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  • 1.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    A ‘Culture of Everyone Doing It’ and ‘Playing Games’: Discourses of Pleasure in Boys’ Physical Education2016In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport and Physical Education, ISSN 1837-7122, E-ISSN 1837-7130, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 55-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gard (2008), Booth (2009) and Pringle (2010) argue that if critical PE scholars want to change the social influence associated with dominated discourses of gender, which have previously been subject to sustained critique, there is a need to examine the discourses of PE pleasure. By drawing on visual ethnographic data from an all-boys’ secondary school this paper employs Foucault’s (1985) discourse/power/pleasure combination to make meanings and understand the boys as gendered subjects. The findings from this study demonstrate how some boys derived pleasures from merely participating in PE whereas others seemed to relate their pleasures to instrumental/developmental goals based on discourses of fitness, health and sport. It is argued that PE teachers need to be aware that they not only enable students’ experiences of pleasures, but that they can also be influential in (re)producing gendered understandings about the pleasures (and displeasures) of learning in, through and about movement in PE.

  • 2.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Boys, Bodies, and Physical Education: Problematizing Identity, Schooling, and Power Relations through a Pleasure Lens2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using visual ethnography, this book explores the many forms of pleasures that boys derive in and through the spaces and their bodies in physical education. Employing the works of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler, Gerdin examines how pleasure is connected to identity, schooling, and power relations, and demonstrates how discourses of sport, fitness, health and masculinity work together to produce a variety of pleasurable experiences. At the same time, the book provides a critique of such pleasurable experiences within physical education by illustrating how these pleasures can still, for some boys, quickly turn into displeasures and can be associated with exclusion, humiliation, bullying and homophobia.

    Boys, Bodies, and Physical Education argues that pleasure can both be seen as an educational and productive practice in physical education but also a constraint that both engenders and privileges some boys over others as well as (re)producing narrow and limited conceptions of masculinity and pleasures for all boys. This book works to problematize these pleasures and their articulations with gender, bodies, and spaces.

  • 3.
    Gerdin, Göran
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Boys’ Visual Representations and Interpretations of Physical Education2013In: 40th Anniversary of Studies in Symbolic Interaction / [ed] Norman K Denzin, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013, p. 203-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the methodological underpinnings of a doctoral study that examined boys’ performances of gender in physical education (PE) at a single-sex secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Initial findings are also presented; however, they only serve to demonstrate the potential of such an approach and not as an exhaustive report of findings. Using a participatory visual research approach involving video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data were explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. The boys’ visual representations and interpretations highlight how their performances of gender are embedded in the design and structure of the physical spaces and places associated with PE. Through a Foucauldian (poststructural) lens the boys’ responses also illuminate how the gendered self is performed in multiple, contradictory and fluid ways involving particular technologies of the self. Visual research methods that focus on young people’s visual representations and interpretations might help identify (gendered) identity issues that are seen as important to the students themselves. It creates a space for young people to critically think about, reflect, articulate, and reason their lived experiences, their relationships with their peers and more importantly themselves. The use of such research approaches has the potential of realizing one of the key aims of symbolic interactionism by opening up new analytical possibilities for understanding young people’s lived experiences in both formal and informal pedagogical contexts.

  • 4.
    Gerdin, Göran
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Boys will be boys? Gendered bodies, spaces and dis/pleasures in Physical Education2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I argue that in order to change the social influence of dominant discourses of gender in PE, which have previously been subject to sustained critique, there is a need to examine the discourses that constitute pleasure within PE. Such an examination is justified due to the broad social significance of pleasure but specific absence of empirical investigations within PE. My prime research questions, accordingly, asked: (i) How do boys’ performances of gender in PE articulate with dis/pleasures? (ii) How are spaces and bodies implicated in these performances? These questions were answered via ethnographic data, generated through a participatory visual research approach (Pink, 2007), involving observations, video recordings, focus groups and individuals interviews, with 60 Year 10 (ages 14-15) boys participating in PE at a single-sex boys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. In order to interpret the visual and verbal data I utilised the works of Michel Foucault and Judith Butler to explore how pleasures work as the productive effect of power (Foucault, 1985). The findings suggest that pleasures are produced in PE when boys perform gender in a way that typically conforms to discourses related to fitness, health, sport and masculinity. Beginning with a spatial analysis, I highlight how the boys derive pleasures from the power articulated in and through the performative spaces (Gregson & Rose, 2000) of PE. This exploration is extended further to a study of the discourses of PE that have co-produced these pleasures. Finally, the thesis demonstrates the materialisation (Butler, 1993) of pleasurable bodies within the discursive practices of boy’s PE. This thesis illustrates how boys’ performances of gender in PE can, correspondingly, be understood as a co-construction of pleasures, spaces and bodies, where each depends on the other so, that they are constituted reciprocally. I argue that this reciprocal constitution can be problematic as the gendered pleasures can ‘lock’ PE into ‘traditional’ forms that legitimate and produce inequitable sets of gendered power relations. That is, the discourses and relations of power in boys’ PE that produce certain pleasures can, at times, also induce dis/pleasures (e.g. as associated with exclusion, humiliation, bullying and homophobia). In sum, this thesis draws attention to pleasures as an educational, productive practice in boys’ PE while at the same time offering a critique of such pleasurable moments within this context. PE teachers need to be aware that they are not only enabling students’ experiences of pleasures, but they are also influential in (re)producing gendered understandings about the dis/pleasures of learning in, through and about movement in PE.

  • 5.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Den diskursivt konstruerade rörelseglädjen i idrott och hälsa2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gerdin, Göran
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Fit, healthy and sporty: the disciplining of boys’ bodies in physical education2012In: Australian Association for Research in Education, 2-6 December, 2012, Sydney, Australia, Australian Association for Research in Education , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will report on findings from a study that examined boys’ performances of gender in school Physical Education (PE). Using a participatory visual research approach, involving video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data were explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. In order to interpret the data I draw on Foucault’s work on power and his disciplinary technologies in which he highlights the body as a site of disciplinary, normalising practices. The boys’ visual representations and interpretations illuminate how this disciplinary mechanism is responsible for simultaneously constructing meanings around the normal versus the abnormal masculine body with significant impact on boys’ gendered and bodily experiences in PE. The findings in particular highlight how the disciplinary techniques used in this PE setting are aimed at producing docile and functional boys’ bodies which above all are fit, healthy and sporty masculine bodies. In this sense, PE can be seen as a disciplinary machinery which influences how boys inhabit and experience their bodies in different ways which may have long term consequences for how boys perceive their bodies and see themselves as physically educated beings.

  • 7. Gerdin, Göran
    ‘It’s a bit of a fitness test really’: Boys’ embodied performances of gender in physical education2014In: Education and the Body / [ed] Peter O’Connor, Katie Fitzpatrick, Auckland: Edify Ltd , 2014, p. 39-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores boys’ embodied performances of gender in school Physical Education (PE). Using a participatory visual research approach, involving video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data are explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. In order to interpret the data I draw on Foucault’s work on power and disciplinary technologies in which he highlights the body as a site of disciplinary, normalising practices. The boys’ visual representations and interpretations illuminate how this disciplinary mechanism is responsible for (re)producing meanings around the normal versus the abnormal masculine body with significant impact on boys’ gendered and bodily experiences in PE. The findings in particular highlight how the disciplinary techniques used in this PE setting are aimed at producing suitably docile and gendered bodies which above all are fit, healthy and sporty masculine bodies. In this sense, PE can be seen as a disciplinary machinery which influences how boys inhabit and experience their bodies in different ways which may have long term consequences for how boys perceive their bodies and see themselves as embodied physically educated beings.

  • 8.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    ‘It's not like you are less of a man just because you don't play rugby': boys' problematisation of gender during secondary school physical education lessons in New Zealand2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 890-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite clear messages from current physical education (PE) curricula about the importance of adopting socially critical perspectives, dominant discourses of gender relating to physical activity, bodies and health are being reproduced within this school subject. By drawing on interview data from a larger ethnographic account of boys’ PE, this paper aims to contribute to our understanding of boys’ experiences of gendered discourses in PE, particularly by acknowledging boys not only as docile or disciplined bodies but also as active subjects in negotiating power relations. In the analysis of the data, particular emphasis is placed on whether the boys recognise the influence of gendered discourses and power relations in PE, how they act upon this knowledge and how they understand themselves as gendered subjects through these particular discourses/power relations. Using Foucault’s (1985. The use of pleasure: The history of sexuality, vol. 2. London: Penguin Books) framework related to the ‘modes of subjectivation’, this paper explores boys’ problematisation of dominant discourses of gender and power relations in PE. In summary, these boys perform gendered selves within the context of PE, via negotiation of gendered discourses and power relations that contribute to an alternative discourse of PE which creates spaces and opportunities for the production of more ethical and diverse masculinities.

  • 9.
    Gerdin, Göran
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    ‘Sporting' and ‘masculinising' Spaces: The performative and pleasurable spaces of boys' physical education2014In: Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE),1-5 December, 2014, Brisbane, Australia, Australian Association for Research in Education , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how space and pleasure are discursively interlinked in boys’ performances of gender in physical education (PE). Although previous research has implicated space in the production of gendered identities and unequal power relations, there exists a gap in current literature focusing on how space contributes to pleasure in PE. The paper draws on ethnographic data, generated through a participatory visual research approach (Pink, 2007), involving observations, video recordings, focus groups and individuals interviews, with 60 Year 10 (ages 14-15) boys participating in PE at a single-sex boys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. In order to interpret the data I use Gregson and Rose’s (2000) concept of ‘performative space’, an extension of Butler’s notion of performativity, to illustrate how the pre-existing spaces of PE come to matter or become meaningful through the boys’ performances with/in those spaces. Drawing on Foucauldian (1985) understandings of power, I argue that the boys derive pleasures as the productive effect of the power articulated in and through the spaces of PE. I demonstrate how the boys, through their performances of gender, as shaped by discourses and relations of power related to sport and masculinity, capitalise on the spaces of PE to highlight not only these as disciplinary but also productive and pleasurable spaces. This paper accordingly contributes to understandings of the complex nature of how PE is constituted and constitutive of gendered performances and space.

  • 10.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The disciplinary and pleasurable spaces of boys’ PE – The art of distributions2016In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 315-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In taking heed of the so-called ‘spatial turn’ in social theory this paper explores how the spatialintersects with boys’ performances of gender and (dis)pleasures in school physical education (PE).In particular, the paper aims to contribute to our understanding of how the organisation andimplementation of physical and social spaces in PE can be seen as enabling or restricting boys’participation and enjoyment in this subject. The research setting was a multicultural single-sexboys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand which is widely known for its strong focuson sports and especially rugby. The data was generated through a participatory visual researchapproach involving video recordings, focus groups and individual interviews. In order to interpretthe data I draw on Foucault’s theorising of the disciplinary use of space, what he calls ‘the art ofdistributions’, to examine the co-construction of gender, space and (dis)pleasures within boys’ PE. Idemonstrate how through their performances of gender, as shaped by discourses and relations ofpower associated with sport and masculinity, the boys capitalise on the spaces of PE to highlightthem as productive and pleasurable spaces.

  • 11.
    Gerdin, Göran
    The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    The Gendered Spaces and Places of Physical Education2012In: American Educational Research Association, 13-17 April, 2012, Vancouver, Canada, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The ‘Old Gym’ and the ‘Boys’ Changing Rooms’ – The Performative and Pleasurable Spaces of Boys’ Physical Education2017In: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 25, no 4 Supplement S, p. 36S-53SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how space and pleasure are discursively interlinked in boys’performances of gender in school physical education (PE). Although previousresearch has implicated spaces in the production of gendered identities and unequalpower relations, there exists a gap in the current literature focusing on how spacealso contributes to pleasure in PE. This article draws on an ethnographic accountof boys’ PE, and Gregson and Rose’s (2000) concept of ‘performative space’, anextension of Butler’s (1990) notion of performativity, to illustrate how the preexistingspaces of PE come to matter or become meaningful through the boys’performances with/in those spaces. I argue that the boys derive pleasures as theproductive effect of the power (Foucault, 1985) articulated in and through thespaces of PE. This article accordingly contributes to understandings of the complexnature of how PE is constituted and constitutive of gendered performances, spacesand pleasures.

  • 13.
    Gerdin, Göran
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    ‘Time with your mates’ the pleasures (and displeasures) of boys’ Physical Education2014In: International Association for Physical Education in Higher Education (AIESEP), 10-13 February, 2014, Auckland, New Zealand, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although, Foucault’s concept of power has been aptly utilized in post-structural qualitative PE research in recent years (e.g. Gore, 1998; Kirk, 1997; Webb & Macdonald, 2007; Webb, McCaughtry, & MacDonald, 2004; Wright, 1997, 2000), power as producing pleasure is noticeably absent in this body of research. Indeed, Gard (2008), Booth (2009) and Pringle (2010) argue that if critical PE scholars want to change the social influence associated with dominated discourses of masculinity, there is a need to examine the discourses of PE pleasure. This paper explores how boys’ performances of gender in PE articulate with pleasure. By drawing on ethnographic data from an all-boys’ high school I use Foucault’s (1985) discourse/power/pleasure combination to make meanings and understand the boys as masculine subjects. The findings from this study demonstrate how some boys find intrinsic pleasures (e.g. ‘being part of a team’ and spending ‘time with your mates’) and/or ‘emotional’ pleasures (e.g. ‘PE is fun’ and ‘I love PE) from being involved in these activities whereas others seem to be relating their pleasures to instrumental/developmental goals based on discourses of fitness, health and sport (e.g. ‘getting fit’, ‘being healthy’ and ‘better at sport’). Other pleasures seem to stem from constructing themselves in accordance to discursively constructed norms of boys, masculinity and sport. In sum, this paper draws attention to pleasure as an educational, productive practice in boys PE while at the same time offering a critique of such pleasurable moments within this context. That is, PE teachers need to be aware that they are not only enabling boys’ (and girls’) gendered experiences of pleasure through, for instance, play, games and sport, but they are also influential in shaping their understandings about the gendered pleasures (and displeasures) of these.

  • 14.
    Gerdin, Göran
    The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Visual methodologies and performances of gender in physical education2012In: Changing worlds: Critical voices and new knowledge in education / [ed] Maxine Stephenson, Iris Duhn, Vicki Carpenter, Airini, Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson , 2012, p. 100-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gerdin, Göran
    The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Visual methodologies and masculine performances in physical education2010In: Contemporary Ethnography Across the Disciplines (CEAD),17-19 November 2010, University of Waikato, New Zealand, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will report on initial findings from a doctoral study that uses video recordings to investigate boys' embodied performances of masculinities in school physical education. Many studies have investigated girls' alienation and lack of participation in physical education (e.g. Hastie, 1998; Ennis, 1999; Azzarito, Solmon & Harrison, 2006). However, few studies have focused on boys' experiences of physical education. Moreover, as pointed out by Lundvall (2004), studies investigating gendered experiences of physical education, are typically comparative and rarely look at differences within genders. Additionally, Azzarito (2010) has called for the inclusion of research methods, specifically visual methodologies, which "enable young people to "speak" meaningfully about their experiences and ways of knowing about the body in physical activity contexts" (p. 155). My doctoral research, designed in relation to this literature, uses video recordings of boys participating in physical education, in both focus group and individual interviews, to explore the participants' interpretations of the multiple, contradictory and competing nature of masculinity performances. The video data is, thus, used to present the boys' perspectives and allows them to provide an interpretation of how they experienced particular situations. I interpret the data via Foucauldian poststructuralism to highlight the multiple and competing discourses of masculinities that boys have to negotiate in and through school physical education.

  • 16.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Hedberg, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Hageskog, Carl-Axel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Relative Age Effect in Swedish Male and Female Tennis Players Born in 1998–20012018In: Sports, ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-12, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative age effect (RAE) has been extensively debated and researched in both popularmedia and academic discourse. This study examined RAE in Swedish tennis players born in1998–2001. The study was conducted in 2015–2016 and includes all ranked Swedish tennis players(n = 1835) registered in the Swedish Tennis Association database from the year 2014. The resultsshow that when the birth dates of the corresponding Swedish population and all the ranked playersare compared, they show a moderate RAE; however, the higher up they are in the ranking system,the greater the RAE becomes. Top 10 players display an average of 64.1% being born in the firsthalf of the year. Some gender differences were also found, with a greater proportion of bothhigher and lower ranked females being born in the first half of the year. In our discussion ofthe findings we raise several issues that need to be addressed to provide more equal opportunitiesfor all junior players regardless of birth date. Resolving ongoing problems associated with RAEin competitive sports such as tennis is important both in term of prolonged participation in thesport and increased performance. Suggestions made in this article include recognising RAE whendesigning the format of competitions/tournaments, not using official rankings until the juniorsget older, addressing RAE in a “gender sensitive” way, and conducting further in-depth studiesin which RAE is understood/examined as being associated with environmental factors. Althoughthese findings show the RAE effect in Swedish tennis players, thus pointing at the need for furtherconsideration in terms of ranking and selection procedures to ensure equal opportunities for playerdevelopment, the study also concludes by reasserting an emphasis on a holistic approach to playerdevelopment in which coaches focus on the developmentally appropriate needs and potential of eachindividual player regardless of their biological age.

  • 17.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    GIH The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    (Dis)pleasurable boys' bodies materialising in PE2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pleasure is often a key feature of school physical education (PE) and, indeed, a lot of students find pleasure in and through PE while others do not. However, pleasure is rarely considered to be of educational value in the subject. Further, since pleasure is linked to power it is in fact not entirely straightforward to legitimise the educational value of PE in relation to pleasure. In this paper, we will explore how a group of boys derive pleasures from their involvement in PE, but also how these power-induced pleasures are integral to gender normalisation processes.

    The paper draws on ethnographic data from a single-sex, boys’ secondary school in New Zealand involving 60 Year 10 (age 14-15) students. Using a visual ethnographic approach (Pink, 2007) consisting of observations and video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data were explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. The data was analysed using (a visually oriented) discourse analysis (Foucault, 1980; Rose, 2007).

    By elucidating the discursive practices of PE in this setting and employing Butler’s (1993) concept of ‘materialisation’, we argue that boy’s bodies materialise as productive and pleasurable or displeasurable bodies through submitting/subjecting to certain bodily regimes, developing embodied mastery when it comes to certain sports, and displaying bodies in particular ways. The analysis indicates that the discursive practices of PE contribute to boys’ bodies materialising as pleasurable or dis-pleasurable and the (re)production of gender in the subject as shaped by discourse and the productive effect of power.

    We conclude that the focus on certain discursively constructed bodily practices at the same time continues to restrict the production of a diversity of bodily movement pleasures. Hence, traditional gender patterns are reproduced through a selection of particular sports/physical activities that all the students are expected to participate in. We propose that the ongoing constitution of privileged forms of masculinity, masculine bodies and masculine pleasures as related to fitness, health and sport and (certain) boys’ subsequent exercise of power in PE needs further critical examination.

  • 18.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH.
    The productive effect of power: (dis)pleasurable bodies materialising in and through the discursive practices of boys’ physical education2018In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 66-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pleasure is often a key feature of school physical education (PE) and, indeed, a lot of students find pleasure in and through PE while others do not. However, pleasure is rarely considered to be of educational value in the subject (Pringle, 2010). Further, since pleasure is linked to power (Foucault, 1980; Gerdin & Pringle, 2015) it is in fact not entirely straightforward to legitimise the educational value of PE in relation to pleasure.

    Purpose: In this paper, we explore how a group of boys derive pleasures from their involvement in PE, but also how these power-induced pleasures are integral to gender normalisation processes. The findings presented are particularly discussed in terms of inclusive/exclusive pedagogical practices related to gender, bodies and pleasures.

    Research setting and participants: The research setting was a single-sex, boys’ secondary school in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants in this study were 60 Year 10 (age 14-15) students from two PE classes.

    Data collection and analysis: Using a visual ethnographic approach (Pink, 2007) involving observations and video recordings of boys participating in PE, the boys’ representations and interpretations of the visual data were explored during both focus groups and individual interviews. The data was analysed using (a visually oriented) discourse analysis (Foucault, 1998; Rose, 2007).

    Findings: By elucidating the discursive practices of PE in this setting and employing Butler’s (1993) concept of ‘materialisation’, we suggest that boy’s bodies materialise as productive and pleasurable or displeasurable bodies through submitting/subjecting to certain bodily regimes, developing embodied mastery when it comes to certain sports, and displaying bodies in particular ways. The analysis indicate that the discursive practices of PE contribute to boys’ bodies materialising as pleasurable or dis-pleasurable and the (re)production of gender in the subject as shaped by discourse and the productive effect of power.

    Discussion and conclusions: In line with Gard (2008) we conclude that the focus on certain discursively constructed bodily practices at the same time continues to restrict the production of a diversity of bodily movement pleasures. Hence, traditional gender patterns are reproduced through a selection of particular sports/physical activities that all the students are expected to participate in. We propose that the ongoing constitution of privileged forms of masculinity, masculine bodies and masculine pleasures as related to fitness, health and sport and (certain) boys’ subsequent exercise of power in PE needs further critical examination.

  • 19.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ovens, Alan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Spatializing health work in schools - exploring the complex interconnection of space, health, physical education and masculinity2016In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 2, p. 1-12, article id 30158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spaces of schooling are not mere settings or backdrops where students’ learning take place, but are implicated in the production of knowledge and identities/subjectivities - spaces embody specific values, beliefs and traditions. In this paper we draw on visual ethnographic data from an all-boys school in New Zealand to examine how the spaces of schooling and PE perform health work in relation to the all round development of healthy young masculinities. By drawing on a complexivist philosophy we draw attention to how school policies, spaces, bodies, students, teachers all intersect to provide the boys with a socio-spatial context in which knowledge and learning about healthy young masculinities is constructed. We demonstrate how stereotypical notions of what boys should be doing and what they like doing is, for instance, materialised by the design and provision of schooling and PE as sporting spaces, based on a form of ‘healthism’, which privileges individualistic notions of health and the assumption that sport = fitness = health. We conclude that although the design and provision of schooling and PE spaces based on healthism is an important source of pleasures for young men, it also reinforces narrowly defined and even problematic forms of healthy young masculinities.

  • 20.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Philpot, Rod Allan
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Mordal Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Westlie, Knut
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Legge, Maureen
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Researching social justice and health (in)equality across different school health and physical education contexts in Sweden, Norway and New Zealand2018In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way school Health and Physical Education (HPE) is conceptualized and taught will impact on its ability to provide equitable outcomes across gender, sexuality, ethnicity, religion and social class. A focus on social justice in HPE is pertinent in times when these ideals are currently under threat from neoliberal globalization. This paper draws on data from the initial year of an international collaboration project called ‘Education for Equitable Health Outcomes – The Promise of School Health and Physical Education’ involving HPE and Physical Education Teacher Education researchers from Sweden, Norway and New Zealand. The data in this paper record the researchers’ presentations and discussions about issues of social justice and health as informed by school visits and interviews with HPE teachers in the three different countries. The analysis of the data is focused on what is addressed in the name of social justice in each of the three countries and how cross-cultural researchers of social justice in HPE interpret different contexts. In order to analyse the data, we draw on Michael Uljens’s concepts of non-affirmative and non-hierarchical education. The findings suggest that researching social justice and health (in)equality across different countries offers both opportunities and challenges when it comes to understanding the enactment of social justice in school and HPE practices. We conclude by drawing on Uljens to assert that the quest for social justice in HPE should focus on further problematizing affirmative and hierarchical educational practices since social justice teaching strategies are enabled and constrained by the contexts in which they are practised.

  • 21.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Philpot, Rod
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    It is only an intervention, but it can sow very fertile seeds: graduate physical education teachers' interpretations of critical pedagogy2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, no 3, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role that school health and physical education (HPE) plays in the making of physically active and healthy citizens continues to be rearticulated within the field of HPE practice. In Australasia, for example, this is evident in HPE curricula changes that now span almost two decades with ongoing advocacy for greater recognition of socially-critical perspectives of physical activity and health. This paper reports on one part of a larger collaborative project that focussed on how HPE teachers understand and enact socially-critical perspectives in their practice. The paper draws on interview data obtained from 20 secondary school HPE teachers, all of whom graduated from the same physical education teacher education (PETE) programme in New Zealand, a programme that espouses a socially-critical orientation. The teaching experience of the study participants ranged from 1 to 22 years of service. The preliminary analysis involved deduction of common themes in relation to the research questions and then, drawing on the theoretical framework of Bourdieu (1990), these themes were analysed in more detail to gain insight into how and why the graduate teachers’ expressed their particular understanding of HPE and critical pedagogy. The findings suggested that this PETE programme did have some impact on the participant teachers’ perceptions of physical activity and health, and the role of socially-critical thinking. However, there was also evidence to suggest that many of them did not have a clear understanding of the transformative agenda of critical pedagogy. We conclude by suggesting that although this PETE programme did plant ‘seeds’ that had an impact on the graduate teachers’ awareness and thinking about socially-critical issues in relation to physical activity and health, it did not necessarily turn them into critical pedagogues.

  • 22.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Pringle, Richard
    The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    The politics of pleasure: An ethnographic examination exploring the dominance of the multi-activity sport-based physical education model2015In: ECER 2015, Education and Transtition. Contributions from Educational Research. Network: 18. Research in Sports Pedagogy, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Pringle, Richard
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    The politics of pleasure: an ethnographic examination exploring the dominance of the multi-activity sport-based physical education model2017In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 194-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kirk (2010) warns that physical education (PE) exists in a precarious situation as the dominance of the multi-activity sport-techniques model, and its associated problems, threatens the long-term educational survival of PE. Yet he also notes that although the model is problematic it is highly resistant to change. In this paper, we draw on the results of a year-long visual ethnography at an all boys-secondary school in Aotearoa New Zealand to examine the workings of power that legitimate this model of PE. Our findings illustrate that the school conflates PE and sport, to position PE as an appropriate masculine endeavour and valued source of enjoyment, as it articulates with good health, social development and competitiveness. We argue that student experiences of pleasure within PE – as co-constitutive with discourses of fitness, health, sport and masculinity – (re)produce the multi-activity sport-based form of PE as educationally appropriate and socio-culturally relevant, thus making the model somewhat resistant to change. We stress that our study should not be read as a vindication of this PE model.

  • 24.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Pringle, Richard
    Monash University, Australia.
    Crocket, Hamish
    University of Waikato, New Zealand.
    Coaching and ethical self-creation: problematizing the “efficient tennis machine”2018In: Sport Coaching Review, ISSN 2164-0629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we draw from Foucault, particularly his writings on the technologies of self, to problematize and reimagine understandings of what it means to coach effectively andethically. In recognising the difficulty of operationalising Foucauldian ideas, we provide a narrative-of-self to reveal how an elite tennis coach, Göran Gerdin, adopted Foucauldian ideas in a process of ethical self-creation. The narrative reveals how Göran experienced the tragedy of youth player suicide and how he critically reflected on his coaching role in relation to this tragedy. Through specifically problematizing the insidious influence of technologies of dominance on athletic subjectivity, Göran reveals how he drew from Foucault to develop alternative coach practices and a related telos. We conclude by reflecting on pragmatic issues associated with coaching with Foucault.

  • 25.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Graduate physical education teachers’ enactment of critical pedagogy2014In: Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE), 1-5 December, 2014, Brisbane, Australia, Australian Association for Research in Education , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this third part of the symposium we aim to present the findings of a research project that examined PE teachers' perspectives about the nature of HPE and how critical pedagogy (CP) is enacted through their pedagogies in secondary school contexts, if at all. While previous literature has addressed the importance of critical perspectives in physical education we specifically sought to address the level of understanding and attitudes of teachers towards CP and their interpretation of how they enacted CP in their PE practice. Our findings showed that for these participant teachers, there are multiple influences that impact on how they come to view their role as teachers of HPE and the nature of HPE. CP is often reflected implicitly rather than explicitly in their practice. Their initial PETE experience is just one of a number of influences that have impacted on them as teachers of HPE.

  • 26.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Smith, Wayne
    The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Philpot, Rod
    The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Physical Education Teacher Education – ’It’s only an intervention, but it can sow very fertile seeds’2015In: ECER 2015, Education and Transtition. Contributions from Educational Research. Network: 18. Research in Sports Pedagogy, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Challenging PETE. Steering mechanisms and teaching logics preserving old traditions2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary physical education in Sweden is characterized by a strong tradition of sport and ball games which school curriculumreforms in the last few decades seem to have had no significant impact on. Despite new curricula in Sweden, HPE teachers’ practicesremain unchanged. HPE teachers still have problems catering to the needs of all their pupils (Annerstedt & Larsson, 2010; Ekberg, 2016;Redelius et al. 2009). Success in PE in the form of high grades is related to active participation in sport clubs (Jakobsson et al., 2012).One of the government’s instruments for regulating teaching in PE in schools in Sweden is teacher education. The latest reforms ofSwedish teacher education including physical education teacher education (PETE) place higher scientific/academic demands on teachereducation programmes. One of the goals is to develop PETE students’ ability to adopt socially critical approaches and the studentsshould, for instance, be provided opportunities to identify, analyse and question the different beliefs, norms and values that pervade PEand that may act to exclude some pupils (SOU, 2008). However, research indicates that despite these reforms, Swedish PETE does notchallenge students’ conceptions about how the subject should be taught to any great extent (Schenker, 2016). The PETE students’ stillwant to pursue their passion for sport through teaching practices designed to lead to their pupils (even the uninterested ones) developingthe same sport interests (Larsson, 2009). Larsson et al. (2016) found that although socially critical perspectives exists in PETE today,reforming the PETE curriculum per se does not necessarily challenge the doxa of PETE. As a matter of fact, the use of socially criticalperspectives in PETE may (in the name of the doxa) not challenge how power and social superiority or inferiority appear in the subject.Doxa might not be set in stone, but there seems to be a need to thoroughly reconstruct PETE if future PE teachers are going to developsocially critical approaches that truly challenge the prevailing assumptions about what competencies a PE teacher should have. In thispaper the key members from Sweden involved in the EDUHEALTH project will share some of their research findings to date. We willdiscuss mechanisms that may contribute to the difficulty of challenging taken for granted beliefs within Swedish PETE and how and whyteachers’ presumptions and teaching logics, like the one of competitive sport, continue to exclude some children and youth.

  • 28.
    Linnér, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Några nedslag på AARE-NZARE 20142015In: Idrottsforskaren, no 1, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Mooney, Amanda
    et al.
    Deakin Univ, Australia.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Challenging gendered inequalities in boys’ physical education through video-stimulated reflections2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 761-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite research over the past three decades that has examined links between masculinity, sport and Physical Education (PE), exclusionary practices and cultures that privilege some boys and masculinities at the expense of marginalised others are still commonly reported. With an historical legacy as a masculinity-making device, attempts to disrupt hegemonic and heteronormative cultures and pedagogies in PE that perpetuate gendered inequalities have had a modest influence, at best. This paper examines the use of visual methodologies to better understand the role of boys’ PE and sport in the construction of gender and sexuality. We argue that visual methodologies can capture social practices and spaces in ways that words alone cannot, hence enabling more nuanced interrogations and insights into gendered experiences in PE to be made. Data draws from video-stimulated reflections (VSR) of PE classes in two all-boys’ secondary schools in Australia and New Zealand. The Australian data examines VSR interviews with a female teacher involved in a Year 8 (aged 13-14 years) PE class. The New Zealand data is drawn from VSR interviews conducted during a year-long (visual) ethnography of two Year 10 (aged 14-15 years) PE classes with a male teacher. Drawing on Foucault (1980, Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 (C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham & K. Soper, Trans.) New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1988, Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 (C. Gordon, L. Marshall, J. Mepham & K. Soper, Trans.) New York, NY: Pantheon Books), we consider how these methodologies work to expose and obscure practices and pedagogies that contribute to gendered experiences for students and teachers that both privilege and marginalise. Using the tools of discourse, power and technologies of the self, our findings illustrate how VSR can serve as a collaborative (re)production of the visual material through moments of embodied dissonance. We argue that this ‘uncomfortableness’ can facilitate productive learnings about gendered/sexualised bodies and power in PE through critical reflection and ethical self-work. This knowledge, we believe, is key in disrupting and transforming taken-for-granted practices that continue to perpetuate inequitable gendered experiences in PE.

  • 30.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Standal, Øyvind
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Mordal Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Westlie, Knut
    Inland Norway University of applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Philpot, Rod
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Legge, Maureen
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    EDUHEALTH - Educating for equitable health outcomes in physical education.: Sweden, Norway and New Zealand in a Horizon 2020 project. (Symposium)2017In: Presented at ECER 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Smith, Wayne
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Mordal-Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    EDUHEALTH - Educating for equitable health outcomes in physical education2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School HPE makes a unique contribution to the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of young people (Morgan & Burke,2008). The world summit on HPE in 1999 (Doll-Tepper & Scoretz, 2001) stated that this school subject provides the most effective meansof providing all young people, regardless of their ability, disability, sex, age, culture, race, ethnicity, religion, or social background, with theskills, attitudes, knowledge, and understanding for lifelong health and well-being. One point of departure in this EDUHEALTH project isthat the attainment of health equity goals can be accelerated when social justice and socially-critical perspectives underpin HPE teachingpractices to assist ‘students to examine and challenge the status quo, the dominant constructions of reality and the power relations thatproduce inequities, in ways that can lead to advocacy and community action’ (Wright, 2004, p. 7). New Zealand, Sweden and Norway areunique in that contemporary social justice issues foreground each countries’ HPE curricula – as introduced in the late 1990s. Calls fortertiary teacher education institutions to ensure that their graduating HPE teachers have an understanding of how socially-critical HPEmay be enacted, have led to a growing, if scattered, research base that articulates relevant practices in HPE teacher education. Yet thereis a paucity of research that documents how HPE teachers are imparting socially-critical perspectives in their schools: this paper willdiscuss how the EDUHEALTH project focuses on this critical research gap. EDUHEALTH will study HPE teachers’ practices in schoolsusing a Critical Incident Technique (CIT) inspired methodology (Tripp, 2012) to identify HPE teaching practices that clearly enact sociallycriticalperspective of physical activity and health. Data will be collected through multiple observations and interviews of HPE teachers inall three countries. This data will be analysed through a multi-phase process of inductive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2013) withfindings validated through triangulation of multiple observer reports and by a shared analysis of data by all 15 researchers affiliated withEDUHEALTH. This paper will report on some initial findings generated as part of the pilot studies. Ultimately, the findings of thiscollaborative research project will inform the creation of teaching strategies designed to assist HPE teachers in their own contexts todevelop more inclusive teaching practices, thus, contributing to more active, healthier citizens.

1 - 31 of 31
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