care centre and of Muslim ethnicity, after adjusting for age, education and family income. Only 38.8% of all participants had been asked by healthcare workers about abuse. Living in the tea plantation sector and lower level of education were associated with not being asked. Among those who reported 'ever abused', only 8.7% had disclosed the experience to a healthcare worker. Conclusion Domestic violence was prevalent and highest among women in the tea plantation sector compared with the capital district. The capacity of healthcare workers in addressing domestic violence should be increased.

  • 44.
    Möllerberg, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Benzein, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Familial interaction patterns during the palliative phase of a family member living with cancer2017In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 72, p. S162-S162Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Möllerberg, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Benzein, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Familial Interaction Patterns During the Palliative Phase of a Family Member Living With Cancer2017In: Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1522-2179, E-ISSN 1539-0705, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to illuminate aspects of familial interactions when 1 member is in the palliative phase of his/her cancer course. An individual cancer diagnosis influences the entire family, often requiring daily life changes for all members. Current research has examined individual family member perspectives; family system nursing studies are warranted. Narrative family interviews were conducted on 13 families living with cancer. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed according to a hermeneutic method. Analyses revealed the following: Family interaction patterns were adjusted in response to changes in family life, which encompassed 3 different, but interrelated, patterns: (1) power dynamics in the family, (2) the "secret game" in the family, and (3) multifaceted closeness and distance in the family. It is crucial to adopt a family perspective during palliative care to meet each unique family's needs. Health care facilitators should be aware of the complex dynamics and challenges that these families encounter. This will help obtain a greater understanding of factors underlying effective palliative care.

  • 46.
    Möllerberg, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Benzein, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the short version of Family Sense of Coherence Scale in a sample of persons with cancer in the palliative stage and their family members2020In: Palliative & Supportive Care, ISSN 1478-9515, E-ISSN 1478-9523, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 24-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives For patients' entire families, it can be challenging to live with cancer during the palliative stage. However, a sense of coherence buffers stress and could help health professionals identify families that require support. Therefore, the short version of the Family Sense of Coherence Scale (FSOC-S) was translated, culturally adapted, and validated in a Swedish sample. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the FSOC-S into Swedish was conducted in accordance with the World Health Organization's Process for Translation and Adaptation of Research Instruments guidelines. Participants were recruited from two oncology clinics and two palliative centers in Sweden. Results Content validity was supported by experts (n = 7), persons with cancer (n = 179), and family members (n = 165). Homogeneity among items was satisfactory for persons with cancer and family members (item-total correlations were 0.45-0.70 and 0.55-0.72, respectively) as well as internal consistency (ordinal alpha = 0.91 and 0.91, respectively). Factor analyses supported unidimensionality. FSOC-S correlated (r(s) > 0.3) with hope, anxiety, and symptoms of depression, which supported convergent validity. The test-retest reliability for items ranged between fair and good (k(w) = 0.37-0.61).

  • 47.
    Möllerberg, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Council, Sweden.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Benzein, Eva
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Family sense of coherence and its associations with hope, anxiety and symptoms of depression in persons with cancer in palliative phase and their family members: A cross-sectional study2019In: Palliative Medicine: A Multiprofessional Journal, ISSN 0269-2163, E-ISSN 1477-030X, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1310-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is evidence indicating that family sense of coherence predicts quality of family life and promotes family well-being. In families living with the palliative phase of cancer, low hope, anxiety and symptoms of depression are common in both persons with cancer and their family members. Aim: To determine whether family sense of coherence was associated with hope, anxiety and symptoms of depression, respectively, in persons with cancer in the palliative phase and their family members. Design: An observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study was conducted. Nested linear regression analyses were performed in two blocks to determine whether family sense of coherence was associated with hope, anxiety and symptoms of depression. Setting/participants: Persons with cancer (n = 179) and their family members (n = 165) were recruited from two oncology clinics and two palliative centres in three regions in Sweden. Results: The main findings showed that family sense of coherence was significantly and independently associated with hope, anxiety and symptoms of depression. Stronger family sense of coherence was associated with higher hope and lower anxiety and symptoms of depression levels in both persons with cancer and their family members. Conclusion: Health care providers should strive to identify families with weak family sense of coherence, because of its associations with hope, anxiety and symptoms of depression, in order to offer them professional support and thereby achieve increased well-being during the palliative phase of cancer. Future studies should expand our knowledge of family sense of coherence and how to identify families at risk of lower levels of well-being.

  • 48.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gottvall, Tomas
    Linköping University.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    When fetal hydronephrosis is suspected antenatally: a qualitative study2015In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 15, no 349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The information about fetal malformation findings during the ultrasound examination often comes unexpectedly, and the women and their partners may not necessarily receive any conclusive statement on the prognosis. A finding such as fetal hydronephrosis range from being a soft markers or mild anomaly, to a serious condition associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to explore women’s reactions to the discovery of fetal hydronephrosis in the context of uncertainty regarding the prognosis.

    Methods: Ten women were interviewed and the interviews were conducted six to twelve months after the women gave birth. They had experience of suspected fetal hydronephrosis in gestational week 18–20. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using constant comparative analysis.

    Results: The core category, ‘Going through crisis by knowing that you are doing the right thing’ illustrates the meaning of women’s reactions and feelings. It illuminates the four categories: ‘When the unexpected happens’– on the one hand, women had positive views that the suspicious malformation could be discovered; however, on the other hand, women questioned the screening. ‘To live in suspense during pregnancy’ – the suspicious malformation caused anxiety and was a stressful situation. ‘Difficulties in understanding information’ – the women thought they had limited knowledge and had difficulties in understanding the information. ‘Suppress feelings and hope for the best’ – the women tried to postpone the problem and thought they should deal with it after delivery.

    Conclusions: Women are worried irrespective of suspicious or severe malformations, and in need of information and counselling tailored to their individual needs. Other sources of support could be: written information, links to reliable sources on the Internet and possibilities for ongoing follow-ups.

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  • 49.
    Pahlm, Jessika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Johan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Joshi, Sunil Kumar
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Physical activity and diet among adolescents of Kathmandu, Nepal: knowledge and attitudes2013In: Journal of Kathmandu Medical College, ISSN 2091-1785, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-communicable diseases are becoming more prevalent in Nepal and many risk factors attributing to these diseases are behaviour-related and therefore preventable.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes among students of grade eight and nine in Kathmandu toward physical activity and diet and their knowledge about how it affects their health.

    Methods: We conducted four focus groups that included 24 students to explore knowledge and attitudes toward physical activity among them. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim later. Method described by K. Malterud, inspired by Giorgi’s phenomenological method was used to analyze the transcribed material.

    Results: Participants considered physical activity to be benefi cial for health in many ways. They also believed that healthy food is important to avoid diseases. Several participants mentioned that a balanced lifestyle is essential for a healthy life.

    Conclusion: Though the students saw the importance of physical activity and a healthy diet to avoid diseases and stay healthy, most of them did not connect a lack of physical activity and unhealthy diet to possible noncommunicable diseases in the future.

  • 50.
    Perera, Dinusha
    et al.
    Univ Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.
    Lund, Ragnhild
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schei, Berit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Infanti, Jennifer J.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    'When helpers hurt': women's and midwives' stories of obstetric violence in state health institutions, Colombo district, Sri Lanka2018In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 18, article id 211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The paper explores how age, social position or class, and linguistic and cultural background intersect and place women in varying positions of control and vulnerability to obstetric violence in state health institutions in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Obstetric violence occurs during pregnancy, childbirth and the immediate postpartum period; hence, it is violence that directly affects women. The authors aim to break the traditional culture of silence around obstetric violence and bring attention to the resulting implications for quality of care and patient trust in obstetric care facilities or providers. Methods: Five focus group discussions were held with 28 public health midwives who had prior experience working in labor rooms. Six focus group discussions were held with 38 pregnant women with previous childbirth experience. Additionally, 10 of the 38 women, whom felt they had experienced excessive pain, fear, humiliation, and/or loss of dignity as patients in labor, participated in individual in-depth interviews. An intersectional framework was used to group the qualitative data into categories and themes for analysis. Results: Obstetric violence appears to intersect with systems of power and oppression linked to structural gender, social, linguistic and cultural inequities in Sri Lanka. In our dataset, younger women, poorer women, and women who did not speak Sinhala seemed to experience more obstetric violence than those with relevant social connections and better economic positions. The women in our study rarely reported obstetric violence to legal or institutional authorities, nor within their informal social support networks. Instead, they sought obstetric care, particularly for childbirth, in other state hospitals in subsequent pregnancies. Conclusions: The quality of obstetric care in Sri Lanka needs improvement. Amongst other initiatives, policies and practices are required to sensitize health providers about the existence of obstetric violence, and repercussions are required for abusive or discriminatory practices. The ethics of care should be further reinforced in the professional training of obstetric health providers.

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