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  • 1.
    Fälth, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Kugelberg, Ellen
    LegiLexi.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    LegiLexis formativa bedömningsverktyg - Testmanual2017Other (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Fälth, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Assessment Support as Part of Teacher Duties in the Subject of Swedish at the Elementary Level2019In: International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, ISSN 1694-2493, E-ISSN 1694-2116, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 85-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the use of a formative assessment support regarding reading instruction in grades 1-3, viewed from a teacher perspective. Sixty-five teachers from all parts of Sweden responded to a questionnaire, who had used the support for at least one year. Of the participant teachers, nine were interviewed for the purpose of performing an in-depth analysis of the questions. The teachers stated that the primary use of the assessment results was to identify students in need of extra support, as a basis for performance appraisals, as well as for further lesson planning. Formative assessment was, on the one hand, described as a concrete practical method and, on the other hand, as an attitude. The results also indicate a feeling of frustration that, notwithstanding the current deeper insight into what every student needs, the teaching still proceeds on some middle-ground path or level.

  • 3.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Ulrika B.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Effects of a formative assessment system on early reading development2019In: Education, ISSN 0013-1172, Vol. 140, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present quantitative results from the pilot-year of a large scale Swedish educational project in reading development called LegiLexi, inspired by research within the Response to intervention and Formative assessment traditions. The vision of the project is that every pupil should reach adequate reading skills at the end of grade 3 in primary school. LegiLexi contains a formative assessment tool and a teacher course, which are linked together. We describe LegiLexi and analyze quantitative effects of the pilot year regarding reading development for pupils in grade 1. The design included three conditions; full access to LegiLexi, access only to the formative assessment tool, and control. Results showed that the group with full access to LegiLexi improved their word decoding and reading comprehension the most. For language comprehension, the Formative assessment only group showed the highest improvements. Thus, the features of LegiLexi seem to help enhance critical reading skills. Some changes will be made in the project to strengthen methodological aspects and further facilitate pupils’ reading development.

  • 4.
    Jacobson, Christer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Söderberg Juhlander, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Fouganthine, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Questionnaire results of the longitudinal study of reading development in Kronoberg, Sweden2012In: Nineteenth Annual Meeting Society for the Scientific Study of Reading July 11-14, 2012 Montreal, Canada / [ed] Chaterine McBride, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to present an outline of results from a longitudinal study of reading disabled persons in Kronoberg, Sweden and to address several considerations to develop scientifically well-founded methods. This report presents an outline of group comparisons between reading disabled persons and a control group of normal readers from eight years old in grade 2 until 29 years old at the follow-up study. From a total cohort of 2167 children in grade 2, a sample of 103 children was selected on the basis of different screening tests and was followed through the educational system to the end of upper secondary school. The sample was matched with a control group on age, gender, school class and nonverbal ability. The purpose of the follow up study was to investigate dyslexia's influence on quality of life regarding health and life situation in relation to background factors collected during early school years and adolescence. The reading disabled differed in self-reliance in reading, formal education and reported how the reading impairment had left them with bad memories of the years in school. However, there were no differences between the groups on reported general confidence in their abilities and if they were in control of their lives. Also, there were no differences between the groups on reported psychical health and other factors concerning wellbeing. It seems that the difficulties the reading disabled group reported are isolated to reading and writing activities and not to other areas. The reading disabled has not challenged themselves in higher education as much as the control group. Instead, they prepared themselves for the labour market and an adult living earlier in life than the control group. We suggest that the educational factor explains many of the investigated differences between the groups, such as transitions and raising families. The results also revealed challenges for future research. The cut off score in the extreme lower end of the tail resulted in preponderance for boys

  • 5. Nordström, Thomas
    Assisterande teknik bra inslag i läsundervisning2019In: Skolledaren, ISSN 0037-6515, no 5, p. 29-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measures that matter: Facilitating literacy through targeted instruction and assistive technology2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquisition of reading skills is one of the most important academic outcomes, as reading enables the individual to acquire knowledge and to actively take part in society. Despite research and educational progress, not all students develop their reading skills to a level that meet academic or societal demands. Study I in the dissertation aimed to demonstrate the relative importance of students developing adequate reading skills in order to succeed academically, and,thus to motivate interventions in order to counteract the negative impact of reduced reading performance. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore two subsequent approaches for improving students’ possibilities to achieve a functioning literacy. The first approach focused on teachers’ use of reading assessment data and teaching recommendations in order to target instruction in classroom education involving all students (study II). The second approach focusedon the use of assistive reading and writing technology (primarily with text-to-speech, TTS, and speech-to-text, STT functions) for students with severe difficulties with reading (study III and IV). Study I was conducted as a follow-up study of an earlier project, in which grade 2 screening data of word decoding (N=1784) were run through a series of multiple regression analyses, in order to predict grade 9 grade marks and subject choices. Study II was conducted as a teacher intervention project within a larger reading educational project, in which participating grade 1-3 teachers (N=8) used the program features to strengthen reading instruction in classroom teaching. The teachers were interviewed in focus group meetings and their statements were analyzed using qualitative method. Study III and IV consisted of a six week assistive technology intervention (M=21 sessions) aimed to students with severe difficulties in reading from grade 4, grade 8 and from high school (N=146 participants before pretests). The intervention had a randomized control trial design with additional experimental elements, including pretests, posttests and one year follow up measurements, in addition to students, parents and teachers perceptions. The intervention was evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Study I demonstrated that students’ early reading skills predicted long-termacademic performance, meaning that low reading performers received lower grades and academic opportunities than students with higher assessed readingl evels. Study II showed that teachers could use assessment data and recommendationsin order for increasing their awareness of student learning, which influenced how they organized teaching. The impact of using the program for targeting needs in individual students, were, however, rather limited, and required further implementation of the program. Study III and IV showed that assistive technology can be used for assimilating(i.e., to read) and communicating (i.e., to write) text for students with severe difficulties in reading, which affected students’ motivation to engage with text, and their schoolwork in general. However, the extent students’ managed to use the technology varied and pointed to the need of teacher support to be able use the technology efficiently, as well as for further use in classroom education. Approximately 70 % of the students continued to use the technology after theintervention. Additional findings demonstrated the relative advantage of assistive technology in terms of increased reading speed and that students who used assistive technology did not fall behind equally impaired control students onreading measures, as assessed immediately after the intervention and after one year. In summary, this dissertation demonstrated how adjusted teaching, based on assessment data and recommendations, can be used to target individual needs in students, and how the use of assistive technology can be beneficial for students with severe difficulties in reading.

  • 7.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Ulrika B.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Teacher inquiry of using assessments and recommendations in teaching early reading2019In: Studies in Educational Evaluation, ISSN 0191-491X, E-ISSN 1879-2529, Vol. 63, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research point to difficulties for teachers to interpret reading assessment data with regard to instructional decisions. This study explored Swedish primary teachers' use of assessments and recommendations, in order to be able to target individual needs. Eight teachers participated in a reading program and were interviewed in focus-group meetings. The analysis of teacher narratives stemming from assessment use resulted in three themes: Awareness of student learningChanges in the organization of teaching, but not regarding individualized content and Strengthened teacher role, but modest professional growth. The themes indicated that the teachers had become aware of their students’ learning, had employed teaching based on informed decisions, and showed initial professional growth.

    However, the assessment details and the recommendations allowed for more adjustments than was evident in the teachers’ narratives. The results point to the relative difficulty of targeting individual needs in the general classroom education, and to the challenges of changing teaching practices.

  • 8. Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet.
    Fälth, Linda
    Andersson, Ulrika B.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska institutet.
    The potential of a forward-looking assessment and teaching system on students' reading gains2019In: European Dyslexia Association Autumn Seminar, Växjö, Sweden, September 27-29, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    How can teachers optimize reading instruction in Swedish schools? This poster presents findings from two studies investigating A) grade 1-3 teachers’ use of a forward-looking assessment and teaching system (LegiLexi) and B), its effect on student reading gains in Grade 1. The purpose of study A was to support teachers with an assessment system which included teaching recommendations for individual students and to study how that support enabled teachers to individualize instruction. The purpose of study B was to gather evidence that such support is superior in relation to “teaching as usual”.

    Method

    In study A, focus group meetings of eight active LegiLexi teachers were used as to answer the question of the extent teachers managed to individualize instruction in their everyday practice. In study B, we randomly assigned schools to three conditions; full access to LegiLexi (8 schools/217 students), access only to part of LegiLexi (4 schools/86 students) and control (9 schools/208 students), following estimated effects of LegiLexi across three test occasions containing reading measures.   

    Results/conclusions

    In study A, results revealed that teachers were supported by LegiLexi, and were able to individualize instruction primarily by creating dynamic reading groups of students. However, individualizing further proved challenging. In study B, findings revealed that the group with full access to LegiLexi improved their word decoding (d=1.79 vs 1.33 and 1.20) and reading comprehension the most (d=1.75 vs 1.45 and 1.16). Thus, the findings show promising results for Swedish schools of how to improve reading instruction by focusing on students’ individual needs.

  • 9.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jacobson, Christer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Söderberg Juhlander, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Early word decoding ability as a longitudinal predictor of academic performance2016In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 175-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study, using a longitudinal design with a cohort of young readers, investigates if children's early word decoding ability in Second Grade can predict later academic performance. In an effort to estimate the unique effect of early word decoding (GradeTwo) with academic performance (Grade Nine) gender and non-verbal cognitive ability were accounted for in hierarchical regression models. Results show that even after controlling for these factors word decoding successfully predicted marks in subjects as well as attendance in advanced courses and language classes. The authors conclude that children's early ability to decode words could be an important factor for predicting performance in school and, thus, stress the importance for schools to investigate children's early word decoding ability.

  • 10.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Assistive technology applications for students with reading difficulties: special education teacher’s experiences and perceptions2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Reading and writing applications (with text-to-speech, TTS and speech-to-text, STT functions), used as assistive technology (AT) for students with reading difficulties are increasingly used in education, however, research has not sufficiently enough evaluated its potential. The purpose of this study was to explore how assistive reading and writing applications were perceived to function with regard to students’ possibilities to assimilate (i.e., “read”) and communicate (i.e., “write”) text.

    Methods: Following a six-week app intervention, this follow-up survey contained 54 special education teachers’ perceptions of how the use of apps impacted student motivation, learning, and its usability in special education. A total of 59 students with reading difficulties from Grade 4, Grade 8 and from high school, were assessed. Analyses included quantitative and qualitative analyses of teachers’ responses and written material.

    Results: The results showed individual differences in how teachers perceived app usage for text-interaction purposes, including how app usage affected student motivation and autonomy for text-based learning. Eighty-two per cent of the younger and forty-seven per cent of older students continued to use the technology after the intervention, but in various degrees.

    Conclusions: Based on these findings, students with reading difficulties seem to be able to use AT in order to assimilate text (i.e., to read) and to communicate text (i.e., to write), and, thus, AT has the potential to promote participation in regular education. Future research should focus on how to customize assistive technology support in order to better utilize the potential.

  • 11.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Response to intervention (RTI) och assisterande teknik2017In: Dyslexi – aktuellt om läs- och skrivsvårigheter, ISSN 1401-2480, , p. 21-27p. 21-27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svensson, Idor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping University.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Teachers' perceptions of reading apps for reading impaired students following a RCT study2016In: Presented at the 5th All european dyslexia conference, Modena, Italy, 21-24 september, 2016 / [ed] Karin Landerl, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Reading impaired students can read and write with the aid and support of tablets and apps. This study explores how teachers perceive the usefulness of tablets and apps for reading impaired students in Grade 4, 8 and in upper secondary education as well as perceptions of usefulness for pedagogical practice after leading a six-week assistive technology intervention.

    Method: After participating in the training, and after leading a six-week intensive intervention, the teachers were surveyed on their experience and the perceived usefulness of tablets and apps. The survey contained both closed and open questions and the responses were analyzed in terms of the social validity of the technology. Quantitative measures of teacher and student characteristics as well as reading measures were linked to teacher perceptions.

    Results and Conclusion: Results show that the teachers perceived the tablets and the apps as very useful for a majority of the students regarding motivation to read and write as well as facilitating the reading and writing ability. Several teachers also meant that the digital tools may be essential for their students to succeed in school and nearly all were positive of using tablets and apps as part of their pedagogical practice. Additional analyzes, involving the quantitative measures, are discussed at the presentation.

  • 13.
    Nordström, Thomas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Söderberg, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Jacobson, Christer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Word decoding as a predictor of academic success – a longitudinal study2013In: 4th All-European Dyslexia conference, Växjö, september 19-22, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of children’s ability of word decoding in second grade on academic success in ninth grade. It is believed that children with a high level of word decoding in second grade have advantages throughout the educational system compared to children with a low level of word decoding. The aim of the study is to investigate the predictive power of early word decoding on later academic success in comparison with non-verbal cognitive ability. A Swedish cohort of 2165 children in second grade (8 year) was investigated with two tests of word decoding (the Word chains test and OS 400) and a non-verbal cognitive ability test (Raven’s matrices). Academic success was defined as marks in school subjects and educational choices, collected from the children’s’ school leaving certificates (16 year). As expected, preliminary results show that word decoding have a moderate correlation with marks in school subjects and is a much better predictor of success than non-verbal cognitive ability. Additional results will be discussed.

     

  • 14.
    Selart, Marcus
    et al.
    School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Växjö University, Sweden.
    Kuuvas, Bård
    Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Takemura, Kazuhisa
    Waseda University, Japan..
    Effects of Reward on Self-regulation, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 439-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the effects of two types of rewards (performance-contingent versus engagement-contingent) on self-regulation, intrinsic motivation and creativity. Forty-two undergraduate students were randomly assigned to three conditions; i.e. a performance-contingent reward group, an engagement-contingent reward group and a control group. Results provide little support for the negative effects of performance rewards on motivational components. However, they do indicate that participants in the engagement-contingent reward group and the control group achieved higher rated creativity than participants in the performance-contingent reward group. Alternative explanations for this finding are discussed.

    Keywords: Rewards; Self-Regulation; Creativity; Intrinsic Motivation

  • 15.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fälth, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Short and long-term effects of using assistive technology for students with reading and writing disabilities in compulory secondary school2017In: Language, Literacy and Learning Conference, Perth, Australia, March 30 - April 1, 2017, Perth, Australia, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will discuss a study which investigated whether systematic and intensive use of assistive technology (AT) can improve reading skills and enhance the ability to assimilate and communicate text for students with reading disabilities. Participants of this RCT designed study took part in an intervention which involved daily use of reading and writing apps for tablets over six weeks. We will present data from immediately after the intervention and from the one-year follow-up of reading skills and self-esteem, using assistive technology and a teacher perspective.

  • 16.
    Svensson, Idor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindeblad, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafson, Stefan
    Linköping university, Sweden.
    Björn, Marianne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Sand, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Almgren Bäck, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effects of assistive technology for students with reading and writing disabilities2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assistive technology has been used to mitigate reading disabilities for almost three decades, and tablets with text-to-speech and speech-to-text apps have been introduced in recent years to scaffold reading and writing. Few scientifically rigorous studies, however, have investigated the benefits of this technology.

    Purpose: The aim was to explore the effects of assistive technology for students with severe reading disabilities.

    Method: This study included 149 participants. The intervention group received 24 sessions of assistive technology training, and the control group received treatment as usual.

    Results: Both the intervention and control groups improved as much in 1 year as the normed population did. However, gains did not differ between the groups directly after the intervention or at 1 year of follow-up.

    Conclusions: The use of assistive technology seems to have transfer effects on reading ability and to be supportive, especially for students with the most severe difficulties. In addition, it increases motivation for overall schoolwork. Our experience also highlights the obstacles involved in measuring the ability to assimilate and communicate text.

  • 17.
    Söderberg Juhlander, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Jacobson, Christer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Nordström, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Twenty years of reading development in Kronoberg: Consequenses of poor decoding ability in grade 2, concerning later decoding development and academic success2012In: Nineteenth Annual Meeting, Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, 11-14 July 2012, Montreal, Canada / [ed] Chaterine McBride, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This poster addresses findings from a Swedish longitudinal reading project, Reading Development in Kronoberg, during a period of 20 years (1989 until 2010). The purpose is to answer questions about consequences of poor decoding ability in grade two concerning decoding development and ability as adult as well as academic success. Method: On the basis of two word decoding tests administered in a cohort of 2165 children in grade 2 (age 8-9) together with teachers' estimates of poor readers, a total of 103 children with reading disabilities (RD) were selected. A control group of 90 children with normal reading capacity were matched on gender, school class and non-verbal cognitive ability. The RD children and the controls were retested with different reading and cognitive tests in grade 5, 9, 12 and 30 RD plus 28 controls, at the age of 29, together with information about their marks and academic careers. Results: The RD group was significantly poorer at all reading related measures at all test points. Especially, phonological measures and spelling were far behind as well as academic success. The decoding gap between RD and controls increased, in particular after the end of formal schooling. Except a few subjects, they followed a deficit model. Conclusions: It seems like as long as RD takes part of the education system they continues to develop their decoding ability, but than the decoding level away. It also seems like decoding ability in early grades are more important for later academic success than cognitive non-verbal ability.

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