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  • 1.
    Bagliani, Marco
    et al.
    Università di Torino / Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Dalmazzone, Silvana
    Università di Torino / Università di Brescia, Italy.
    A consumption-based approach to environmental Kuznets curves using the ecological footprint indicator2008Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 650-661Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that consumption-based measures offer an insightful perspective on the debate on the relationship between economic growth and the environment. In this article we deepen the consumption-based line of inquiry by investigating the empirical evidence in support of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis using 2001 ecological footprint data for 141 countries. We perform Ordinary Least Squares and Weighted Least Squares analysis on linear, quadratic and cubic functions, in standard and logarithmic specifications, as candidate models to represent the relationship between per capita income and environmental pressure. We replicate the cross country analysis also by estimating the regression function directly, through a nonparametric regression. In our analyses, with and without weighing data by population, the results do not show evidence of de-linking. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Bertacchini, Enrico
    et al.
    Università di Torino.
    Bravo, GiangiacomoUniversità di Torino.Marrelli, MassimoUniversità di Napoli.Santagata, WalterUniversità di Torino.
    Cultural Commons: A New Perspective on the Production and Evolution of Cultures2012Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3. Bertacchini, Enrico
    et al.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Universita di Torino, Italy.
    Marrelli, Massimo
    Santagata, Walter
    Defining cultural commons2012Inngår i: Cultural Commons: A NewPerspective on the Production and Evolution of Cultures / [ed] Bertacchini, E., Bravo, G., Marrelli, E. and Santagata, W., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, s. 3-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Bianchi, Federico
    et al.
    Univ Brescia, Italy.
    Francisco, Grimaldo
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Flaminio, Squazzoni
    Univ Brescia, Italy.
    The peer review game: an agent-based model of scientists facing resource constraints and institutional pressures2018Inngår i: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 116, nr 3, s. 1401-1420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at peer review as a cooperation dilemma through a game-theory framework. We built an agent-based model to estimate how much the quality of peer review is influenced by different resource allocation strategies followed by scientists dealing with multiple tasks, i.e., publishing and reviewing. We assumed that scientists were sensitive to acceptance or rejection of their manuscripts and the fairness of peer review to which they were exposed before reviewing. We also assumed that they could be realistic or excessively over-confident about the quality of their manuscripts when reviewing. Furthermore, we assumed they could be sensitive to competitive pressures provided by the institutional context in which they were embedded. Results showed that the bias and quality of publications greatly depend on reviewer motivations but also that context pressures can have a negative effect. However, while excessive competition can be detrimental to minimising publication bias, a certain level of competition is instrumental to ensure the high quality of publication especially when scientists accept reviewing for reciprocity motives.

  • 5. Boero, Riccardo
    et al.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Castellani, Marco
    Lagana, Francesco
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    Pillars of Trust: An Experimental Study on Reputation and Its Effects2009Inngår i: Sociological research online, ISSN 1360-7804, E-ISSN 1360-7804, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. Article ID: 5-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments on the relevance of reputation for trust and cooperation in social interaction. We have extended a repeated investment game by adding new treatments where reputation is taken more explicitly into account than before. We then compared treatments where the investor and the trustee rate each other and treatments where the investor and the trustee were rated by a third party. The results showed that: (i) third party reputation positively affects cooperation by encapsulating trust; (ii) certain differences in the reputation mechanism can generate different cooperation outcomes. These results have interesting implications for the recent sociological debate on the normative pillars of markets.

  • 6. Boero, Riccardo
    et al.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Universita di Torino, Italy.
    Castellani, Marco
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    Reputational cues in repeated trust games2009Inngår i: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 38, nr 6, s. 871-877Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reputation in human societies is highlighted both by theoretical models and empirical studies. In this paper, we have extended the scope of previous experimental studies based on trust games by creating treatments where players can rate their opponents’ behavior and know their past ratings. Our results showed that being rated by other players and letting this rating be known are factors that increase cooperation levels even when rational reputational investment motives are ruled out. More generally, subjects tended to respond to reputational opportunities even when this was neither rational nor explainable by reciprocity.

  • 7.
    Boero, Riccardo
    et al.
    University of Pavia, Italy / University of Surrey, UK.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Univ Turin, Italy / GECS Res Grp Expt & Computat Sociol.
    Castellani, Marco
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Why Bother with What Others Tell You?: An Experimental Data-Driven Agent-Based Model2010Inngår i: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. Article ID: 6-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the relevance of reputation to improve the explorative capabilities of agents in uncertain environments. We have presented a laboratory experiment where sixty-four subjects were asked to take iterated economic investment decisions. An agent-based model based on their behavioural patterns replicated the experiment exactly. Exploring this experimentally grounded model, we studied the effects of various reputational mechanisms on explorative capabilities at a systemic level. The results showed that reputation mechanisms increase the agents’ capability for coping with uncertain environments more than individualistic atomistic exploration strategies, although the former does entail a certain amount of false information inside the system.

  • 8.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    University of Turin, Italy.
    Agents’ beliefs and the evolution of institutions for common-pool resource management2011Inngår i: Rationality and Society, ISSN 1043-4631, E-ISSN 1461-7358, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 117-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The joint exploitation of open-access natural resources is often modeled as a social dilemma with no escape for rational actors. Nevertheless, real individuals are not helplessly trapped in this dilemma and are often able to sustainably manage their commons by building endogenous institutions. This paper proposes both a simple analytical model and a more complex agent-based one designed to study common-pool resource management problems with a specific focus on the relation between agents’ beliefs and institutions. The conditions where agents are allowed to build management institutions lead to much better outcomes than the ones where agents can only rely on individual beliefs in order to limit the resource consumption. This happens despite the fact that agents act in a competitive environment favoring high resource consumers.

  • 9.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Alle radici dello sviluppo insostenibile: Un’analisi degli effetti ambientali di società,istituzioni ed economia2009 (oppl. 1)Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    University of Turin, Italy.
    Azione umana e limiti dello sviluppo2010Inngår i: Le sfide della sostenibilità: risorse ambientali, qualità sociale e partecipazione pubblica / [ed] Gian Luigi Bulsei, Roma: Aracne editrice, 2010, s. 13-34Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [it]

    Secondo la nota definizione del Rapporto Brundtland, "è sostenibile uno sviluppo che soddisfi i bisogni del presente senza compromettere la capacità delle generazioni future di soddisfare i propri". Si tratta di un concetto di notevole portata innovativa, che mette in discussione alcuni tradizionali assiomi dell'economia e dovrebbe stimolare, soprattutto in tempi di crisi come gli attuali, sia le analisi teoriche sia le politiche pubbliche. La sostenibilità di una comunità è definibile in funzione di criteri non solamente ambientali, ma anche economici, sociali e istituzionali: essa è incompatibile con il degrado delle risorse naturali, il declino economico, la disuguaglianza sociale, l'illegalità e la violazione dei diritti. Il volume raccoglie contributi di studiosi di varie discipline, accomunati da una documentata e rigorosa riflessione sulle sfide derivanti dal fatto che ogni scelta compiuta oggi condiziona in modo irreversibile il nostro comune futuro. Contributi di Marco Bagliani, Giorgia Bella, Giangiacomo Bravo, Gian Luigi Bulsei, Giovanni Carrosio, Egidio Dansero, Francesco Ingravalle, Noemi Podestà, Matteo Putilli, Mario Salomone, Nadia Tecco, Tommaso Vitale.

  • 11.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    University of Torino, Italy.
    Book review: Cronk, Lee and Beth L. Leech (2012). Meeting at Grand Central: Understanding the Social and Evolutionary Roots of Cooperation.2013Inngår i: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 232-233Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    University of Torino, Italy / Collegio Carlo Alberto, Italy.
    Book review: Phillip Bonacich and Philip Lu. 2012. Introduction to MathematicalSociology2012Inngår i: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 15, nr 3Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Universita di Torino, Italy.
    Cultural commons and cultural evolution2012Inngår i: Cultural Commons: A New Perspective on the Production and Evolution of Cultures / [ed] Bertacchini, E., Bravo, G., Marrelli, E. and Santagata, W., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, s. 36-57Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Empirical Agent-Based Modelling - Challenges and Solutions : Volume 1, the Characterisation and Parameterisation of Empirical Agent-Based Models: Smajgl, Alexander and Barreteau, Olivier (eds.)2014Inngår i: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 17, nr 2Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Imitation and Cooperation in Different Helping Games2008Inngår i: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. Article ID: 8-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between imitation and cooperation in evolutionary settings presents complex aspects. From one hand, in any environment where egoists are favored over cooperators by selection processes, imitation should lead to a further spreading of the former ones due to the combined processes of individual selection and replication of successful behaviors. On the other hand, if cooperators succeed in forming clusters of mutual helping individuals, imitation may have a positive effect on cooperation by further reproducing this locally dominant behavior. This paper explores the relationship between imitation and cooperation by mean of a simulation model based on two different Helping games. Our model shows that different imitation mechanisms can favor the spreading of cooperation under a wide range of conditions. Moreover, the interplay of imitation and other factors - e. g. the possibility of performing ‘conditional associations’ strategies - can further foster the success of cooperative agents.

  • 16.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    [ Review of ] Anderies, John M. and Marco A. Janssen (2013). Sustaining the Commons. Center for the Study of Institutional Diversity, Arizona State University2014Inngår i: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 259-260Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    The Dangers Of Ethnocentrism2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 28th European Conference on Modelling and Simulation / [ed] Flaminio Squazzoni, Fabio Baronio, Claudia Archetti, Marco Castellani, ECMS European Council for Modelling and Simulation, 2014, s. 39-62Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans often alter their behavior depending on the opponent's group membership, with positive (e.g., support of same-group members) or negative (e.g., stereotyping, oppression, genocide) consequences. An influential model developed by Hammond and Axelrod highlighted the emergence of macro-level "ethnocentric cooperation" from the aggregation of micro-level interactions based on arbitrary tags signaling group membership. In this paper, we replicated this model and extended it to allow a wider array of possible agents' behaviors, including the possibility of harming others. This allowed us to check whether and under which conditions xenophobia can emerge beside or in alternative to ethnocentrism. Proceedings 28th European Conference on Modelling and Simulation

  • 18.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    The Human Sustainable Development Index2018Inngår i: Routledge Handbook of Sustainability Indicators / [ed] Simon Bell and Stephen Morse, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, s. 284-293Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS). Coll Carlo Alberto, Turin, Italy.
    The Human Sustainable Development Index: New calculations and a first critical analysis2014Inngår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 37, s. 145-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Human Sustainable Development Index (HSDI) has been proposed as a way to amend the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) by adding an environmental dimension. Despite some attention in the media, the HSDI remained largely ignored by the scientific community. This paper aims at overcoming this issue by presenting an updated version of the index, based on recently available UN data, including a complete description of the procedure leading to its calculation and a critical assessment of its relation with some established environmental indicators. We found that, while the HSDI represents a step ahead from the HDI, it remains insufficient in its representation of environmental sustainability. A better equilibrium between social, economic and environmental goals is needed to reach a true index of sustainable development.

  • 20.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    The human sustainable development index: The 2014 update2015Inngår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 50, s. 258-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Univ Turin, Dept Social Sci, Turin, Italy / Coll Carlo Alberto, Turin, Italy.
    Voluntary contribution to public goods in mutual-help forums: reciprocity or group attachment?2010Inngår i: Socio-Economic Review, ISSN 1475-1461, E-ISSN 1475-147X, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 709-733Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the provision of public goods in open-source software support forums. Data from the Italian TeX Users Group were analysed to find individual motives for offering help. Using this methodology, we were able to split the forum participants into a small intrinsically motivated core group and a much larger group motivated mainly on the basis of reciprocity. The motives of the two groups were largely complementary and jointly produced a situation where the overwhelming majority of questions received an appropriate answer. At the same time, the core group played a fundamental role and was the key in explaining the forum’s success. Without this group, the forum’s performance would have been considerably diminished, probably down to a level that would not justify its existence.

  • 22.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Università di Torino.
    Working together: II framework dei commons e le basi del suo successo2012Inngår i: Culture della sostenibilità, ISSN 1972-5817, Vol. 5, nr 9, s. 139-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [it]

    Questo lavoro si propone di mostrare come il successo ottenuto negli ultimi trent’anni da quello che è conosciuto come “framework dei commons” non sia casuale. Esso è stato progressivamente costruito grazie a una comunità di ricerca capace di superare i confini metodologici e disciplinari per affrontare in modo non dogmatico il problema della gestione di risorse comuni o, più in generale, dell’interazione uomo-ambiente all’interno di sistemi socio-ecologici. I principali vantaggi di una ricerca che integra metodi e discipline diverse sono dati da sviluppi teorici più rapidi e meno legati agli specifici assunti di ciascuna disciplina o corrente disciplinare, da una selezione efficace tra ipotesi alternative e, in generale, da una maggiore cumulatività della conoscenza ottenuta. I problemi che possono sorgere sono legati sopratutto alla maggiore necessità di finanziamenti, alle difficoltà di organizzazione della ricerca, all’insufficiente preparazione dei ricercatori e alle dinamiche accademiche. Ciò nonostante, la storia della ricerca sui commons dimostra che i benefici sono tali da superare gli svantaggi.

  • 23.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    De Moor, Tine
    International Journal of the Commons, vol 2(2, Special issue): The Commons in Europe: from past to future2008Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Prospects and Challenges for the Computational Social Sciences2017Inngår i: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 1057-1069Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational social sciences (CSS) refer to computer-enabled investigations of human behaviour and social interaction. They include three main components - (i) computational modelling and social simulation, (ii) the analysis of digital traces of online interactions, (iii) virtual labs and online experiments - and allow researchers to perform studies that were even hard to imagine a few decades ago. Moreover, CSS favour a more systematic test of theories and increase the possibility of study replication, two factors holding the potential to help social sciences reach a higher scientific status. Despite the huge potential of CSS, we follow previous works in identifying several impediments to a larger adoption of computational methods in social sciences. Most of them are linked with the humanistic attitude and a lack of technical skills of many social scientist. Significant changes in the basic training of social scientist and in the relation patterns with other disciplines and departments are needed before the potential of CSS can be fully exploited.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Moreno, Francisco Grimaldo
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Birukou, Aliaksandr
    Springer Nature, Germany.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Hidden connections: Network effects on editorial decisions in four computer science journals2018Inngår i: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 101-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to examine the influence of authors’ reputation on editorial bias in scholarly journals. By looking at eight years of editorial decisions in four computer science journals, including 7179 observations on 2913 submissions, we reconstructed author/referee-submission networks. For each submission, we looked at reviewer scores and estimated the reputation of submission authors by means of their network degree. By training a Bayesian network, we estimated the potential effect of scientist reputation on editorial decisions. Results showed that more reputed authors were less likely to be rejected by editors when they submitted papers receiving negative reviews. Although these four journals were comparable for scope and areas, we found certain journal specificities in their editorial process. Our findings suggest ways to examine the editorial process in relatively similar journals without recurring to in-depth individual data, which are rarely available from scholarly journals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Solving climate dilemmas is a trivial task (on MTurk)2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Grimaldo, Francisco
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Lopez-Inesta, Emilia
    Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Mehmani, Bahar
    Elsevier,Netherlands.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    Univ Milan, Italy.
    The effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals2019Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase transparency in science, some scholarly journals are publishing peer review reports. But it is unclear how this practice affects the peer review process. Here, we examine the effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals involved in a pilot study at Elsevier. By considering 9,220 submissions and 18,525 reviews from 2010 to 2017, we measured changes both before and during the pilot and found that publishing reports did not significantly compromise referees' willingness to review, recommendations, or turn-around times. Younger and non-academic scholars were more willing to accept to review and provided more positive and objective recommendations. Male referees tended to write more constructive reports during the pilot. Only 8.1% of referees agreed to reveal their identity in the published report. These findings suggest that open peer review does not compromise the process, at least when referees are able to protect their anonymity.

  • 28.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för konst och humaniora (FKH), Institutionen för språk (SPR).
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM), Institutionen för datavetenskap (DV).
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Big Data in Cross-Disciplinary Research: J.UCS Focused Topic2017Inngår i: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 1035-1037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Marelli, Beatrice
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Irrigation systems as common-pool resources: Examples from Northern Italy2008Inngår i: La Revue de Geographie Alpine, ISSN 0035-1121, E-ISSN 1760-7426, Vol. 96, nr 3, s. 15-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Common-pool resources are natural or man-made resources shared among different users, a condition that produces a competition for their utilization leading often (although not necessarily) to their degradation or even to their destruction. This paper shortly discusses the “theory of the commons”, as developed in the last 20 years by Elinor Ostrom and her colleagues, and illustrates it by mean of case studies regarding a number of irrigation systems in Northern Italy (Lombardy and Vallee d’Aoste). We show that that different social mechanisms, like the shared values e the social network existing inside the community of users, play a significant role in influencing the outcomes of the institutional schemes for the commons management.

  • 30.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Pardalis, Georgios
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Mainali, Brijesh
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners2019Inngår i: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikkel-id 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we identify the socio-economic attributes and attitudes that have influencedhouse owners in renovating their homes in the past. Our study is based on responses to an onlinequestionnaire survey of 971 house owners living in Kronoberg County in Sweden. Results showedthat the interest and willingness of the house owners to perform a renovation varied dependingon their demographic background and the age of the house. The latter positively affected pastrenovations, only when combined with the residence time. Furthermore, the age of house ownersstrongly and positively affected the probability of performing aesthetic type of renovations, becauseof a long time of residence in the house. Younger, town living, and highly educated house ownersseem to be more concerned regarding saving energy, which motivated them to perform physicalrenovations on their house. Our results also suggest that income, level of education, and place ofresidence have an effect on renovation decisions only through their effect on the energy concern ofhouse owners, and a varied effect on renovation decisions, when combined with the time of residencein the house.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS). Collegio Carlo Alberto, Moncalieri, Italy.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Exit, punishment and rewards in commons dilemmas: An experimental study2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 8, artikkel-id e69871Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the `framing effect', i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Univ Turin, Coll Carlo Alberto, I-10124 Turin, Italy / GECS Res Grp Expt & Computat Sociol, Brescia, Italy.
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    GECS Res Grp Expt & Computat Sociol, Brescia, Italy / Univ Brescia, Dipartimento Sociali, I-25121 Brescia, Italy .
    Boero, Riccardo
    GECS Res Grp Expt & Computat Sociol, Brescia, Italy / Univ Turin, Dipartimento Sci Econ & Finanziarie G Prato, I-10124 Turin, Italy.
    Trust and Partner Selection in Social Networks: An Experimentally Grounded Model2012Inngår i: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 481-492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the importance of the endogenous selection of partners for trust and cooperation in market exchange situations, where there is information asymmetry between investors and trustees. We created an experimental-data driven agent-based model where the endogenous link between interaction outcome and social structure formation was examined starting from heterogeneous agent behaviour. By testing various social structure configurations, we showed that dynamic networks lead to more cooperation when agents can create more links and reduce exploitation opportunities by free riders. Furthermore, we found that the endogenous network formation was more important for cooperation than the type of network. Our results cast serious doubt about the static view of network structures on cooperation and can provide new insights into market efficiency.

  • 33.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Takács, Károly
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary.
    Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms2015Inngår i: Journal of Applied Mathematics, ISSN 1110-757X, E-ISSN 1687-0042, Vol. 2015, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 234528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist whoplay a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinioncould have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment gamewhere intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found thatintermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effectof monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentivesfor intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest,investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentiveschemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra ofincentivization of social and public conventional policy.

  • 34.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    University of Turin, Italy ; Collegio Carlo Alberto, Italy.
    Tamburino, Lucia
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Are two resources really better than one?: Some unexpected results of the availability of substitutes2011Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 92, nr 11, s. 2865-2874Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of exploiting multiple resources is usually regarded as positive from both the economic and the environmental point of view. However, resource switching may also lead to unsustainable growth and, ultimately, to an equilibrium condition which is worse than the one that could have been achieved with a single resource. We developed a dynamic model where users exploit multiple resources and have different levels of preference among them. In this setting, exploiting multiple resources leads to worse outcomes in both economic and ecological terms than the single resource case under a wide range of parameter configurations. Our arguments are illustrated using two empirical situations, namely oil drilling in the North Sea and whale hunting in the Antarctic.

  • 35.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Università di Brescia, Italy.
    Tamburino, Lucia
    The evolution of trust in non-simultaneous exchange situations2008Inngår i: Rationality and Society, ISSN 1043-4631, E-ISSN 1461-7358, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 85-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Trust is an important concept that intersects a number of different disciplines, including economics, sociology, and political science, and maintains some meaning even in the natural sciences. Any situation where non-simultaneous exchanges between living organisms take place involves a problem of trust. We used computer simulations to study the evolution of trust in non-simultaneous exchange situations formalized by means of a Trust game. We found that trust and reciprocity-based cooperation are likely to emerge only when agents have the possibility of building trustworthy reputations and when the information regarding agents’ past behaviors is sufficiently spread in the system. Both direct and indirect reciprocity play a role in fostering cooperation. However, the strength of the latter is greater under most of the examined conditions. In general, our findings are consistent with theories arguing for a positive feedback relationship between trust, reputation, and reciprocity, leading together to higher levels of cooperation.

  • 36.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS). Coll Carlo Alberto, I-10024 Moncalieri, Italy.
    Vallino, Elena
    University of Torino, Italy.
    Cerutti, Alessandro K.
    University of Torino, Italy.
    Pairotti, Maria Beatrice
    University of Torino, Italy.
    Alternative scenarios of green consumption in Italy: An empirically grounded model2013Inngår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 47, s. 225-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Any transition towards a more environmentally sustainable world will strongly depend on people’swillingness to adopt the best available practices. We present here the Consumption Italy (CITA) model, anempirically grounded agent-based model designed to represent household consumption in Italy and toestimate the related greenhouse gas emissions under different environmental policy scenarios. Weexplored the effect of a price increase for high impact goods and services (e.g., because of the intro-duction carbon taxes) and of a change of agents’ environmental concern (e.g., because of informationcampaigns). We found that both kind of actions can orient people consumption in the desired direction.However, their target and intensity should be carefully calibrated to produce significant effects at anacceptable cost.

  • 37.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Yantseva, Victoria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Cooperation and conflict in segregated populations2018Inngår i: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans behavior often varies depending on the opponent’s group membership, with both positive consequences (e.g., cooperation or mutual help) and negative ones (e.g., stereotyping, oppression, or even genocide). An influential model developed by Hammond and Axelrod (HA) highlighted the emergence of macrolevel “ethnocentric cooperation” from the aggregation of microlevel interactions based on arbitrary tags signaling group membership. We extended this model to include a wider set of agents’ behaviors including the possibility of harming others. This allowed to check whether and under which conditions xenophobia can emerge beside or in alternative to ethnocentric cooperation. The model was compared to Swedish data documenting social unrest and proxies of cooperative behaviors at the municipal level. The validation results supported the model predictions on conflict but not the ones on cooperation, casting doubts on HA’s original argument.

  • 38. Casnici, Niccolò
    et al.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Universita di Torino, Italy.
    Castellani, Marco
    Squazzoni, Flaminio
    Cooperazione, fiducia e differenze digenere: un’indagine cross-metodologica2012Inngår i: Rassegna italiana di sociologia, ISSN 0486-0349, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 573-600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates gender differences in cooperation and trust through a cross-methodological study that combined lab experiment and trust survey. First, we performed a repeated investment game played by 108 students, where a trust-based market interaction was modeled based on asymmetries of information. Results indicated that females were more trustworthy, being more sensitive to cooperation when being trusted by others, whereas males tended to take higher risk investment when trust was relatively more rewarding. A trust survey on a population of 488 students completed the experimental results by looking at general aspects of trust perception of subjects. Also empirical results confirmed significant gender differences in trust, being females more influenced by generalized trust and interpersonal obligations.

  • 39.
    de Moor, Tine
    et al.
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Dehkordi, Molood
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    van Weeren, Rene
    Common paths in long-term institutional dynamics: An analysis of rule changes in British and Dutch commons over seven centuries2019Inngår i: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40. Dehkordi, Molood
    et al.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    The role of wealth inequality on collective action for management of common pool resource2019Inngår i: Presented at: Social Simulation Conference 2019, Mainz, Germany, 23-27 September, 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Drvenica, Ivana
    et al.
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Vejmelka, Lucija
    Univ Zagreb, Croatia.
    Dekanski, Aleksandar
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Nedić, Olgica
    Univ Belgrade, Serbia.
    Peer review of reviewers: the author’s perspective2018Inngår i: Publications, E-ISSN 2304-6775, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the opinion of authors on the overall quality and effectiveness of reviewers' contributions to reviewed papers. We employed an on-line survey of thirteen journals which publish articles in the field of life, social or technological sciences. Responses received from 193 authors were analysed using a mixed-effects model in order to determine factors deemed the most important in the authors' evaluation of the reviewers. Qualitative content analysis of the responses to open questions was performed as well. The mixed-effects model revealed that the authors' assessment of the competence of referees strongly depended on the final editorial decision and that the speed of thereview process was influential as well. In Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) analysis on seven questions detailing authors' opinions, perception ofreview speed remained a significant predictor of the assessment. In addition, both the perceived competence and helpfulness of the reviewerssignificantly and positively affected the authors' evaluation. New models were used to re-check the value of these two factors and it was confirmed that the assessment of the competence of reviewers strongly depended on the final editorial decision.

  • 42.
    Farjam, Mike
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Dataset fo Investing into climate change mitigation initiatives despite the risk of failure: Version 2.02018Dataset
  • 43.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Fixing sample biases in experimental data using agent-based modelling2020Inngår i: Advances in social simulation: Looking in the mirror, Springer Nature, 2020Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht university, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Dehkordi, Molood
    van Weeren, Rene
    Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources2019Inngår i: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    de Moor, Tine
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    van Weeren, René
    Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Dehkordi, Molood Ale Ebrahim
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ghorbani, Amineh
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Shared Patterns in Long-Term Dynamics of Commons as Institutions for Collective Action2020Inngår i: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 78-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of regulatory activities in historical commons offering a unique picture of their long-term institutional dynamics. The analysis took into account almost 3,800 regulatory activities in eighteen European commons in two countries across seven centuries. Despite differences in time and space, we found a shared pattern where an initial, highly-dynamic institutional-definition phase was followed by a relatively long period of stability and a final burst of activities, possibly in an attempt to respond to new challenges. In addition, most of the initial regulatory activities focused on resource use, while towards the end other activities prevailed. Our approach allows for a better understanding of institutional dynamics and our findings also provide important insights about how to regulate the use of current natural resources.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?2018Inngår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 149, nr 2, s. 147-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective communication of risks involved in the climate change discussion is crucial and despite ambitious protection policies, the possibility of irreversible consequences actually occurring can only be diminished but never ruled out completely. We present a laboratory experiment that studies how residual risk of failure of climate change policies affects willingness to contribute to such policies. Despite prevailing views on people's risk aversion, we found that contributions were higher at least in the final part of treatments including a residual risk. We interpret this as the product of a psychological process where residual risk puts participants into an "alarm mode," keeping their contributions high. We discuss the broad practical implications this might have on the real-world communication of climate change.

  • 47.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller Univ, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Experimental evidence of an attitude-behaviour gap for climate change mitigation in high cost conditions2019Inngår i: Presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019., 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An established research result is that people's environmental attitudes only loosely translate into actions effectively reducing their environmental impact, something known as the attitude-behaviour gap. On the other hand, correct information and environmental education are often considered a key to promote sustainability, which raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives and, conversely, when other factors have a better chance to succeed. To answer these questions, we tested the effect of environmental attitudes in an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world climate mitigation consequences. We found that environmental attitudes mainly affected behaviour in a low cost situation, while their effect was reduced when the stakes were higher. This finding is consistent with the low cost hypothesis of environmental behaviour and has important consequences for the shaping of more effective climate policies in a democratic context.

  • 49.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations2019Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 166, s. 1-12, artikkel-id 106434Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    So far, there has been mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between environmental attitudes and actual `green' actions, something known as the attitude-behavior gap. This raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives, such as climate change mitigation, and, conversely, when other factors would be more effective. This paper presents an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world consequences designed to test the effect of environmental attitudes on behavior under various conditions. We found that environmental attitudes affected behavior only in low-cost situations. This finding is consistent with the low-cost hypothesis of environmental behavior postulating that concerned individuals will undertake low-cost actions in order to reduce the cognitive dissonance  between their attitudes and rational realization of the environmental impact of their behavior but avoid higher-cost actions despite their greater potential as far as environmental protection. This finding has important consequences for the design of more effective climate policies in a democratic context as it puts limits on what can be achieved by raising environmental concern alone.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-09-01 08:00
  • 50.
    Farjam, Mike
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Nikolaychuk, Olexandr
    Friedrich Schiller University, Germany.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för samhällsstudier (SS).
    Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure2019Inngår i: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 154, nr 3-4, s. 453-460Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to convince both policy makers and the general public to engage in climate change mitigation activities, it is crucial to communicate the inherent risks in an effective way. Due to the complexity of the system, mitigation activities cannot completely rule out the possibility of the climate reaching a dangerous tipping point but can only reduce it to some unavoidable residual risk level. We present an online experiment based on a sample of US citizens and designed to improve our understanding of how the presence of such residual risk affects the willingness to invest into climate change mitigation. We found that, far from reducing them, the presence of residual risk actually increases investments into mitigation activities. This result suggests that scientists and policy makers should consider being more transparent about communicating the residual risks entailed by such initiatives.

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