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  • 1.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    All about balance?: a test of the Jack-of-all-trades theory among the self-employed in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers as well as policymakers often view self-employment as an important factor behind innovation and economic growth and policies that foster self-employment has been on the agenda in several European countries during the last decades. The Jack-of-all-trades theory argues that individuals with a balanced set of skills are more suitable for self-employment than others. In this paper we test this theory using Swedish Military Enlistment data. This data enables us to construct a measure of balance in endowed abilities that, incomparison to measures used in previous research, is less contaminated by endogeneity problems. Specifically, we measure balance in skills using the result from the tests of cognitive and non-cognitive ability taken at military enlistment. We find clear support for the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that the likelihood of being self-employed or switching into self-employment is higher for individuals who are more balanced in their in abilities. In addition, earnings from self-employment tend to be higher among individuals with a more balanced set of skills.

  • 2.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    All about balance?: A test of the jack-of-all-trades theory using military enlistment data2017In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 49, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Jack-of-all-trades theory, people with a balanced set of skills are more suitable for self-employment than are those without. In this paper we test this theory using Swedish Military Enlistment data. This data enables us to construct a measure of balance in abilities that, in comparison to measures used in previous research, is less contaminated by endogeneity problems. We find clear support for the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that the likelihood of being self-employed is higher for individuals whose skills are balanced. In addition, their earnings from self-employment tend to be higher.

  • 3.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    "Breda utbildningar bäst för entreprenörer"2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, Vol. 27 decArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic segregation, tipping behaviour, and native residential mobility2015In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 36-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study tipping behaviour in residential mobility of the native population in Sweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that the native population growth in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the identified tipping point. Native tipping behaviour can be ascribed to both native flight and native avoidance. Natives with a high level of educational attainment and the highest labour earnings are more likely to move from neighbourhoods that have tipped. We conclude that tipping behaviour is likely to be associated with ethnic as well as to socio-economic segregation in Sweden.  

  • 5.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Residential mobility, tipping behaviour, and ethnic segregation: Evidence from Sweden2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies tipping behaviour in residential mobility of the native population in Sweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that the growth in native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once a neighbourhood’s immigrant share exceeds the identified tipping point. In the 1990s the drop can be attributed both to increased out-migration of natives (native flight) and decreased in-migration of natives (native avoidance). In 2000-2007, native flight appears to be driving the segregation pattern. Thus, the native residential mobility has contributed to increased ethnic segregation in Sweden between 1990 and 2007.

  • 6.
    Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Är det bra att "kunna lite om mycket?": En studie av egenföretagare baserad på mönstringsdata2016In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 44-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar ett empiriskt test av Edward Lazears Jack-of-All Trades teori med hjälp av de tester av kognitiva och icke-kognitiva förmågor som män genomförde vid mönstring inför militärtjänsten. Vi finner stöd för Lazears teori då män vars kunskaper är jämnt fördelade över olika områden är mer benägna att vara företagare än andra. Dessutom är deras företag mer framgångsrika än företag som drivs av människor med specialistkunskaper. En policyslutsats är att utbildningar som ger breda kunskaper stimulerar framgångsrikt företagande. Ett bredare innehåll i utbildningar på varierande nivåer kan därför vara ett medel i syfte att stimulera till fler nya framgångsrika företag.

  • 7.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Culture, assimilation, and gender gaps in labour market outcomes2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the role of social norms and attitudes about gender, i.e. culture, for labour market behaviour and cultural assimilation of immigrants in Sweden. Using source country gender gaps as cultural proxies we find that the labour force participation of immigrants in Sweden is related to culture, in the sense that immigrants originating from countries with high gender gaps in labour force participation rates (LFPR) also have high gender gaps in LFPR within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. On the contrary, high source country gender gaps in earnings are, if anything, associated with lower gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, we find that gender gaps in LFPR among immigrants in Sweden assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time in Sweden increases. These results suggest that culture is one explanation for the existence of gender gaps in LFPR and that cultural assimilation takes place as time since exposure to the source country culture increases.

  • 8.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Ethnic Segregation and Economic Outcomes2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay 1: This paper studies tipping behaviour in the residential mobility of the native population inSweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that thegrowth in native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once aneighbourhood’s immigrant share exceeds the identified tipping point. In the 1990s the dropcan be attributed both to increased out-migration of natives (native flight) and to thedecreased in-migration of natives (native avoidance) while native flight appears to be drivingthe segregation pattern between the years 2000 and 2007. Further, we find native migrationfrom neighbourhoods that have tipped is selective, in the sense that natives with a high levelof educational attainment are the most likely to move from such neighbourhood. We concludethat the native residential mobility has contributed to increased ethnic segregation but it alsoappears to have increased socio-economic segregation in Sweden between 1990 and 2007.

    Essay 2: This paper focuses on second-generation immigrants and analyses the short- and long-termeffects of immigrant and ethnic group concentration in childhood neighbourhood on earnings,unemployment, reliance on income support and educational attainment. The results show thata high immigrant concentration in a childhood neighbourhood is negatively associated witheconomic outcomes of both second-generation immigrants and natives. Ethnic groupconcentration seems to work in the opposite direction, improving economic outcomes forsecond-generation immigrants. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of includingtime dynamics in any analysis of the effect of childhood neighbourhood ethnic compositionon economic outcomes.

  • 9.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Essays on Segregation, Gender Economics, and Self-employment2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four empirical essays on the topics of ethnic segregation, gender economics, and self-employment.

       Essay I investigates how the residential mobility of Sweden's native population contributes to ethnic segregation, by applying regression discontinuity methods. The results show that the growth in the native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops as the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the tipping point. Tipping is driven by the departure of natives and their avoidance of tipped neighbourhoods. Tipping behaviour is selective in the sense that highly educated and high earning natives are more likely to leave neighbourhoods that have tipped.

       Essay II studies the relationship between the childhood neighbourhood's ethnic composition and economic outcomes in adulthood for second-generation immigrant sand natives. The results reveal that a high concentration of immigrants in aneighbourhood is associated with a lower probability of second-generation immigrants continuing to higher education. Natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Among non-Nordic second-generation immigrants, reliance on social assistance and unemployment are negatively correlated with the share of co-ethnics and positively associated with the proportion of other ethnic groups.

       Essay III explores the role of social norms and attitudes about gender for labour market outcomes of immigrant men and women in Sweden. The results show that immigrants originating from countries with large gender disparities in labour force participation also have large gender gaps in labour force participation within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. In contrast, source country gender differences in earnings are not correlated with gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, gender gaps in labour force participation among immigrants assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time inSweden increases.

       Essay IV empirically tests the Jack-of-all-trades theory, which states that individuals who are more balanced in their abilities are more suitable for self-employment. Using Swedish Military Enlistment data, a measure of balance in endowed abilities is constructed and this balance measure is, in relation to previous research, less likely tobe endogenous. The results support the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that propensity for being or becoming self-employed is greater for individuals with abalanced set of abilities. In addition, earnings from self-employment tend to be higher among individuals with a balanced set of skills.

  • 10.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Ethnic concentration and economic outcomes of natives and second-generation immigrants2016In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 157-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between childhood neighbourhood ethnic composition and short- and long-run economic outcomes of second-generation immigrants and natives in Sweden.

    Design/methodology/approach

    We use Swedish longitudinal register data and apply regression analysis methods to investigate the correlation between three ethnic neighbourhood variables(share of immigrants, share of immigrants with the same ethnic background and share of immigrants with other descent) in childhood with short- and long-run economic outcomes (earnings, unemployment, reliance on social assistance and educational attainment).

    Findings

    The results show that second-generation immigrants raised in immigrant-dense neighbourhoods have a lower probability to continue to higher education, whereas, their earnings, unemployment and social assistance tendencies are unaffected. On the contrary, natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Moreover, the social assistance and unemployment of non-Nordic second-generation immigrants appears to be negatively correlated with the neighbourhood share of co-ethnics and positively correlated with the neighbourhood proportion of other ethnic groups. Overall, we find that the results are very similar in the short- and long-run.

    Originality/value

    This paper expands the literature on children and ethnic segregation and in contrast to earlier research in this context, it focuses on second-generation immigrants and their performance in comparison to natives. This study contributes to this research area by investigating a large variety of outcomes, looking at both immigrant, own-ethnic group and other-ethnic group concentration and including both short- and long-run correlations.

  • 11.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses individual panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant and native owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. In particular, we use an individual-fixed effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with years in self-employment. The results show that native men have higher earnings and profit level from selfemployment activities than immigrant men. Immigrant men converge towards the earnings and profit levels of native men as self-employment experience increase, but do not reach parity. On the contrary, immigrant women catch up with the earnings and profit levels of native women after between 3 to 5 years in business. Turnover is highest for men, and in firms owned by non-European immigrants, independently of length of business experience. Immigrant firms, and in particular those owned by non-European immigrants, contribute more to job creation than firms owned by natives. As length of business experience increases immigrants’ hire additional persons to their firms to a higher extent than natives.

  • 12.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses individual-level panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant- and native-owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. We use an individual fixed-effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with self-employment experience. The advantage of our approach is that it enables estimations of the returns to self-employment experience while controlling for unobservable time-constant individual factors. The results show that profits increase with self-employment experience and at a faster rate among immigrant men and women than for their native counterparts. Turnover and the likelihood of having employees both increase with experience and in a similar magnitude for immigrants and natives.

  • 13.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Source country culture and labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden: evidence from longitudinal data2018In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 585-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the role of source country culture on gender roles for labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden. Sweden ranks as one of the world's most gender-equal countries and at the same time a recipient of many immigrants from countries with more traditional views on gender roles and gender equality. I find that the labor force participation of immigrant women in Sweden is related to their source country culture, in the sense that women from countries where women's labor market participation is low (high) also have low (high) participation in the Swedish labor market. However, all immigrant women assimilate towards, but do not reach parity with, the participation rate of native women, and the difference between women from high- and low-participation countries diminishes with length of residence in Sweden. This indicates that source country culture on gender roles does not have a persistent effect on immigrant women's labor market participation in Sweden. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of taking into account unobservable time-constant individual and source country factors when estimating the relationship between source country culture and immigrants' labor market outcomes. Neglecting to control for these factors could lead researchers to misrepresent the rate of assimilation and overstate the effect of source country culture.

  • 14.
    Neuman, Emma
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    The impact of ethnic concentration on native and second-generation immigrant children's economic outcomes2013Report (Other academic)
1 - 14 of 14
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