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  • 1.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Celma, Gunita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Ozola, Ruta
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Rozina, Laine
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Viksna, Arturs
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    On the way to 'zero waste' management: Recovery potential of elements, including rare earth elements, from fine fraction of waste2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing schemes of solid waste handling have been improved implementing advanced systems for recovery and reuse of various materials. Nowadays, the 'zero waste' concept is becoming more topical through the reduction of disposed waste. Recovery of metals, nutrients and other materials that can be returned to the material cycles still remain as a challenge for future. Landfill mining (LFM) is one of the approaches that can deal with former dumpsites, and derived materials may become important for circular economy within the concept 'beyond the zero waste'. Perspectives of material recovery can include recycling of critical industrial metals, including rare earth elements (REEs). The LFM projects performed in the Baltic Region along with a conventional source separation of iron-scrap, plastics etc. have shown that the potential of fine-grained fractions (including clay and colloidal matter) of excavated waste have considerably large amounts of potentially valuable metals and distinct REEs. In this paper analytical screening studies are discussed extending the understanding of element content in fine fraction of waste derived from excavated, separated and screened waste in a perspective of circular economy. Technological feasibility was evaluated by using modified sequential extraction technique where easy extractable amount of metals can be estimated. Results revealed that considerable concentrations of Mn (418-823 mg/kg), Ni (41-84 mg/kg), Co (10.7-19.3 mg/kg) and Cd (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) were detected in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste sampled from Hogbytorp landfill, while Cr (49-518 mg/kg) and Pb (30-264 mg/kg) were found in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste from Torma landfill revealing wide heterogeneity of tested samples. Waste should become a utilizable resource closing the loop of anthropogenic material cycle as the hidden potential of valuable materials in dumps is considerable. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Arina, Dace
    Institute of Physical Energetics, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ozola, Ruta
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    A. Tsereteli State University, Georgia.
    Daugelaite, Valdone
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Bucinskas, Algimantas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Rudovica, Vita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Horttanainen, Mika
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metals and rare Earth’s elements in landfills: case studies2016In: 3rd Int. Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, Lisboa, 8-10/2/2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills are considered as places where the life cycle of products ends and materialshave been “disposed forever”. The landfill mining (LFM) approach can deal with formerdumpsites and this material may become important for circular economy perspectiveswithin the concept “Beyond the zero waste”. Potential material recovery should includeperspectives of recycling of critical industrial metals where rare Earth elements (REEs)are playing more and more important role. Real-time applied LFM projects in the BalticRegion have shown the potential of fine-grained fractions (including clay and colloidalmatter) of excavated waste as storage of considerably large amounts of valuable metalsand REEs. Analytical screening studies have extended a bit further the understanding offine fraction contents of excavated, separated and screened waste in a circular economyperspective. The Swedish Institute and Latvian Research Program “Res Prod” supportedthe research.

  • 3.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Stenis, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Fac Chem Technol, Lithuania.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    Akaki Tsereteli State Univ, Republic of Georgia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rosendal, Rene Moller
    Danish Waste Solut ApS, Denmark.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Paradigms on landfill mining: From dump site scavenging to ecosystem services revitalization2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 123, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the next century to come, one of the biggest challenges is to provide the mankind with relevant and sufficient resources. Recovery of secondary resources plays a significant role. Industrial processes developed to regain minerals for commodity production in a circular economy become ever more important in the European Union and worldwide. Landfill mining (LFM) constitutes an important technological toolset of processes that regain resources and redistribute them with an accompanying reduction of hazardous influence of environmental contamination and other threats for human health hidden in former dump sites and landfills. This review paper is devoted to LFM problems, historical development and driving paradigms of LFM from 'classical hunting for valuables' to 'perspective in ecosystem revitalization'. The main goal is to provide a description of historical experience and link it to more advanced concept of a circular economy. The challenge is to adapt the existing knowledge to make decisions in accordance with both, economic feasibility and ecosystems revitalization aspects. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Porshnov, Dmitry
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ozols, Viesturs
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Grinfelde, Inga
    Latvia Univ Life Sci & Technol, Latvia.
    Pilecka, Jovita
    Latvia Univ Life Sci & Technol, Latvia.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    Akaki Tsereteli State Univ, Georgia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Gateway of Landfilled Plastic Waste Towards Circular Economy in Europe2019In: Separations, E-ISSN 2297-8739, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-8, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, significant work has been conducted regarding plastic waste by dealing with rejected materials in waste masses through their accumulation, sorting and recycling. Important political and technical challenges are involved, especially with respect to landfilled waste. Plastic is popular and, notwithstanding decrease policies, it will remain a material widely used in most economic sectors. However, questions of plastic waste recycling in the contemporary world cannot be solved without knowing the material, which can be achieved by careful sampling, analysis and quantification. Plastic is heterogeneous, but usually all plastic waste is jointly handled for recycling and incineration. Separation before processing waste through the analytical approach must be applied. Modern landfill mining and site clean-up projects in contemporary waste management systems require comprehensive material studies ranging from the macro-characterization of waste masses to a more detailed analysis of hazardous constituents and properties from an energy calorific standpoint-where, among other methods, thermogravimetric research coupled with life cycle assessment (LCA) and economic assessment is highly welcomed.

  • 5.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Purmalis, Oskars
    Krievāns, Māris
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) Geoenvironmental Screening in Lakes of Latvia - Challenges and Outcomes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geophysical studies in mapping and geoenvironmental applications for screening purposes are widely applied in Latvia. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as the one method from geophysical toolbox is a non-invasive and non-destructive way where pulsed electromagnetic signal is recorded as scattering from subsurface objects. Aim of two described screening studies was to analyse potential advantages of GPR use for mapping bottom sediments and topography in two lakes and pinpoint challenges to overcome during works. Both lakes are relatively deep and of sub-glacial origin that became lakes after the ice retreat from Baltic region. Characterization of bottom sediments as well as full core description of upper limnic layers for comparison with GPR signals were performed. Major results show that GPR, coring and laboratory analysis can be used simultaneously, however, ground penetration radar sometimes fails to recognize full picture needed for geoenvironmental application needs. Proper treatment of data nevertheless diminish the necessity of dense coring in lakes when budgets are strict.

  • 6.
    Denafas, G.
    et al.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Bučinskas, A
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Dace, E
    Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Bazienė, K
    Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania.
    Horttanainen, M
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Havukainen, J
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Kaartinen, T
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Finland.
    Rosendal, R
    Danish Waste Solutions, Denmark.
    Kriipsalu, M
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Investigation for landfill mining feasibilities in the Nordic and Baltic countries: overview of project results2016In: CYPRUS 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management, At Limassol, Cyprus, 23–25 June 2016., 2016, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gao, Ling
    Beihua University, Peoples Republic of China.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization of dredged sediments: a first guide to define potentially valuable compounds - the case of Malmfjärden Bay, Sweden2019In: Advances in Geosciences, ISSN 1680-7340, E-ISSN 1680-7359, Vol. 49, p. 137-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millions of tons of bottom sediments are dredged annually all over the world. Ports and bays need to extract the sediments to guarantee the navigation levels or remediate the aquatic ecosystem. The removed material is commonly disposed of in open oceans or landfills. These disposal methods are not in line with circular-economy goals and additionally are unsuitable due to their legal and environmental compatibility. Recovery of valuables represents a way to eliminate dumping and contributes towards the sustainable extraction of secondary raw materials. Nevertheless, the recovery varies on a case-by-case basis and depends on the sediment components. Therefore, the first step is to analyse and identify the sediment composition and properties. Malmfjärden is a shallow semi-enclosed bay located in Kalmar, Sweden. Dredging of sediments is required to recuperate the water level. This study focuses on characterizing the sediments, pore water and surface water from the bay to uncover possible sediment recovery paths and define the baseline of contamination in the water body. The results showed that the bay had high amounts of nitrogen (170–450 µg L−1 ), leading to eutrophication problems. The sediments mainly comprised small size particle material (silt, clay and sand proportions of 62 %–79 %, 14 %–20 %, 7 %–17 %, respectively) and had a medium–high level of nitrogen (7400–11 000 mg kg−1 ). Additionally, the sediments had little presence of organic pollutants and low–medium concentration of metals or metalloids. The characterization of the sediments displays a potential use in less sensitive lands such as in industrial and commercial areas where the sediments can be employed as construction material or as plant-growing substrate (for ornamental gardens or vegetation beside roads).

  • 8.
    Ferrans, Laura
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Testing of heavy metals recovery from dredged sediments2019In: Sediment as a dynamic natural resource from catchment to open sea / [ed] Marjan Euser, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hogland, Marika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Arina, Dace
    Inst Phys Energet, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas Technol Univ, Lithuania.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Remarks on four novel landfill mining case studies in Estonia and Sweden2018In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 1355-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In common sense, a landfill is a place where the life cycle of products ends. Landfill mining (LFM) mostly deals with former dumpsites and derived material may have a significant importance for the circular economy. Deliverables of recently applied LFM projects in Sweden and Estonia have revealed the potential and problems for material recovery. There are 75-100 thousand old landfills and dumps in the Baltic Sea Region, and they pose environmental risks to soil, water and air by pollution released from leachate and greenhouse gas emissions. Excavation of landfills is potential solution for solving these problems, and at the same time, there are perspectives to recover valuable lands and materials, save expenses for final coverage of the landfills and aftercare control. The research project "Closing the Life Cycle of Landfills-Landfill Mining in the Baltic Sea Region for Future" included investigation at four case studies in Estonia and Sweden: Kudjape, Torma, Hogbytorp and Vika landfills. Added value of this research project is characterization of waste fine fraction material, determination of concentration for most critical and rare earth elements. The main results showed that both, coarse and fine, fractions of waste might have certain opportunities of recovery.

  • 10.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Landfills and glass dumpsites as future bank accounts of resources – waste characterization and trace elements extraction2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution and health threats as well as scarcity of raw materials, water, food and energy are among the main challenges our world are now facing. Simultaneously, landfills and open dumpsites still are the dominant global waste disposal option even with their long term environmental impacts in case of greenhouse gases and contaminated leachates. In this thesis, landfill mining is suggested as a tool that should be included in an enhanced circular economy model (repair, reuse and recycle + extract and recovery) by considering the extraction/recovery of the lost materials in landfills and dumpsites as secondary resources.

    Characterization data (composition and physicochemical properties) is considered as a vital source for information for: i. the valorization of excavated wastes, ii. to explore potential hazards and iii. as an important tool for theassessment of the waste management systems and policies. In this thesis,excavated wastes from a classic landfill (Högbytorp in Sweden), a landfill buildup according to the European Directive requirements (Torma in Estonia) andhazardous glass dumpsite (Pukeberg in Sweden) was characterized as a centralstep in exploring the potential of recovering of valuables. In addition, the extraction of trace elements from waste glass and different finefractions were also investigated. The reduction-melting method was developedto extract hazardous concentrations of trace elements from old art and crystalglasses with more than (99%) of recovery of Pb, Cd and As. While threechelating agents (EDTA, DTPA and NTA) were used to extract Pb, Cd, Asand Zn from fine fraction (<2 mm) sampled from Pukeberg glasswork with anextraction efficiency of (40%). Besides, the fractionations of the metals Cu, Znand Cr in the fine fractions (<10 mm) excavated from Högbytorp and Tormalandfills were studied by using a modified sequential extraction procedure.

    The findings of this thesis highlighted the need to consider the dumped wastesas secondary resources and landfills and dumpsites as future bank accounts offuture raw materials instead of being burden to the human health and theenvironment.

  • 11.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization and toxicity of hazardous wastes from an old Swedish glasswork dumpIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 34 old glasswork sites in the southeastern part of Sweden pose a permanent threat to human and environmental health due to the presence of toxic metals in open dumps with glass waste. The possibility of leaching of metals from different fractions of the disposed waste needed to be assessed. In the present investigation, leachate from fine fraction (soil plus glass particles < 2 mm) was characterized as following: pH (7.3), TOC (< 2%), organic content (4.4%), moisture content (9.7), COD (163 mg/kg) and trace elements content, being the values in accordance to the Swedish guidelines for landfilling of inert materials. However, very high metals content was found in the fine fraction as well as in all colors of the glass fraction (≥ 2 mm), whose values were compatible to hazardous waste landfill class. Tests with Lepidium sativum growing in the fine fraction as substrate revealed chronic toxicity expressed as inhibition of root biomass growth in 11 out of 15 samples. Additionally, leachate from fine fractions posed acute toxicity to genetically modified E. coli (Toxi-Chromotest). This study highlights the importance of combining physicochemical characterization with toxicity tests for both solid waste and leachate obtained from different waste fractions for proper hazardousness assessment supporting decision making on remediation demands.

  • 12.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physicochemical and toxicological characterization of hazardous wastes from an oldglasswork dump at southeastern part of Sweden2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 34 old glasswork sites in the southeastern part of Sweden pose a permanent threat to human and environmental health due to the presence of toxic trace elements in open dumps with glass waste. The possibility of leaching of trace elements from different fractions of the disposed waste needed to be assessed. In the present investigation, leachate from a mixture of soil and waste glass of particle sizes of less than 2mm (given the name fine fraction) was characterized by analyzing the pH (7.3), total organic content (TOC<2%), organic matter content (4.4%), moisture content (9.7%), chemical oxygen demand (COD, 163mg/kg) and trace elements content, being the values in accordance to the Swedish guidelines for landfilling of inert materials. However, very high trace elements content was found in the fine fraction as well as in all colors of waste glass, whose values were compatible to hazardous waste landfill class. Tests with Lepidium sativum growing in the fine fraction as substrate revealed chronic toxicity expressed as inhibition of root biomass growth in 11 out of 15 samples. Additionally, leachate from fine fractions posed acute toxicity to genetically modified E. coli (Toxi-Chromotest). This study highlights the importance of combining physicochemical characterization with toxicity tests for both solid waste and leachate obtained from different waste fractions for proper hazardousness assessment supporting decision making on remediation demands.

  • 13.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Chemical extraction of trace elements from hazardous fine fraction at an old glasswork dump2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 825-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old glassworks siteshave been always associated with contamination by different trace elements likePb, Cd, As, Zn and others. The mixture of soil and waste glass of particlesizes <2mmat one of the oldest Swedish glassworks (the Pukeberg) was studiedby analyzing the trace elements content, organic content (3.6%) and pH (7.4).The results showed hazardous concentrations of Pb (1525 mg/kg), Ba (1312mg/kg), Sb (128 mg/kg), Cd (36 mg/kg), As (118 mg/kg), Zn (1154mg/kg) and Co(263 mg/kg) exceeded the Swedish guidelines of contaminated soil. Batchchemical extraction by the chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and the biodegradableNTA were performed to study the effect of chelating agent concentration and mixingtime on the extraction efficiencies by following a Box-Wilson design ofexperiments. The results displayed good extraction efficiencies (less than 41%)of Pb, Cd, As and Zn by the EDTA, DTPA and NTA, which seemed depends on thetype of chelator. In addition, high correlation between the extraction efficiencies,the chelators concentration and mixing time was found based on the statisticaland experimental results.

  • 14.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Reduction-melting extraction of trace elements from hazardous waste glass from an old glasswork’s dump in the southeastern part of Sweden2017In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 34, p. 26341-26349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the southeastern part of Sweden, old art and crystal waste glass has been identified as a hazardous waste due to high weight concentrations of Pb (32.398%), Cd (0.085%) and As (1.976%). The reduction-melting technique was used to investigate the extraction of these trace elements from powder waste glass of particle size <1 mm. Following a factorial design technique, the experimental results of the reduction-melting method showed that 99.9% of Pb, 100% of Cd and 99% of As could be extracted. For a batch of 10 g powder waste glass, the found experimental and theoretical optimum operating conditions were 1100 oC of melting temperature, 5 g of Na2CO3, 2 g of carbon and 120 min of melting time. The reduction-melting method displayed promising results which might help in recycling the extracted trace elements and glass compared to the current used solution of landfilling as hazardous wastes. 

  • 15.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waste glass in the production of cement and concrete – A review2014In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1767-1775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement and glass industries are facing a lot of challenges due to the high greenhouse gases emissions, the intensive use of energy and the intensive use of the earth’s natural resources. The current situation of discarding waste glass to landfills is also not offering an environmental friendly management for the waste glass, due to the nonbiodegradable form of the waste glass. However, the chemical composition and the pozzolanic properties of waste glass are encouraging for the use of this waste in the cement and concrete industries and to provide an environmental friendly solution for the glass and cement industries. This paper reviews the different uses of waste glass in cement and concrete and the effect of the glass properties on the performance and durability of the produce cement and concrete.

  • 16.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Charlotte, Marchand
    University of Montréal, Canada.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mait, Kriipsalu
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Anders, Kihl
    Ragn-Sells AB, Sollentuna.
    Characterisation of excavated fine fraction and waste composition from a Swedish landfill2016In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1292-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23.5% and 16.6%, respectively. The analysed calorific value (1.7 MJ kg-1), the potential of CH4 (4.74 m3 t-1 dry matter) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (5.6%) were low and offer low potential of energy. Sieving the fine fraction further showed that 80% was smaller than 2 mm. The fine represents a major fraction at any landfill (40%–70%), therefore, characterising the properties of this fraction is essential to find the potential of reusing/recycling or safely redisposing.

  • 17.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Composition of waste at an early EU-landfill of Torma in Estonia2017In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment / Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills represent a continuous environmental threat due to the emission of different greenhouse gases, which are mainly responsible for the climate changes, and the contaminated leachate that affects the surface and ground water recipients. The circular economy approach appeared as a useful solution to reduce the depletion of the Earth’s natural resources and the environmental risk effects by considering all of the lost resources like wastes including the landfills as potential secondary resources. It is well known that characterizing the composition of landfill waste is an essential step in specifying the recycling methods. In the current research the waste composition at one of the first EU regulations-compliant sanitary landfills (the Torma landfill in Estonia) was studied. The results showed that the fine fraction (<20 mm) represented 53% of the total excavated waste materials while the waste to energy fraction (plastics, woods etc.) was the highest within the coarse fraction (>20 mm). The present work emphasized that mining landfills can be a good solution either for extracting primary raw materials like metals, as a source for recovering energy, or for acquiring landfill space.

  • 18.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundström, JelenaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.Svensson, VivekaLinnaeus University, The University Library.Hogland, WilliamLinnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    PROCEEDINGS of the International Conference LINNAEUS ECO-TECH 2018, Book of Abstracts2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mutafela, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Smålands glassworks: a review of the recently published studies2018In: LinnaeusEco-Tech 2018, 19–21 November 2018, Kalmar, Sweden: Abstract book / [ed] Yahya Jani, Jelena Lundström, Viveka Svensson, William Hogland, Kalmar: Linnaeus university , 2018, p. 151-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The historical contamination of Smålands glass industry by hazardous concentrations of different trace elements (such as Pb, As, Zn, Cd and others) is a fact that has been approved by many researchers. These studies covered the situation of the glassworks contamination from different angles. However, the recommended solution by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is landfilling. Dumping these masses means, on the first hand, losing huge amounts of the Earth natural resources as wastes and, on the second hand, losing any future opportunity of recycling or reusing due to mixing these masses with other hazardous wastes generated by different sectors. In this paper, we are trying to review and highlight the results obtained by some of the already published studies in this field to identify the gap and challenges of recycling or reusing options.

  • 20.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mutafela, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ferrans, Laura
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ling, Gao
    Beihua University, People's Republic of China.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Phytoremediation as a promising method for the treatment of contaminated sediments2019In: Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 58-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dredging activities are necessary to maintain the navigation depth of harbors and channels. Additionally,dredging can prevent the loss of water bodies. A large amount of extracted sediments is produced around theworld. Removed material is widely disposed at open seas or landfills. Much of the dredged material is pollutedand is classified as unsuitable for open-sea disposal. In Sweden, many dredging activities are taking placenowadays like that in Oskarshamn harbor, Inre harbor Norrköping municipality and Malmfjärden bay inKalmar. In this review, the potential of phytoremediation as a treatment method is discussed with focus onsuggested methods for reusing the treated sediments. Recycling or reusing of dredged and treated sedimentswill preserve Earth natural resources as well as reduce diffusion of contaminants to the environment.

  • 21.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Bucinskas, A.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Speciation of Cu, Zn and Cr in Excavated Fine Fraction of Waste at two Landfills2018In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), ISSN 2079-2115, E-ISSN 2079-2123, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 86-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining landfills and open dumpsites is associated with (40-70% by mass) fine fraction of particle sizes less than 20 or 10 mm. Soil and trace elements of considerable concentrations typically dominate the composition of this fraction. In the present paper, a modified three steps sequential extraction procedure was used to fractionate Cu, Zn and Cr in the fine fraction of waste sampled from Högbytorp (Sweden) and Torma (Estonia) landfills. The results showed that the major concentrations of Cu (98.8 and 98.6 wt%) and Cr (98.5% and 98.4 wt %) in fines from Högbytorp and Torma landfills, respectively. These data were found associated to the residual fraction. Noticeable concentrations of Cu and Cr were also found associated within the water -soluble fraction, which could be regarded as a potential risk. The Zn displayed different behavior by distributing in all the sequential extraction fractions in the fine fractions from the two landfills. Specifying the metals content using this method is essential to explore the valorization as well as the potential environmental risks by these fines fractions.

  • 22.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marchand, Lilian
    INRA, France.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hijri, Mohamed
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests2016In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Gentle Remediation Options (GRO), e.g. plant-based options (phytoremediation), singly and combined with soil amendments, can be simultaneously efficient for degrading organic pollutants and either stabilizing or extracting trace elements (TE). Here, a 5-month greenhouse trial was performed to test the efficiency of Medicago sativa L., singly and combined with a compost addition (30% w/w), to treat soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), Co and Pb collected at an auto scrap yard. After five months, total soil Pb significantly decreased in the compost-amended soil planted with M. sativa, but not total soil Co. Compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and shoot Pb concentrations (3.8 mg/kg DW). Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. The O2 uptake by soil microorganisms was lower in the compost-amended soil, suggesting a decrease in microbial activity. This study underlined the benefits of the phytoremediation option based on M. sativa cultivation and compost amendment for remediating PHC and Pb contaminated soils.

  • 23.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Universite de Montreal, Canada.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hijri, Mohammed
    Universite de Montreal, Canada.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physicochemical and Ecotoxicological Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Trace Elements Contaminated Soil2018In: Polycyclic aromatic compounds (Print), ISSN 1040-6638, E-ISSN 1563-5333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Underground storage tanks used for auto oil spill waste contain many hazardous materials, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) trace elements. These compounds pose a significant threat to the environment and affect negatively human health. The aim of this study was to characterize the soil of a former auto scrap yards in which oil spill tank leakage occurred in Sweden. The soil samples were collected from an area of 5 m2 around an oil the tank which was highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and trace elements (cobalt and lead). Another soil samples were collected from a nearby area that was not contaminated by PHC and they were considered as controls. The characterization of these soil samples was performed using two approaches. Analysis of the relevant physico-chemical soil properties included texture, organic matter, contaminant concentration and pH, while biological analyses were performed using three independent ecotoxicological tests with plant (Lepidium sativum), earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and soil microorganisms. Toxicity tests showed that contaminants had strongly negative effects on earthworm’s development and L. sativum shoots dry biomass in both PHC contaminated and control soils. These two parameters were the most sensitive in reflecting toxicity of study soils. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in aqueous phase was four times higher than that of the solid phase even though a similar trend was observed in both phases (aqueous and solid). Moreover, microorganism’s respiration was high in PHC contaminated soils in comparison to control soils due to the mineralization of readily available OM and/or organic pollutants as well as the inhibitory effect of TE on soil respiration. The results clearly demonstrated that combination of chemical analyses with three toxicity tests was appropriate to characterize mixed PHC and TE contaminated soils.

  • 24.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Mench, Michel
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Notini, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hijri, Mohamed
    Univ Montreal, Canada.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 618, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months). In parallel, residual soil ecotoxicity was assessed using the plant species Lepidium sativum L. and the earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, while the leachate ecotoxicity was assessed using Lemna minor L. After 5 months, PH C10-C40, PAH-L, PAH-M PAH-H, Pb and Cu concentrations in the MS-10%C soil were significantly reduced as compared to the Unp-10% C soil. Metal uptake by alfalfa was low but their translocation to shoots was high for Mn, Cr, Co and Zn (transfer factor (TF) >1), except for Cu and Pb. Alfalfa in monoculture reduced electrical conductivity, total organic C and Cu concentration in the leachate while pH and dissolved oxygen increased. Alfalfa co-planting with sunflower did not affect the extraction of inorganic contaminants from the soil, the PAH (M and H) degradation and was less efficient for PH C10-C40 and PAH-L as compared to alfalfa monoculture. The co-planting reduced shoot and root Pb concentrations. The residual soil ecotoxicity after 5 months showed a positive effect of co-planting on L. sativum shoot dry weight (DW) yield. However, high contaminant concentrations in soil and leachate still inhibited the L. sativum root DW yield, earthworm development, and L. minor growth rate. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mohamed, Hijri
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Long-term phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mohamed, Hijri
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mench, Michel
    Univ Bordeaux, France.
    Notini, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pilot scale ecopiling of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Circular Economy Perspectives in Managing Old Contaminated Glass Dumps2018In: 11th International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation among Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World, Kalmar, Sweden, November 19-21, 2018: Book of Abstracts, Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus university , 2018, p. 149-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills and dumpsites have been the ultimate end of life sinks for various materials and products. As such, they are considered rich stocks of secondary raw materials for the circular economy. However, most of them are non-sanitary as they lack protective measures against environmental contamination. Over the years, the need to exploit the resource potential of landfills as well as to mitigate their contamination problems, among other factors, has led to the concept of landfill mining, resulting in a number of mainly pilot scale mining of landfills and dumps globally. In southeastern Sweden for instance, where there are over forty old, contaminated glass dumps, a number of remedial dumpsite excavations have been going on, with eventual landfilling of excavated materials in sanitary landfills. Hence, based on the Swedish situation, this study presents three scenarios about: contaminated materials in non-sanitary dumps as they currently stand; ongoing material excavations with subsequent landfilling; and material excavations coupled with materials recovery towards reduced landfilling. The third scenario is presented as more suitable from the circular economy perspective. The scenario is thus discussed in terms of technological implications of the process from identification of concealed valuable materials in dumps to their excavation, sorting, temporal storage, valorization and eventual resource recovery. In addition, legal implications as well as potential social, economic and environmental barriers against the scenario’s implementation are discussed. Finally, the study provides recommendations that would be useful in decision making surrounding the management of contaminated and non-sanitary dumpsites.

  • 28.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kihl, Anders
    Ragn Sells AB.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization of Waste from Glassworks towards Resource Recovery - the Case of Madesjö Dumpsite2016In: Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2016, 21-23 November 2016, Kalmar, Sweden: Book of Abstracts, The 10th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World. / [ed] Stina Alriksson, Jelena Lundström, William Hogland, Linnaeus University , 2016, p. 159-159Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ‘Glasriket’ of Sweden’s Småland region is characterized by an array of landfillsand dumpsites of glass and other raw material wastes from old glassworks. Most ofthe dumpsites contain heavy metals with leaching capabilities to soil and groundwater. As these metals could be potential resources that could be recovered into theresource loop, the characterization of these wastes can provide necessary informationabout the resource recovery potential. The current investigation focuses on the firststages by quantifying the amounts of selected metals (Ba, Cr and Zn) in the glassdeposit at Madesjö dumpsite as a case. The dump was sampled at nine different pointsand two levels per point. The samples were subjected to X-ray Fluorescence scanning(XRF) and leaching tests with further analyses of metals using ICP. According to theinvestigation, the highest metal contents in the solid phase were observed in Zn(average of 4515 mg/kg) while the lowest were observed in Cr (average of 72 mg/kg).In the liquid phase, the average metal concentrations were observed to be 0.37 mg/kg,0.02 mg/kg and 0.23 mg/kg for Ba, Cr and Zn respectively. These, however, are not inreadily available form, and so further investigations need to be done in order to findcost-effective techniques for their extraction. On the other hand, further investigationsneed to be done to ascertain the leaching potential by altering such leachingparameters as contact time and liquid to solid ratio.

  • 29.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Aid, Graham
    Ragn-Sells AB.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Methods for investigation of old glass waste dumpsites2018In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium On Enhanced Landfill Mining: 5-6 February 2018, Mechelen, Belgium / [ed] Peter Tom Jones & Lieven Machiels, Leuven, Belgium: European Enhanced Landfill Mining Consortium (EURELCO) , 2018, p. 145-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An old glass dumpsite in southern Sweden was mapped and investigated to locate

    glass abundance zones (“hotspots”) and understand physicochemical parametres of

    the waste. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used for mapping the site while a

    geophysical method of Electrical Resistivity was used for detecting glass hotspots in

    the dump. Test pits were excavated and samples taken, after which hand sorting,

    sieving and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning of the waste were used for

    physicochemical properties. Geophysical mapping was found to be a feasible nondestructive

    tool in locating glass hotspots. In terms of composition, glass was found

    to be the most abundant fraction at 90% average from all 4 sampling points. From

    particle size distribution, particles > 11.3 mm were more abundant (75% average)

    than particles < 11.3 mm. XRF scanning yielded As, Cd and Pb concentrations of 3,700

    mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 5,300 mg/kg, respectively. In conclusion, it is possible to locate

    glass hotspots and excavate them carefully in readiness for metal extraction while

    avoiding the need for complicated sorting post-excavation.

  • 30.
    Mutafela, Richard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physico-chemical characteristics of fine fraction materials from an old crystal glass dumpsite in Sweden2019In: Chemistry and ecology, ISSN 0275-7540, Vol. 35, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physico-chemical characteristics of waste, particularly fine fraction (FF), from an old crystal glass waste dump in Sweden were studied to assess recycling or disposal alternatives. Hand-sorting of the waste indicated glass content of 44.1% while sieving established the FF as a more soil-like mix of glass and other materials constituting 33.3% of all excavated waste. The FF was around neutral pH with 24.4% moisture content, low values of Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Organic Carbon and fluorides, but hazardous concentrations of As, Cd, Pb and Zn according to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. While the FF leached metals in low concentrations at neutral pH, it leached considerably during digestion with nitric acid, implying leaching risks at low pH. Thus, the waste requires safe storage in hazardous waste class ‘bank account’ storage cells to avoid environmental contamination as metal recovery and other recycling strategies for the glass waste are being developed. The study could fill the information gap regarding preservation of potential resources in the on-going, fast-paced excavation and re-landfilling of heavy metal contaminated materials in the region.

  • 31.
    Mutafela, Richard N.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mantero, Juan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;University of Seville, Spain.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Thomas, Rimon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holm, Elis
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Radiometrical and physico-chemical characterisation of contaminated glass waste from a glass dump in Sweden2020In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 241, p. 1-10, article id 124964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around former glass factories in south eastern Sweden, there are dozens of dumps whose radioactivity and physico-chemical properties were not investigated previously. Thus, radiometric and physico-chemical characteristics of waste at Madesjö glass dump were studied to evaluate pre-recycling storage requirements and potential radiological and environmental risks. The material was sieved, hand-sorted, leached and scanned with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). External dose rates and activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials from 238U, 232Th series and 40K were also measured coupled with a radiological risk assessment. Results showed that the waste was 95% glass and dominated by fine fractions (< 11.3 mm) at 43.6%. The fine fraction had pH 7.8, 2.6% moisture content, 123 mg kg-1 Total Dissolved Solids, 37.2 mg kg-1 Dissolved Organic Carbon and 10.5 mg kg-1 fluorides. Compared with Swedish EPA guidelines, the elements As, Cd, Pb and Zn were in hazardous concentrations while Pb leached more than the limits for inert and non-hazardous wastes. With 40K activity concentration up to 3000 Bq kg-1, enhanced external dose rates of 40K were established (0.20 mSv h-1) although no radiological risk was found since both External Hazard Index (Hex) and Gamma Index (Iγ) were < 1. The glass dump needs remediation and storage of the waste materials under a safe hazardous waste class ‘Bank Account’ storage cell as a secondary resource for potential future recycling.

  • 32.
    Setyobudi, R H
    et al.
    University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia.
    Zalizar, L
    University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia.
    Wahono, S K
    University of South Australia, Australia;Indonesian Institutes of Sciences, Indonesia.
    Widodo, W
    University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia.
    Wahyudi, A
    University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia.
    Mel, M
    International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Prabowo, B
    Prasetiya Mulya University, Indonesia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nugroho, Y A
    PT Sinarmas Agroresources and Technology Tbk., Indonesia.
    Liwang, T
    PT Sinarmas Agroresources and Technology Tbk., Indonesia.
    Zaebudin, A
    University of Muhammadiyah Malang, Indonesia.
    Prospect of Fe non-heme on coffee flour made from solid coffee waste: Mini review2019In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 293, p. 1-24, article id 012035Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coffee flour (CF) from coffee pulp or husk, solid waste of coffee processing have launched in Canada since 2015. This product is claimed as certified of gluten-free, vegan, kosher, paleo, and non-GMO. Coffe flour is stated to contain three times Fe content than fresh spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Several receipts of cookies, donuts, and cakes using CF has been introduced as wheat flour substitution. However, the scientific publication of CF impact for health does not appear until August 2018 yet. A review has been carried out using data on Google with a maximum publication age of 15 yr. This Fe non-heme prospect is allegedly unable to be absorbed optimally by the organism. Coffee pulp and husk contain an inhibitor, such as caffeine, polyphenol, calcium, dietary fiber, manganese, magnesium, and zinc; which detain Fe absorption. On the other hand, the promoter/enhancer of Fe absorption such as vitamin C, vitamin A, and amino acid was decreased in CF processing. Several types of research have to be conducted to tackle this problem in Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry University Muhammadyah of Malang, Indonesia.

  • 33.
    Svensson, Henric
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Particle size characterization of oak wood leachate: chemical oxygen demand and toxicity distribution within different fractions2014In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 502-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oak wood leachate obtained from two storage facilities (storage pound and ditch) in a wood-based industry, and leachate generated by a laboratory leaching test, were characterized in seven categories regarding particle size distribution (PSD) (raw leachate, <= 20 mu m, <= 10 mu m, <= 1.2 mu m, <= 13 nm, <= 5 nm and <= 2 nm). The PSD followed a normal distribution model with a correlation coefficient (r) varying from 82 to 88. Each fraction was analysed regarding chemical oxygen demand, polyphenols and acute toxicity in toxicity assays with Artemia salina, Vibrio fischeri and Lactuca sativa. Fractions with particles > 1.2 mu m were more toxic to A. salina and V. fisheri than fractions with particles <= 1.2 mu m. No toxic effect was observed for L. sativa. The results suggest that polyphenols are the main toxic compounds in oak wood leachate. A conspicuous difference was found between field and laboratory samples.

  • 34.
    Valujeva, Kristine
    et al.
    Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies, Latvia.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Grinfelde, Inga
    Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies, Latvia.
    Pilecka, Jovita
    Latvia University of Life Science and Technologies, Latvia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Phytoremediation as tool for prevention of contaminant flow to hydrological systems2018In: Research for Rural Development 2018: Engineering, landscape architecture, Jelgava: Latvia University of Agriculture , 2018, Vol. 1, p. 188-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of remediation projects in contaminated sites has become an increasingly global challenge and nowadays takes intensive international environmentally sound cooperation intended to relieve negative consequences of landscape pollution. This paper aims to deal with the phytoremediation approach for protection of environment and preventing the streaming of contaminant flows to hydrological systems. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective environmentally friendly clean-up technology, which uses plants and microorganisms in rhizosphere for soil and groundwater treatment. Phytoremediation is enhancing degradation of organic pollutants and improving stabilization of inorganic contaminants where plants can be used to treat soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons, chlorinated substances, pesticides, metals, explosives, radionuclides as well as to reduce the excess of nutrients. Selection of species for this type of treatment processes is based on evapotranspiration potential and ability to bioaccumulate contaminants. The project entitled “Phytoremediation Park for treatment and recreation at glassworks contaminated sites“ (PHYTECO) aimed at cross-sector international partnership. The challenge of project was to develop remediation strategy where negative consequences from centuries long anthropogenic influence are turned to be something positive - development of the recreation park from the glass dump. Here designers, scientists, local volunteers, international students would join ideas and common work for the boost of innovation and sustainable thinking. New “Knowledge in Inter Baltic Partnership Exchange for Future Regional Circular Economy Cooperation“ (PECEC) project is sequential continuation.

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