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  • 1.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    A case of what?: Methodological lessons from a reanalysis of conflicts within Swedish Juvenile Care2013In: Journal of Comparative Social Work, ISSN 0809-9936, E-ISSN 0809-9936, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 222-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Collaboration” is generally portrayed as being beneficial to authorities, even if previous collaborative research shows that conflicts are common between authorities who are supposed to cooperate. What takes place when different actors in the collaboration meet in practice? And what is the best way to analyse this? In qualitative studies, it is often problematic to go from an exhaustive analysis of individual empirical instances to an overall picture of the context or phenomenon in which all instances taken together can be viewed as a case. Years of close engagement with the data may interfere with the analyst’s capacities and opportunities to contextualize a study more broadly and theoretically, and detailed knowledge about a range of situations in the field may make novel contextualizations difficult. This article discusses how to overcome such obstacles, using examples from a study about a “collaboration” project in Swedish youth care.

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  • 2.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Book Review: Contract Workers, Risk, and the War in Iraq: Sierra Leonean Labor Migrants at U.S. Military Bases. By Kevin J. A. Thomas. Montreal: McGill- Queen’s University Press, 2017. Pp. viii­­­­­+243. $110.00 (cloth); $34.95 (paper)2019In: American Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0002-9602, E-ISSN 1537-5390, Vol. 125, no 1, p. 314-316Article, book review (Other academic)
    The full text will be freely available from 2020-06-27 08:00
  • 3.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Coherent Triads and Collaboration Identities in Swedish Youth Care2015In: International Conference on Innovation and Research in Arts and Humanities, Institute of Mobin Cultural Ambassadors, Istanbul, Turkey (20150827), 2015, p. 1-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous collaboration research shows that problems and conflicts sometimes arise as a part of collaboration. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives, but have not focused on narratives about successful cooperation. This article tries to fill this gap by analyzing stories of successful cooperation, even if it unfolds during shorter interaction sequences. The aim is to analyze how and when the actors within youth care portray successful cooperation, and which discursive patterns are involved in the construction of this phenomenon. The empirical basis for this study is formed by 147 recorded interviews with institution-placed youths, their parents, and different occupational categories within the social services and the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care. The personal interactive aspect of cooperation among actors in youth care is important to the success of a collaboration. This aspect also appears to have significance for producing and reproducing joint collaboration identities. However, joint collaboration identities and the coherence triad can limit the sphere of cooperation to the youth care entities: the juvenile (or his/her parents) is left out.

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  • 4.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Coherent triads and successful inter-professional collaboration: narratives of professional actors in the Swedish child welfare system2019In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze how and when the professional actors within the Swedish child welfare system portray successful cooperation and determine which discursive patterns are involved in the construction of this phenomenon. The empirical basis for this study is formed by 147 recorded interviews with institution-placed youths, their parents, and different occupational categories within the social services and the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care. Analytical findings with the following themes are presented: (1) coherent vision triad, (2) coherent rhetorically accepted triad, and (3) coherent exclusive triad. The personal interactive aspect of cooperation among professional actors in the care of children is important for successful collaboration. This aspect also appears to be significant for producing and reproducing joint collaboration identities. However, joint collaboration identities and the coherence triad can limit the sphere of cooperation to the entities involved in the care of youths and the juvenile or his/her parents are left out.

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  • 5.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Coherent Triads in Swedish Youth Care2015In: Contemporary Youth Contemporary Risk. Book of abstracts, Journal of Youth Studies Conference, Copenhagen, 30 March - 1 April, 2015, 2015, p. 155-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous collaboration research shows that problems and conflicts sometimes arise as a part of collaboration. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives, but have not focused on narratives about successful cooperation. This article tries to fill this gap by analyzing stories of successful cooperation, even if it unfolds during shorter interaction sequences. The aim is to analyze how and when the actors within youth care portray successful cooperation, and which discursive patterns are involved in the construction of this phenomenon. The empirical basis for this study is formed by 147 recorded interviews with institution-placed youths, their parents, and different occupational categories within the social services and the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care. The personal interactive aspect of cooperation among actors in youth care is important to the success of a collaboration. This aspect also appears to have significance for producing and reproducing joint collaboration identities. However, joint collaboration identities and the coherence triad can limit the sphere of cooperation to the youth care entities: the juvenile (or his/her parents) is left out.

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  • 6.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Coherent Triads: Observed Successful Collaboration in Youth Care2015In: Creativity in Social Sciences. Proceedings of CIL 2015: Second Edition of International Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences - Creativity, Imaginary, Language. Ed. Claudiu Marian Bunăiaşu, Elena Rodica Opran, Dan Valeriu Voinea., 2015, p. 91-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research on collaboration shows that cooperation comprises problems and conflicts. The purpose of this study is to describe successful collaboration even if it unfolds during shorter interaction frequencies. In the article, interactive patterns involved in the construction of these phenomena will be analyzed. Forming the empirical basis for this study are 119 field observations of organized meetings and informal meetings before and after organized meetings, during visits to youth care institutions in Sweden, social services offices, and the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care. In this study, markers are used to define successful cooperation in the empirical material, so that actors who belong to at least three different categories will be identified. The professional actors can also shape a coherent triad with young people or parents in cases where past conflicts arise. When some professionals create a distance from other professional partners, conflicts can be erased so as to generate new conditions for coherence of the triad. Construction and reconstruction of collaboration success is an ongoing, interactive process. Presentation of the proper interaction moral is created and re-created during interactions and appears in the myriad everyday interactions.

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  • 7.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Lund University.
    Concentration Camp Rituals: An Extreme Case of Insecurity: Rituali u koncentracionim logorima: ekstremni slučaj nesigurnosti2014In: Journal of Criminal Justice Issues, ISSN 1512-5505, Vol. 14, no 5-6, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reason(s) for writing and research problem(s): This article analyzes the experiences retold by former concentration camp detainees who were placed in concentration camps like civilians at the beginning of the Bosnian war in the 1990s. Aims of the paper (scientific and/or social): The article aims to describe the recounted social interaction rituals after time spent in a concentration camp as well as identifying how these interactions are symbolically dramatized. Methodology/Design: The empirical material for this study was collected through qualitative interviews held with nine former camp detainees and four close relatives. Research/paper limitations: The analyzed empirical examples revealed how the camp detainees’ victim identity is created, recreated, and retained in contrast to ‘the others’ – the camp guards. The camp detainees’ portrayal of their victim identity presents their humiliated self through dissociation from the camp guards. Results/Findings: The detainees’ new (altered) moral career is presented as a result of the imprisonment at the camp and the repetitive humiliation and power rituals. The importance of the camp guards was emphasized in these rituals, in which the detainees’ new selves, characterized by moral dissolution and fatigue, emerged. General conclusion: In their stories of crime and abuse in the concentration camps, the detainees reject the guards’ actions and the designation of ‘concentration camp detainee’. The retold stories of violation and power rituals in the camps show that there was little space for individuality. Nevertheless, resistance and status rituals along with adapting to the conditions in the camps seem to have generated some room for increased individualization. To have possessed some control and been able to resist seems to have granted the detainees a sense of honor and self-esteem, not least after the war. Their narratives today represent a form of continued resistance. Research/paper validity: The interviewees’ rejections of the guards’ actions and their forced “camp detainee” status could be interpreted as an expression of de-ritualization, leading away from their own earlier experiences. The subsequently illustrated myriad of everyday interactions, which can be distinguished analytically in the interviewees’ stories, expose rituals of humiliation, power, resistance, and status. Through these, we see the interviewees’ loss of identity, others’ recognition of one’s identity, emotional involvement, and different symbols of resistance.

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  • 8.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Concentration Camp Rituals: Narrative of Former Bosnian Detainees2013In: Crisis, Critique and Change. Abstract book. 11th European Sociological Association Conference, Turin, Italy, August 28-31, 2013, 2013, p. 404-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the experiences retold by former concentration camp detainees who were placed in concentration camps at the beginning of the Bosnian war in the 1990s. The article aims to describe the recounted social interaction rituals after having spent time in a concentration camp as well as identifying how these interactions are symbolically dramatized. In their stories of crime and abuse in the concentration camps the detainees reject the guards actions and the category: ”concentration camp detainee”. The retold stories of violation- and power rituals in the camps show that there was little space for individuality. Never the less, resistance- and status rituals along with adapting to the conditions in the camps seem to have generated some room for increased individualization. To have possessed somewhat control and been able to resist seems to have granted a sense of honor and self-esteem for the detainees, not least after the war.

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  • 9.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Concentration Camp Rituals: Narratives of Former Bosnian Detainees2017In: Humanity & Society, ISSN 0160-5976, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 73-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the German camps during the Second World War, the aim was to kill from a distance, and the camps were highly efficient in their operations. Previous studies have thus analyzed the industrialized killing and the victims' survival strategies. Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives but they have not focused on narratives about camp rituals, or analyzed post-war interviews as a continued resistance and defense of one’s self. This article tries to fill this gap by analyzing stories told by former detainees in concentration camps in the Bosnian war during the 1990s. The article aims to describe a set of recounted interaction rituals as well as to identify how these rituals are dramatized in interviews. The retold stories of humiliation and power in the camps indicate that there was little space for individuality and preservation of self. Nevertheless, the detainees seem to have been able to generate some room for resistance, and this seems to have granted them a sense of honor and self-esteem, not least after the war. Their narratives today represent a form of continued resistance.

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  • 10.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Concentration camp rituals: Narratives of former Bosnian detainees2014In: Ett inkluderande samhälle? En inkluderande sociologi? Sociologidagarna 2014, Göteborg, March 13-15, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Conditions for Reconciliation: Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina2015In: Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, ISSN 1580-0253, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 107-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this article was to analyze the retold experiences of 27 survivors from the 1990s war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. I have examined verbal markers of reconciliation and implacability and analyzed the described terms for reconciliation that are being actualized in the narratives. Design: The material for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews with 27 individuals who survived the war in north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study joins those narrative traditions within sociology where oral presentations are seen as both discursive- and experience-based. In addition, I perceive the concept of reconciliation as an especially relevant component in those specific stories that I analyzed. Findings: Stories on implacability, reconciliation, and conditions for reconciliation are not shaped only in relation to the war as a whole but also in relation to an individual’s wartime actions and those of others. In these stories, implacability is the predominant feature, but reconciliation is said to be possible if certain conditions are met. Examples of these conditions are justice for war victims, perpetrator recognition of crimes, and emotional commitment from the perpetrator (by showing remorse and shame, for example). Value: Previous research on post-war society emphasized structural violence with subsequent reconciliation processes. Researchers have focused on the importance of narratives, but they have neither analyzed conditions for reconciliation in post-war interviews. This article tries to fill this gap by analyzing the stories told by survivors of the Bosnian war during the 1990s.

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  • 12.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Constructing “Ideal Victim” Stories of Bosnian War Survivors2015In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on victimhood during and after the Bosnian war has emphasized the importance of narratives but has not focused on narratives about victimhood or analyzed post-war interviews as a competition for victimhood. This article tries to fill this gap using stories told by survivors of the Bosnian war during the 1990s. In this analysis of the retold experiences of 27 survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia, the aim is to describe the informants’ portrayal of “victimhood” as a social phenomenon as well as analyzing the discursive patterns that contribute to constructing the category “victim”. When, after the war, different categories claim a “victim” status, it sparks a competition for victimhood. All informants are eager to present themselves as victims while at the same time the other categories’ victim status are downplayed. In this reproduction of competition for the victim role, all demarcations that were played out so successfully during the war live on.

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  • 13.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Construction of morally correct actions: In the stories of violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina2015In: DO THE RIGHT THING! Anthropology and morality. SANT-konferens 2015, Lund, Sweden, April 17-19, 2015, 2015, p. 27-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on different types of empirical material, especially recorded interviews, carried out with 27 survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina, and field observations. The focus lies on analyzing interviewees’ and field notes description of war-time violence and also analyzing discursive patterns that contribute in constructing the phenomenon “war violence”. This study shows that narratives on the phenomenon “war violence” depict a decay of pre-war social order. The use of violence during the war is described as organized and ritualized, which implies that the use of violence became a norm in society, rather than the exception. The narratives on the phenomenon “war violence” produce and reproduce the image of human suffering and slaughter. Those subjected to violence are portrayed in a de-humanized fashion and branded as suitable to be exposed to it. In these stories, morally correct actions are constructed as a contrast to the narratives on war violence. In these descriptions, the perpetrator is depicted as a dangerous, evil, and ideal enemy. He is portrayed as a real and powerful yet alien criminal who is said to pose a clear threat to the social order existing before the war.

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  • 14.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Definicije počinitelja ratnog nasilja i žrtve. Analitički model za analizu rituala ratnog nasilja u koncentracionim logorima tokom rata u Bosni i Hercegovini: Definitions of the perpetrator of war violence and the victim. Analytical model for analysis concerning rituals of war violence in concentration camp during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina2017In: ”Ambassadors of Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina” : The Second International Scientific Conference of Victimology in Bosnia and Herzegovina: "Ambasadori mira u Bosni i Hercegovini“ : Druga međunarodna naučna viktimološka konferencija u Bosni i Hercegovini, Sarajevo: University of Sarajevo , 2017, p. 16-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological model for analyzing the experiences retold by former concentration camp detainees who were placed in concentration camps as civilians at the beginning of the Bosnian war in the 1990s. The aim is to analyze the recounted rituals of war violence in concentration camp as well as identifying how the perpetrators of war violence and victims are symbolically defined in stories. In these descriptions, the perpetrator is defined as a dangerous, evil, and ideal enemy. He is portrayed as a real and powerful yet alien criminal. When informants emphasize extermination and the systematization of war violence in the camps during the war, they produce and reproduce the image of war violence that is organized and conducted on a daily basis. The aim of this verbal emphasis seems to be that the described acts of war violence in the camps, after the war obtain the status of an organized and ritualized war violence. By defining the perpetrators of war violence, the interviewed in the study implicitly point out the complementary opposition of the perpetrator - a victim of violence. The victim is presented as pre-war acquaintances, friends and neighbors of the perpetrators of violence. Victim of violence is defined as tired, dying in agony, inferior, de-humanized, stamped and helplessly left to the mercy of the perpetrators of war violence.

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  • 15.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning. Lund University, Sweden.
    Definicije počinitelja ratnog nasilja i žrtve: Sociološka analiza nasilja u koncentracijskim logorima za vrijeme rata u Bosni i Hercegovini: (Definitions of the perpetrator of war violence and the victim: Sociological analysis of violence in concentration camp during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina)2018In: Proceedings of the Faculty of Law in Tuzla, ISSN 2303-8632, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 44-73, article id UDK: 316.624:343.819.5(497.6)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the experiences retold by former concentration camp detainees who were placed in  concentration camps like civilians at the beginning of the Bosnian war in the 1990s. The article aims to analyze the narratives of war violence in concentration camp as well as identifying how the perpetrators of war violence and victims are symbolically defined in stories. In these descriptions, the perpetrator is defined as a dangerous, evil, and ideal enemy. He is portrayed as a real and powerful yet alien criminal. When informants emphasize extermination and the systematization of war violence in the camps during the war, they produce and reproduce the image of violence that is organized and conducted on a daily basis. The aim of this verbalb emphasis seems to be that the described acts of violence in the camps, after the war obtain the status of an organized war violence - genocide. By defining the perpetrators of war violence, the interviewed in the study implicitly point out the complementary opposition of the perpetrator - a victim of violence. The victim is presented as pre-war acquaintance, friends and neighbors of the perpetrators of violence. Victim of violence is defined as tired, dying in agony, inferior, de-humanized, stamped and helplessly left to the mercy of the perpetrators of war violence. Leading people to only one primary (deadly) collective identity exists at every place where the “ethnic identity” of people is considered more important than their personal, individual, civic, professional human identity. The merging of ethnonational identities into a completely homogeneous, massive, unique collective identity, which is substantially or (totally) different from some others - perfectly matches reproduction and the creation of new forms of violence.

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  • 16.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Definitioner av våld i överlevandes berättelser efter kriget i Bosnien2015In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 341-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina presents a one-sided picture of the phenomenon ”war violence.” Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives but they have not focused on stories about war violence, nor have they analyzed the stories of war violence being a product of interpersonal interaction. This article tries to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing the narratives told by survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia in the 1990s. The aim is to analyze how the survivors describe violence during the war, and also to analyze those discursive patterns that contribute in constructing the category ”war violence.” The construction of the category ”war violence” is made visible in the empirical material when the interviewees talk about (1) a new social order in the society, (2) human suffering, (3) sexual violence, and (4) human slaughter. All interviewees define war violence as morally reprehensible. In narratives on the phenomena ”war violence” a picture emerges which shows a disruption of the social order existing in the pre-war society. The violence practiced during the war is portrayed as organized and ritualized and this creates a picture that the violence practice became a norm in the society, rather than the exception. Narratives retelling violent situations, perpetrators of violence and subjected to violence do not only exist as a mental construction. The stories live their lives after the war, and thus have real consequences for individuals and society.

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  • 17.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Definitions of Violence: Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina2018In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 33, no 13, p. 2073-2097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has resulted in a one-sided presentation of the phenomenon of “war violence.” Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives in general but have not analyzed stories on war violence that were the product of interpersonal interaction and meaning-making activity. The aim of this article is to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing survivor narratives of the 1990s war in northwestern Bosnia. The focus is on analyzing interviewees’ descriptions of wartime violence and the discursive patterns that contribute to constructing the phenomenon of “war violence.” My analysis reveals an intimate relationship between how an interviewee interprets the biographical consequences of war violence and the individual’s own war experiences. All interviewees described war violence as something that is morally reprehensible. These narratives, from both perpetrators of violence and those subjected to violence, recount violent situations that not only exist as mental constructions but also live on even after the war; thus, they have real consequences for the individuals and their society.

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  • 18.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Definitions of War Violence and Genocide: Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina2015In: After Communism. East and West Under Scrutiny. Book of Abstracts of the Fifth International Conference, Craiova, Romania, April 24-25 / [ed] Anca Parmena Olimid; Cătălina Maria Georgescu, Craiova, Romania, 2015, p. 72-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is analyzing the narratives of survivors of thewar in northwestern Bosnia in the 1990s. The focus lies on analyzing interviewees’ description of war-time violence and also analyzingdiscursive patterns that contribute in constructing the phenomenon“war violence”. Analysis shows that the interpersonal interactions thatcaused the violence continue even after the violent situation is over.Recollections from perpetrators and those subjected to violence of thewar do not exist only as verbal constructions in Bosnia of today.Stories about violent situations live their own lives after the war andcontinue being important to individuals and social life. The crimescommitted in northwestern Bosnia are qualified as genocide accordingto indictments against former Serbian leaders Radovan Karadžić andRatko Mladić. All interviewees in this study experienced and survivedthe war in northwestern Bosnia. These individuals have a present,ongoing relation with these communities: Some live therepermanently, and some spend their summers in northwestern Bosnia.Institutions in the administrative entity Republika Srpska (to whichnorthwestern Bosnia now belong administratively) deny genocide,and this approach to war-time events becomes a central theme infuture, post-war analysis of the phenomena “war violence”, and“reconciliation”. Therefore, it is very important to analyze the politicalelite’s denial of the systematic acts of violence during the war thathave been conveyed by the Hague Tribunal, the Court of Bosnia andHerzegovina onWar Crime, and Bosnian media. The narratives in myempirical material seem to be influenced by (or coherent with) therhetoric mediated in these fora. When informants emphasizeextermination and the systematization of violence during the war, theyproduce and reproduce the image of a mutual struggle on a collectivelevel. The aim of this struggle seems to be that the described acts ofviolence be recognized as genocide.

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  • 19.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Definitions of War Violence and Reconciliation in Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Definicije ratnog nasilja i pomirenje u pričama preživjelih poslije rata u Bosni i Hercegovini2015In: Ambassadors of Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. First International Scientific and Professional Conference of Victimology in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Hercegovina, March 3-4, 2015 / [ed] Adžajlić, Azra, International Peace Research Association – IPRA, Bihać University, Sakarya University och Institute of Knowledge Management Skopje , 2015, p. 17-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina have emphasized the importance of narratives without focusing on narratives mentioning war violence, but they have not analyzed stories on war violence that were the product of interpersonal interaction and meaning-making activity. The aim of this study is to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing the narratives of survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia in the 1990s. The focus lies on analyzing interviewees’ description of war-time violence and also analyzing discursive patterns that contribute in constructing the phenomenon “war violence”. Analysis shows that the interpersonal interactions that caused the violence continue even after the violent situation is over. Recollections from perpetrators and those subjected to violence of the war do not exist only as verbal constructions in Bosnia of today. Stories about violent situations live their own lives after the war and continue being important to individuals and social life. Individuals who were expelled from northwestern Bosnia during the war in the 1990s are, in a legal sense, in a recognized violence-afflicted victim category. Several perpetrators were sentenced by the Hague Tribunal and the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina on War Crime. The crimes committed in northwestern Bosnia are qualified as genocide according to indictments against former Serbian leaders Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić. All interviewees in this study experienced and survived the war in northwestern Bosnia. These individuals have a present, ongoing relation with these communities: Some live there permanently, and some spend their summers in northwestern Bosnia. Institutions in the administrative entity Republika Srpska (to which northwestern Bosnia now belong administratively) deny genocide, and this approach to war-time events becomes a central theme in future, post-war analysis of the phenomena “war violence”, and “reconciliation”. Therefore, it is very important to analyze the political elite’s denial of the systematic acts of violence during the war that have been conveyed by the Hague Tribunal, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina on War Crime, and Bosnian media. The narratives in my empirical material seem to be influenced by (or coherent with) the rhetoric mediated in these fora. When informants emphasize extermination and the systematization of violence during the war, they produce and reproduce the image of a mutual struggle on a collective level. The aim of this struggle seems to be that the described acts of violence be recognized as genocide.

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  • 20.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Definitions of War Violence and Reconciliation in Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Definicije ratnog nasilja i pomirenje u pričama preživjelih poslije rata u Bosni i Hercegovini2015In: Ambassadors of Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Abstract book, First International Scientific and Professional Conference of Victimology in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Hercegovina, March 3-4, 2015. / [ed] Repovac, Hidajet; Sofradžija, Halima; Dimitrovski, Robert and Kenar, Nesrin, 2015, p. 9-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina have emphasized the importance of narratives without focusing on narratives mentioning war violence, but they have not analyzed stories on war violence that were the product of interpersonal interaction and meaning-making activity. The aim of this study is to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing the narratives of survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia in the 1990s. The focus lies on analyzing interviewees’ description of war-time violence and also analyzing discursive patterns that contribute in constructing the phenomenon “war violence”. Analysis shows that the interpersonal interactions that caused the violence continue even after the violent situation is over. Recollections from perpetrators and those subjected to violence of the war do not exist only as verbal constructions in Bosnia of today. Stories about violent situations live their own lives after the war and continue being important to individuals and social life. Individuals who were expelled from northwestern Bosnia during the war in the 1990s are, in a legal sense, in a recognized violence-afflicted victim category. Several perpetrators were sentenced by the Hague Tribunal and the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina on War Crime. The crimes committed in northwestern Bosnia are qualified as genocide according to indictments against former Serbian leaders Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić. All interviewees in this study experienced and survived the war in northwestern Bosnia. These individuals have a present, ongoing relation with these communities: Some live there permanently, and some spend their summers in northwestern Bosnia. Institutions in the administrative entity Republika Srpska (to which northwestern Bosnia now belong administratively) deny genocide, and this approach to war-time events becomes a central theme in future, post-war analysis of the phenomena “war violence”, and “reconciliation”. Therefore, it is very important to analyze the political elite’s denial of the systematic acts of violence during the war that have been conveyed by the Hague Tribunal, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina on War Crime, and Bosnian media. The narratives in my empirical material seem to be influenced by (or coherent with) the rhetoric mediated in these fora. When informants emphasize extermination and the systematization of violence during the war, they produce and reproduce the image of a mutual struggle on a collective level. The aim of this struggle seems to be that the described acts of violence be recognized as genocide. 

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  • 21.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Detecting Triads in a Swedish Juvenile Care Project2011In: Social Relations in Turbulent Times. Abstract book. 10th Conference of the European Sociological Association, Geneva, Switzerland, September 7-10, 2011, 2011, p. 441-441Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study of a project concerning Swedish juvenile care professionals, youngsters and parents were studied by ethnographic field observations as well as interviewed. During the course of the investigation various and shifting triads forming conflicts as well as alliances were observed. In this paper the triads described in interviews will be compared to field observations of triads formed during various meetings connected to the juvenile care project. I will analyze similarities and differences in retold triads during interviews and interactional “in situ” formed triads according to (1) different alliance formations, (2) different roles in changing constellations, (3) the temporal development of the alliances in the triad and (4) the alliance’s including and excluding function in the triads.

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  • 22.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Different Categories of Victims and Competition for Victimhood in the Stories after the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina2014In: Victims' protection: International law, national legislations and practice. Book of abstracts. Fifth Annual Conference of the Victimology Society of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia, November 27-28, 2014, 2014, p. 15-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My goal with this article is to analyse the retold experiences of 27 survivors of the 1990s war in north-western Bosnia. I focus on describing the informants' portrayal of “victimhood” as a social phenomenon as well as analysing those discursive patterns which contributed in constructing the category “victim” and ”perpetrator”. When, after the war, different actors claim this “victim” status, it sparks a competition for victimhood. All informants are eager to present themselves as victims while at the same time the other categories' victim status is downplayed. Different categories appear and they are: ”the remainders” those who lived in north-western Bosnia before, during and after the war; “the fugitives” those who driven into north-western Bosnia during the war; “the returnees” those who returned after the war and “the diaspora” those who were driven out from north-western Bosnia and remained in their new country. The competition between these categories seems to take place on a symbolic level. All interviewees want to portray themselves as ”ideal victims” but they are all about to lose that status. The returnees and the diaspora are losing status by receiving recognition from the surrounding community and because they have a higher economic status, the remainders are losing status since they are constantly being haunted by war events and the refugees are losing status by being presented as strangers and thus fitting the role of ideal perpetrators. In this reproduction of competition for the victim role, all demarcations that were played out so successfully during the war live on.

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  • 23.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Lund University.
    Društvo i anomija. Sociološka analiza obavještajnog i operativnog policijskog rada i rada granične službe u oblasti Baltičkog mora (Society and anomie. Sociological analysis of intelligence and operational police and border guard work in the Baltic Sea area)2017In: ZBORNIK RADOVA ANOMIJA DRUŠTVA I POSLJEDICE / [ed] Macanović Nebojša, Petrović, Jagoda and Jovanić Goran, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina: CENTAR MODERNIH ZNANJA , 2017, p. 31-40, article id DOI: 10.7251/DDADP1702031BConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resolution of the prevailing norms in a society in the context of war, occupation, anarchy,and takeover by criminal forces dispels the old norms but also sets new norms, which in turn can bequickly dispelled. Anomie can be understood as the core of society, as a kind of “pulsating moral destructiveness” that no one really can control but that paradoxically produces social order. Anomie does not arise from nothing, from the void; it is the product of the interactive dynamics that arise when individuals come together, acting as a propellant to lead individuals to meet. Émile Durkheim’s attention goes to how interpersonal interaction is creating changes in society, often showing thevarious pathological features that can lead to frustration and conflict. The individual’s quest toliberate himself from the collective as a result has a rootlessness and isolation. When the old network dissolves, it becomes impossible to maintain the old norms and values. The individual is no longer limited by the rules of morality and authority. Instead, the individual may develop a pattern of constantly exceeding all limits because the collapse of the former social control coincides with the development of the system that requires constant growth of individual needs. The product of such interactions is a state of society where there is uncertainty about the values, goals, and norms. Durkheim refers to this state as “anomie”. Durkheim analyzes deviation from the norm (as well as individual and societal response/reaction to the norm deviation, such as punishment) as an integral part of the issue of solidarity and social cohesion. The moral order in a society has a fundamental value according to Durkheim because individuals are both integrated with and controlled by the community. Durkheim saw integration as a way to tie the individual to the community through shared attitude, solidarity, and rituals. He saw control as a compelling force that binds the individual to the norms through the judicial system, laws, and sanctions. Durkheim defines a deviation from the normas an act that offends a strong and definite collective consciousness. Thus, the acts are antisocial inthat they violate norms and values that are important to the social unity. The work of intelligence and operational police and border guards in the Baltic Sea area (Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia) is characterized by the norm-creating and re-creating rituals from the first moments of theday: from the morning coffee and the first information exchange with an intelligence partner to operational actions in the form of surveillance or control of individuals and/or cars. These interactions are characterized by a strong desire to preserve the prevailing social order. In relation tothe threat to the prevailing norms, there also are normative rituals. For example, in these interactions,“norm-dissolving Russians” are constructed who are not physically present in the situation but whoare important in the relationship as invisible sacred objects. The making of the category “norm-dissolving Russian” in which Russia/Russians are used to dramatize the "other" is made visible in the empirical material when actors in the study describe (1) criminal Russians, (2) Russian espionage, and (3) Russian military invasion.

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  • 24.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Ekstremni slučaj krize: Definicije ratnog nasilja u pričama preživjelih poslije rata u Bosni i Hercegovini: Extreme Case of Crisis: Definitions of War Violence in Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina2015In: Crisis Management Days. 8th International Scientific Conference. University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia (20150514-20150515), University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia , 2015, p. 104-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [hr]

    Polazna točka ovog članka je rat koji je održan u sjeverozapadnoj Bosni i Hercegovini te posebno interpersonalna interpretacija nasilja i biografski utjecaj ratnog nasilja. Srpski vojnici i policajci ciljano su vršili nasilje nad civilnoim stanovništvom u sjeverozapadnoj Bosni. U svojoj namjeri da se Bošnjaci i Hrvati istjeraju s tog područja, srpski vojnici i policajci koristili su masovne egzekucije, tjeranje na bijeg, sustavno silovanje i koncentracione logore. Cilj ovog članka je popuniti ovu prazninu znanja kroz analizu priča preživjelih u ratu u sjeverozapadnoj Bosni tijekom 1990-ih. Svrha je analizirati kako preživjeli opisuju ratna nasilja te diskurzivne obrasce koji se pojavljuju u konstrukciji kategorije “ratnog nasilja.” Moja pitanja su kako slijedi: Kako ispitanici opisuju ratna nasilja? Koje kategorije nasilja su istaknute u pričama? Kako preživjeli opisuju seksualno nasilje i oblike seksualnog zlostavljanja tijekom rata? U ovoj studiji, želim dotaći fenomen “ratnog nasilja” kroz analizu priča ispitanika, odnosno njihove opise te odnose među njima. Ova analiza će pokazati da je interpretacija biografskih posljedica ratnog nasilja blisko povezana s osobnim ratnim iskustvima ispitanika. U nastavku ću pokušati istaći kako stvaranje koncepta “ratnog nasilja” postaje vidljivo kad sugovornici u empirijskom materijalu govore o (1) novom društvenom poretku, (2) ljudskoj patnji, (3) seksualnom nasilju i (4) ubijanju ljudi.

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  • 25.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Engagerad fixare eller ytterligare en person som ”bara pratar”?: Mödrars röster om samordnare i ungdomsvården2009Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze how mothers with children placed in Swedish juvenile homes interpret, define and perceive, on the one hand, the project “Motverka Våld och Gäng” meaning “Counteract Violence and Gangs”, and on the other hand the role of the Coordinators employed in this project. The mothers who were interviewed spoke about some Coordinators that they appreciated. They then paint different pictures of appreciated Coordinators. These includes Coordinators who possess the power to, for example, “check out the Social Service” and Coordinators without power who never-the-less are appreciated. The Coordinators who are described in a positive way are also seen as actors that are dedicated. They often call the mothers, they fight for their children and succeed in making absent fathers more committed. The mothers whose stories contain criticism towards the Coordinators often criticize the other involved actors. The criticism itself isn’t only focused on the Coordinator but rather on the context in which the Coordinator is a part. When the Coordinator is criticized explicitly, the description partly projects the picture of the Coordinator as absent from the care-giving chain.

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  • 26.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Ethnic monitoring and social control: Descriptions from juveniles in juvenile care institutions2014In: Ett inkluderande samhälle? En inkluderande sociologi? Sociologidagarna 2014, Göteborg, March 13-15, 2014, 2014, p. 6-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has emphasized the institutional racism in total institutions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives but have not focused on narratives about ethnic monitoring and social control. This article tries to fill this gap by analysing stories related to descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control as told by juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity in Swedish juvenile care institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’s monitoring and social control. Interviews elucidated the victimhood that non-Swedish juveniles portrayed in relation to the staff and/or Swedish juveniles. When juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity described ethnic monitoring and social control, they generally distanced themselves from staff behaviour and portrayed a victim identity. In constructing their identity, juveniles sometimes used their ethnic background rhetorically when describing everyday situations in the institution. The juveniles portrayed a humiliated self through dissociation from the staff and through the descriptions that they were treated differently than Swedish juveniles.

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  • 27.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Ethnic monitoring and social control: Descriptions from juveniles in juvenile care institutions2015In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 20-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has emphasized the institutional racism in total institutions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives but have not focused on narratives about ethnic monitoring and social control. This article tries to fill this gap by analysing stories related to descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control as told by juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity in Swedish juvenile care institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’s monitoring and social control. Interviews elucidated the victimhood that non-Swedish juveniles portrayed in relation to the staff and/or Swedish juveniles. When juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity described ethnic monitoring and social control, they generally distanced themselves from staff behaviour and portrayed a victim identity. In constructing their identity, juveniles sometimes used their ethnic background rhetorically when describing everyday situations in the institution. The juveniles portrayed a humiliated self through dissociation from the staff and through the descriptions that they were treated differently than Swedish juveniles.

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  • 28.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Ethnic monitoring and social control in juvenile care institutions2014In: Exploring Blind Spots. 27th Conference of the Nordic Sociological Association, Lund, Sweden, August 14-16, 2014, 2014, p. 25-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an evaluation of a juvenile-care project sponsored by the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care, ethnicity was identified as an important dimension in treatment, staff practices, and relationships among juveniles. This article aims to analyze descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control in Swedish juvenile institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’s monitoring and social control. Interviews elucidated the victimhood that non-Swedish juveniles portrayed in relation to the staff and/or Swedish juveniles. When juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity described ethnic monitoring and social control, they generally distanced themselves from staff behavior and portrayed a victim identity. In constructing their identity, juveniles sometimes used their ethnic background rhetorically when describing everyday situations in the institution. The juveniles portrayed a humiliated self through dissociation from the staff and through the descriptions that they were treated differently than Swedish juveniles.

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  • 29.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Etnicitet i ungdomsvården – förslag till fortsatt värdegrundsarbete2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta utkast utgör en redovisning av ett uppdrag som jag fick av Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten vid Statens institutionsstyrelse (SiS). Uppdraget bestod i att, under en tvåmånadersperiod (april och maj 2009), granska och urskilja etnicitetsmarkörer i det empiriska material som samlats in under intervjuer och möten med aktörerna i ett samarbetsprojekt i ungdomsvården (MVG-projektet). Tanken var att studien skulle ge några förslag på strategier i det fortsatta värdegrundsarbetet inom SiS. I detta utkast analyseras muntliga etnicitetsgestaltningar hos olika aktörer i ungdomsvården. Undersökningen uppmärksammar etniciteten när den uttrycks verbalt och icke-verbalt, hur den uttrycks samt i vilka situationer kategoriseringar synliggörs implicit eller explicit. Studiens syfte är: att analysera när och hur etnicitet aktualiseras genom kategoriseringar i ungdomsvården, att uppmärksamma hur dessa kategoriseringar markeras samt påvisa hur berättarens egna etniska identitet formas och upprätthålls genom olika markeringar. Rapporten bygger på 109 intervjuer som genomförts med olika aktörer i ungdomsvården samt de fältanteckningar jag fört i anslutning till de olika mötena, spontana samtal före och efter intervjuerna, och i anslutning till besöken på de olika institutionerna, arbetsplatserna, mm.

  • 30.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Etnicitet i ungdomsvården: Yrkesverksammas och ungdomarnas muntliga framställningar2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze when and how ethnicity is actualised through categorisations in Swedish youth-care, to attract attention to how these categorisations are indicated and point out how the narrators own ethnic identity is shaped and upheld through different markings. The report is based on 109 interviews conducted with different actors in the youth-care and my field-notes made in connection with the different meetings, spontaneous conversations before and after the interviews, and when visiting different institutions, work-places, etc. Ethnicity is used explicitly as well as implicitly, by the youths themselves and the professionals, in peer relations within each collective and between the collectives. Usually ethnicity is used as an explanation and as an instrument in the interaction, i.e. it is used to achieve different things or to emphasize or highlight a desirable image of people or problems at hand. The professionals use ethnicity to explain the youths actions, they also compare themselves to colleagues regarding who displays the greatest ethnic consideration or who knows most about ethnicity. Ethnicity then becomes a resource in presenting one-self: you present yourself as, for instance, “culturally competent” in relation to others. The youths also use ethnicity when they talk about the placing at various institutions, the social control at the institution, discrimination, love relations, etc. The life in the institution becomes ethnically charged in interviews with youngsters, but this perspective is not always shared by other actors. Treatments interpreted as ethnic discrimination by the youths are sometimes seen as self-inflicted by the staff, e.g. as a result of alleged inappropriate behaviour. Ethnicity is a contested marker in this context and thus a potential weapon in the interplay. This is specially highlighted through ethnically coloured profanity and name-calling which the youths experience as an instrument of humiliation. Sometimes ethnicity is portrayed as a resource, as an asset for the actors in the youth-care, providing tools for comprehending and implementing situations and projects. Things that are made comprehensible and are implemented (or said to have been implemented) often become problematic from the actors perspective. This happening doesn’t have to be a problem in itself, it rather clarifies how actors use ethnicity to demonstrate problems.

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  • 31.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Etnifierad övervakning och social kontroll på ungdomsvårdsinstitutioner2013In: Den sorterande ordningsmakten: Studier av etnicitet och polisiär kontroll / [ed] Peterson, Abby; Åkerström, Malin, Malmö: Bokbox Förlag , 2013, p. 177-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an evaluation of a juvenile-care project sponsored by the Swedish National Board of Institutional Care, ethnicity was identified as an important factor in treatment, staff practices, and relationships between juveniles. This study examined ethnic monitoring and social control in 15 Swedish juvenile institutions. I analysed notes from interviews and field observations. Discriminatory behaviours and practices were described or made evident by juveniles with non-Swedish ethnicities. In specific examples, a juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’s monitoring and control practices. These examples elucidated the victimhood that non-Swedish juveniles experienced in relation to the staff and/or Swedish juveniles. Thomas Hylland Eriksen (1993) described ethnicity as an ongoing relationship-building process between participants. The present study showed that the ’establishment’ of ethnicity was intimately associated with juvenile descriptions of discrimination and their moral criticism of juvenile care practices. When juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity described institutional ethnic monitoring and social control, they generally distanced themselves from staff behaviour and portrayed a victim identity. In constructing their identity, juveniles sometimes used their ethnic background rhetorically when describing everyday situations in the institution. The juveniles portrayed a humiliated self through dissociation from the staff and through the perception that they were treated differently than Swedish juveniles.

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  • 32.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Expectations and variations in social pedagogical work: an analysis of narratives concerning work with unaccompanied young refugees with experiences of war in institutional care in Sweden [标题:社会教学工作的期望和变化:对与无人陪伴的年轻难民的工作经历的叙事分析]2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the stories told by the adolescents and the personnel in institutional care in Sweden are about everyday interactions that occur while the adolescents stay at the institution and how the personnel work with that category of clients. The analysis pays attention to details about war and post-war interactions and how a community’s moralisations can affect social pedagogical work with inclusion and integration into the community. From a Swedish perspective, it is easy to imagine that the war’s consequences are taking place ‘over there’, in a different country or another part of the world, at another time in place. It therefore becomes especially important to allow people with war experiences who are in Sweden to share and relate how the experiences are significant here and now. By allowing this sharing, knowledge is also created about how preconceptions, inequalities and discrimination can be faced and discouraged. This study shows how overlapping or parallel identifications of adolescents and personnel operate through a number of interactions where the individual claims or is assigned identity categories in various ways. Categories such as victim of war, student, homosexual, empathetic personnel, competent personnel and incompetent personnel are actualised in relation to the adolescents’ war experiences and institution placement. The interactive dynamic in the situation helps to create and re-create these categories. The study’s analysis observes individuals in a vulnerable and strenuous situation with the aim of highlighting their opinions, stories and terms. Adolescents with war experiences are at risk of being affected by stigmatisation and singled out in the community and for discrimination and unequal relationships because of their background and how it is treated in Sweden. Personnel who have been interviewed in the study note that the social climate impairs their work with inclusion and integration of that client category.

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  • 33.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Extreme Case of Crisis: Definitions of War Violence in Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ekstremni slučaj krize: Definicije ratnog nasilja u pričama preživjelih iz rata u Bosni i Hercegovini2015In: Crisis Management Days. 8th International Scientific Conference. University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia (20150514-20150515) / [ed] Nađ, Ivan, Veleučilište Velika Gorica , 2015, p. 499-510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this article is the war that took place in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina and more specifi cally interpersonal interpretations of violence and the biographical impact of war-time violence. Serbian soldiers and police targeted their use of violent force directly against the civilian populations in northwestern Bosnia. In their quest to expel Bosniacs and Croats from this area, Serbian soldiers and police used mass executions, forced flight, systematic rape, and concentration camps. The aim of this article is to analyze how the survivors describe war-time violence and which discursive patterns emerge in the construction of the category “war violence.” My questions are as follows: How do the interviewees describe wartime violence? Which categories of violence are highlighted in the stories? How do war survivors describe sexual violence and other sexual abuse during the war? In this study, I seek to touch on the phenomenon “war violence” by analyzing the narratives of the informants, namely their descriptions in relation to themselves and others. This analysis will show that the interpretation of the biographical consequences of war violence is intimately related to the subject’s own war experiences. In the following, I try to highlight how the creation of the concept “war violence” is made visible when the interviewees, in the empirical material, talk about (1) a new social order in society, (2) human suffering, (3) sexual violence, and (4) slaughter of humans.

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  • 34.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Extreme Case of Crisis: Definitions of War Violence in Narratives of Survivors from the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ekstremni slučaj krize: Definicije ratnog nasilja u pričama preživjelih poslije rata u Bosni i Hercegovini2015In: Crisis Management Days. 8th International Scientific Conference, University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia (20150514-20150515), University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, Velika Gorica, Croatia , 2015, p. 104-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point of this paper is the war that took place in northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina and more specifi cally interpersonal interpretations of violence and the biographical impact of wartime violence. Serbian soldiers and police targeted their use of violent force directly against the civilian populations in northwestern Bosnia. In their quest to expel Bosniacs and Croats from this area, Serbian soldiers and police used mass executions, forced fl ight, systematic rape, and concentration camps. The aim of this paper is to fi ll this knowledge gap through analyzing the stories told by survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia during the 1990s. The purpose is to analyze how the survivors describe wartime violence and which discursive patterns emerge in the construction of the category “war violence”. My questions are as follows: How do the interviewees describe war-time violence? Which categories of violence are highlighted in the stories? How do war survivors describe sexual violence and other sexual abuse during the war? In this study, I seek to touch on the phenomenon of “war violence” by analyzing the narratives of the informants, namely their descriptions in relation to themselves and others. This analysis will show that the interpretation of the biographical consequences of war violence is intimately related to the subject’s own war experiences. Further, I will try to highlight how the creation of the concept “war violence” is made visible when the interviewees, in the empirical material, talk about (1) a new social order in society, (2) human suff ering, (3) sexual violence, and (4) slaughter of humans.

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  • 35.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Extreme case of insecurity: Violence narratives of survivors from the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina2015In: Researching security: Approaches, concepts and policies, Vol 4. International Scientific Conference, Ohrid, June 2-3, 2015. / [ed] Cane T. Mojanoski, Skopje: University St. Kliment Ohridski, Bitola, Faculty of Security , 2015, p. 216-233Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bosnian war can be seen as a particularly illustrative case of war sociology, based on the ethnic mix of the population prior to the war. War antagonists often knew each other from before the war. Serbian soldiers and policemen carried out mass executions, forced flight, and systematic rape and set up concentration camps in their effort to drive away Bosniacs and Croats from northwestern Bosnia and Herzegovina. The warfare was directly targeted against civilians. The material for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews with 27 individuals who survived the war in north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study joins those narrative traditions within sociology where oral presentations are seen as both discursive- and experience-based. An interactionally inspired perspective on human interaction, through symbols and an ethno-methodological perspective on human stories is a general starting point. In addition, I perceive the concept of war violence as an especially relevant component in those specific stories that I analyzed. Previous research on violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina presents a one-sided picture of the phenomenon ”war violence”. Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives but they have not focused on narratives about war violence, nore have they analyzed the stories of war violence being a product of interpersonal interaction and meaning-making activity. This article tries to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing the narratives of survivors of the war in northwestern Bosnia in the 1990s. The aim is to analyze how the interviewees describe violence during the war, and also to analyze those discursive patterns that contribute in constructing the category ”war violence”. The analysis shows that the individual's interpretation of the biographical consequences of war violence are intimately related to the subjects own war experiences. All interviewees describing war violence as morally reprehensible. Narratives retelling violent situations, perpetrators of violence and subjected to violence does not only exist as a mental construction, stories live their lives after the war, and thus have real consequences for individuals and society.

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  • 36.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Folkmord och försoning2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De mellanmänskliga interaktioner som våldet fött fortgår efter det att själva våldssituationen avslutats. Återgivningar av våldsverkare och våldsdrabbade från kriget existerar inte enbart som verbala konstruktioner i dagens Bosnien. Berättelser om våldsamma situationer lever sitt eget liv efter kriget och fortsätter att ha betydelse för individer och samhällsliv. Individer som fördrevs från nordvästra Bosnien under kriget på 1990-talet är i juridisk mening en erkänd våldsdrabbad offerkategori. De har alla utsatts för brott mot de mänskliga rättigheterna och de flesta för våldsbrott av olika slag. Flera förövare har blivit dömda av Haagtribunalen och Bosnien och Hercegovinas tribunal för krigsbrott. De brott som begåtts i nordvästra Bosnien är kvalificerade som folkmord enligt åtal mot de före detta serbiska ledarna Radovan Karadžić och Ratko Mladić.

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  • 37.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Forgiveness, Reconciliation and Implacability in Narratives of Survivors after the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina2013In: Crisis, Critique and Change. Abstract book. 11th European Sociological Association Conference, Turin, Italy, August 28-31, 2013, 2013, p. 1146-1147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I analyze verbally portrayed experiences of 27 survivors from the 90’s war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. One aim of the article is to analyze markers for reconciliation and implacability, the second is to describe the terms for reconciliation which are actualized in those stories. The interactive dynamics, which occurred during the war, make the post-war reconciliation wartime associated. Narratives about reconciliation, implacability and terms for reconciliation, are not only formed in relation to the war as a whole but also in relation to one’s own and others’ persons wartime actions. The narratives about reconciliation become an arena in which we and them are played against each other in different ways – not least by rejecting the others acts during the war. In the interviewees stories implacability is predominant but reconciliation is presented as a possibility if certain conditions are met. These conditions are, for instance, justice for war victims,perpetrators’ recognition of crime and perpetrators’ emotional commitment (for example the display of remorse and shame).

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  • 38.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Fältarbete och nya frågeställningar – exemplet Bosnien2008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta utkast analyseras forskningsprocessens olika steg, från problemformulering till analys av data, och de kritiska val man ställs inför. Den empiriska delen bygger på observationer i Ljubija, en stad i nordvästra Bosnien, tidningsartiklar från området samt fjorton intervjuer. Känslorna under fältarbetet diskuteras.

  • 39.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Förlåtelse, försoning och oförsonlighet i överlevandes berättelser efter kriget i Bosnien2013In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 51-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I analyze verbally portrayed experiences of 27 survivors from the 1990s' war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. One aim of the article is to analyze markers for reconciliation and implacability, the second is to describe the terms for reconciliation which are actualized in those stories. The interactive dynamics, which occurred during the war, make the post-war reconciliation wartime associated. Narratives about reconciliation, implacability and terms for reconciliation, are not only formed in relation to the war as a whole but also in relation to one's own and others' wartime actions. The narratives about reconciliation become an arena in which we and them are played against each other in different ways not least by rejecting the others' acts during the war. In the interviewees stories implacability is predominant but reconciliation is presented as a possibility if certain conditions are met. These conditions are, for instance, justice for war victims, perpetrators' recognition of crime and perpetrators' emotional commitment (for example the display of remorse and shame).

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  • 40.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Lund University.
    Health Care, Ethnicity and War: Young Immigrants with War Experiences in Institutional Care in Sweden2016In: World Congress on Health and Medical Sociology. Keynote Forum. Las Vegas, USA (20160919-20160920), Las Vegas, 2016, p. 39-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is (1) to analyze narratives of youth that have experienced war, taken refuge in Sweden, and taken into custody and placed in institutions; (2) to analyze the organization of work cared for youth with war experiences ininstitutional care. The material of the study is gathered through interviews and conversations with youngsters in institutional care with war experience and through interviews and conversations with staff who work among youth with war experiences in institutional care. The theoretical perspective is determined from an ethno-methodological influenced interaction. Special attention will be given to the social comparisons and stories about health care, ethnicity and war which are expressed in the interviews.

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  • 41.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Idealna žrtva i nadmetanje za dobijanje statusa žrtve u pričama preživjelih rata u Bosni i Hercegovini: Ideal victim and competition for victimhood in the stories of the survivors of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina2015In: Temida, ISSN 1450-6637, E-ISSN 2406-0941, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 7-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on victimhood often has presented a one-sided picture of the “victim” and “perpetrator”. Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives and they have focused on narratives about victimhood, but a researcher has not analyzed post-war interviews as a competition for victimhood. This article tries to fill this gap using stories told by survivors of the Bosnian war during the 1990s. I focus on describing the informants portrayal of “victimhood” as well as analysing those discursive patterns which contributed in constructing the category “victim” and ”perpetrator”. My research question is: How do the interviewees describe victimhood after the war? When, after the war, different actors claim this “victim” status, it sparks a competition for victimhood. All informants are eager to present themselves as victims while at the same time for the other categories victim status is downplayed. In this reproduction of competition for the victim role, all demarcations that were played out so successfully during the war live on.

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  • 42.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Institutionsplacerade ungdomars berättelser om samordnarna i ungdomsvården2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta utkast är att analysera hur ungdomar som varit placerade på särskilda ungdomshem upplever, definierar och tolkar ett behandlingsprojekt, som involverade olika myndigheter, benämnt Motverka Våld och Gäng. Dessutom uppmärksammas hur de tolkade de i projektet anställda samordnarna. Den personliga aspekten i relationen mellan ungdomar och samordnare framställs som viktig och det verkar som om den aspekten fyller en viktig funktion i vårdkedjan. Ett gott samspel mellan samordnare och ungdom kan stärka att samordnarens förutsättningar att påverka vårdkedjan under förutsättning att samordnaren accepteras av socialsekreteraren i fallet. Om samarbetet mellan samordnare och socialsekreterare är bristfälligt kan socialsekreteraren komma att uppleva ungdomens uppskattning av samordnaren som en allians mellan ungdom – samordnare mot socialsekreteraren. Detta kan ge negativa effekter på ungdomens vårdkedja. Samordnarna uppskattas av ungdomarna om de är trovärdiga och förtroendeingivande, och detta tycks enbart inträffa om de är personliga. En samordnare som intar rollen som – ytterligare en – distanserad och formell myndighetsperson blir endast ännu en av de många vuxna, som omger dessa ungdomar. Samtidigt måste samordnaren behärska myndighetsperspektiven. En omtyckt samordnare är en samordnare som kan kontrollera och inspektera vad övriga myndighetsaktörer gör, och som inte enbart intar en kompisroll. Samordnarna uppskattas inte av de unga när de inte gör någon skillnad. En samordnare som inte ringer eller på andra sätt tar kontakt, som förblir okänd och anonym och som förefaller ha ett otydligt eller ”dimmigt” uppdrag får ingen respekt. Samordnare uppfattas som obetydliga och oanvändbara om de inte framträder som tydliga personer i de ungas värld.

  • 43.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Konkurrensen om offerrollen i överlevandes berättelser efter kriget i Bosnien2014In: Tidsskrift for samfunnsforskning, ISSN 0040-716X, E-ISSN 1504-291X, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 203-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyse verbally portrayed experiences of 27 survivors of the 1990’s war in northwestern Bosnia. My focus is on describing how the interviewees portray the social phenomenon of «victimhood» and on analysing the discursive patterns that contribute to construction of the category «victim». When, after the war, different actors claim this «victim» status, it sparks a competition for victimhood. The competition between categories seems to take place on a symbolic level. By reproducing this competition for the victim role, all demarcations, which were played out so skilfully during the war, are kept alive.

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  • 44.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning. Lund University.
    Konstruktion av normupplösning och moralisk panik. Etnografisk analys av underrättelse-, operativt polis- och gränsbevakningsarbete (Construction of norm resolution and moral panics. Ethnographic analysis concerning intelligence and operational police and border guards’ work)2018In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, ISSN 1104-2176, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 50-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to analyze how intelligence and operative personnel in the Baltic Sea area describe the category “Russian criminals” and which discursive patterns cooperate with the construction of the category “norm-resolving Russian.” The analytical findings of a study are presented in the following themes: (1) Construction of norm resolution and moral panics: example criminal, (2) Construction of norm resolution and moral panics: example spy and (3) Construction of norm resolution and moral panics: example military invasion. The presentation of intelligence and operational police and border guard work as having varying morals and strengthening the argument for the need to fight against the other (“Russian”) can be interpreted in different ways. One interpretation is that constructed fear for the norm-resolving Russian and reproduced moralic panic is the expression of a social identity, and it is based on a contrast in relation to the “other”. By building up ideas about "enemies", moral panic is created and recreated, as well as the professional police and border guard professional identities. In addition, it shows in the analysis of the study the image of Russians pointed out by police and border guards in the Baltic region.

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  • 45.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Krig och brott: Definitioner av kriminalitet i ett bosniskt efterkrigssamhälle2005Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is percieved as a crime in war time varies depending on the war at issue, the eventual peace, the victors and the victims. This study focuses on the resolution of rules that occured in Ljubija, a town in the north-western part of Bosnia-Herzegovina, during the the war 1992-1995, and how it created new conflicts and group formations that live on after the war. After the war a competition for the victim-role took place between different communities. The empirical part of the study is based upon observations in Ljubija, newspaper articles from the area and conversational interviews. The material was analysed using Emile Durkheim’s view on criminality in the society, Georg Simmel’s analysis on reconciliation and Nils Christie’s term “the ideal victim”. I also discuss my own emotions and thoughts as a fieldworker during the study.

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  • 46.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Lund University.
    Krigets sociologi: Analyser av krigsvåld, koncentrationsläger, offerskap och försoning: [Sociology of War: Analysis of war violence, concentration camps, victimhood and reconciliation]2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book analyzes verbally depicted experiences of survivors from the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. One purpose to describe how the actors portray the social phenomenon of “war violence” “victimhood” and “reconciliation”, and the second aim is to analyze discursive patterns that emerges in the creation of the terms “victim” and “perpetrator”. My research questions are: (1) How do the interviewees describe war violence, victimhood and reconciliation after the war? (2) Which war-categories are highlighted in the stories?; (3) How do the interviewees describe life in the concentration camps?

    The construction of the category ”war violence” is made visible in the empirical material when the interviewees talk about (1) a new social order in the society, (2) human suffering, (3) sexual war violence, and (4) human slaughter. All interviewees define war violence as morally reprehensible. In narratives on the phenomena ”war violence” a picture emerges which shows a disruption of the social order existing in the pre-war society. The violence practiced during the war is portrayed as organized and ritualized and this creates a picture that the violence practice became a norm in the society, rather than the exception. Narratives retelling violent situations, perpetrators of violence and subjected to violence do not only exist as a mental construction. The stories live their lives after the war, and thus have real consequences for individuals and society. 

    Throughout the narratives about crimes and encroachment in the camps the interviewed individual’s take distance from the actions of the guards and the category concentration camp-placed. Retelling violations and resistance rituals show that the space for individuality in the camps were toughly limited but a resistance and status rituals together with adaptation to the living conditions in the camps seems to have generated a space for enhanced individualization. To possess somewhat control and have the opportunity to provide resistance seems to give an emotion of honor and self-esteem to the camp prisoners, not only during but also after the time of war. Their narratives today represent a form of continued resistance.

    When, after the war, different actors claim this ”victim” status, it sparks a competition for victimhood. The competition between categories seems to take place on a symbolic level. Development taking place during and after the war has led to populations’ being described based on four categories. One consists of “remainders”, namely those who before, during, and after the war have lived in northwestern Bosnia. Another is “refugees”, those who were expelled from other parts of Bosnia and Croatia into northwestern Bosnia. The third is made up of “returnees”, those who were expelled from northwestern Bosnia during the war but have returned afterwards. The fourth is the “diaspora”, individuals who were expelled from the area during the war and stayed in the new country. All interviewees want to portray themselves as ”ideal victims”, but they are all about to lose that status. The returnees and the diaspora are losing status by receiving recognition from the surrounding community and because they have a higher economic status; the remainders are losing status since they are constantly being haunted by war events; and the refugees are losing status by being presented as strangers and thus fitting the role of ideal perpetrators. It seems that by reproducing this competition for the victim role, all demarcations, which were played out so skillfully during the war, are kept alive.

    The interactive dynamics, which occurred during the war, make the post-war reconciliation wartime associated. Narratives about reconciliation, implacability and terms for reconciliation, are not only formed in relation to the war as a whole but also in relation to one’s own and others’ wartime actions. The narratives about reconciliation become an arena in which ”we and them” are played against each other in different ways not least by rejecting the others’ acts during the war. In the interviewees stories implacability is predominant but reconciliation is presented as a possibility if certain conditions are met. These conditions are, for instance, justice for war victims, perpetrators’ recognition of crime and perpetrators’ emotional commitment (for example the display of remorse and shame). 

  • 47.
    Basic, Goran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning. Lund University.
    Language and creativity: unaccompanied young refugees with experiences of war in institutional care in Sweden2018In: New creative approaches in social sciences: the proceedings of CIL 2018: Fifth Edition of International Conference of Humanities and Social Sciences - Creativity, Imaginary, Language, Craiova, Romania, 24-25 May 2018 / [ed] Davian Vlad, Alexandra Iorgulescu, Mihaela Marcu & Aida Cornelia Stoian, Editura Sitech Craiova , 2018, p. 9-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is: 1) to analyse the narratives of young people who have experienced a war, fled to Sweden and been taken care of and placed in institutions, 2) to analyse the narratives of institution personnel about the day-to-day work of taking care of young people who have experienced war. The material used in the study has been gathered by means of interviews with young people in care with experiences of war, and interviews with personnel at HVB homes (residential or care homes) who work with these young people. The previous research shows that the social pedagogic perspective is one of the perspectives in social sciences that stresses the importance of including the individual in the community. The individual is given confirmation of his or her identity by participating in the community, and successful interaction between individuals is a fundamental prerequisite for the successful integration of unaccompanied children and young people in Sweden. Analysis of the study’s empirical material shows that there are major variations in what is expected of a social pedagogue in the work with unaccompanied young refugees with experiences of war in institutional care in Sweden. A common denominator is that the mission of a social pedagogue and the context in which the social pedagogue operates appears to be sufficiently flexible to enable an individual to play the role in a wide variety of ways. It is only when the individual social pedagogue adopts an active, assertive, independent, personal and relatively strong posture that he or she has a chance to be of importance to other professional categories and for the client. This means in practice that it is only when the individual social pedagogue transcends the expectations of the role presented above that he or she has a chance to be appreciated by other collaborators.

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  • 48.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Mödrars röster om samordnare i ungdomsvården2009In: Vårdkedja för ungdomar eller professionella?: En processutvärdering av projektet ”Motverka våld och gäng” / [ed] Basic, Goran; Thelander, Joakim; Åkerström, Malin, Stockholm: Statens Institutionsstyrelse , 2009, Vol. Forskningsrapport 2009:5, p. 119-153Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze how mothers with children placed in Swedish juvenile homes interpret, define and perceive, on the one hand, the project “Motverka Våld och Gäng” meaning “Counteract Violence and Gangs”, and on the other hand the role of the Coordinators employed in this project. The mothers who were interviewed spoke about some Coordinators that they appreciated. They then paint different pictures of appreciated Coordinators. These includes Coordinators who possess the power to, for example, “check out the Social Service” and Coordinators without power who never-the-less are appreciated. The Coordinators who are described in a positive way are also seen as actors that are dedicated. They often call the mothers, they fight for their children and succeed in making absent fathers more committed. The mothers whose stories contain criticism towards the Coordinators often criticize the other involved actors. The criticism itself isn’t only focused on the Coordinator but rather on the context in which the Coordinator is a part. When the Coordinator is criticized explicitly, the description partly projects the picture of the Coordinator as absent from the care-giving chain.

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  • 49.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Narratives after the Bosnian War: Competition for Victimhood2014In: Democracy, Citizenship and Urban Violence. 2nd Annual Conference of Urban Research and Development Society, Dhaka, March 12-13, 2014 / [ed] Hossain, Shahadat, Dhaka: Urban Research and Development Society , 2014, p. 3-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    My goal with this article is to analyze the retold experiences of 27 survivors of the 1990s war in northwestern Bosnia. I focus on describing the informants’ portrayal of “victimhood” as a social phenomenon as well as analyzing those discoursive patterns which contributed in constructing the category “victim”. When, after the war, different actors claim this “victim” status, it sparks a competition for victimhood. All informants are eager to present themselves as victims while at the same time the other categories’ victim status are downplayed. In this reproduction of competition for the victim role, all demarcations that were played out so successfully during the war live on.

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    Abstract
  • 50.
    Basic, Goran
    Lund University.
    Narratives of Former Bosnian Detainees: Concentration Camp Rituals2014In: Sigurnost urbanih sredina (”The Security of Urban Areas”), Sarajevo, Bosnia & Hercegovina, May 16, 2014, 2014, p. 145-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes the experiences retold by former concentration camp detainees who were placed in concentration camps like civilians at the beginning of the Bosnian war in the 1990s. The article aims to describe the recounted social interaction rituals after time spent in a concentration camp as well as identifying how these interactions are symbolically dramatized. In their stories of crime and abuse in the concentration camps, the detainees reject the guards’ actions and the designation of ‘concentration camp detainee’. The retold stories of violation and power rituals in the camps show that there was little space for individuality. Nevertheless, resistance and status rituals along with adapting to the conditions in the camps seem to have generated some room for increased individualization. To have possessed some control and been able to resist seems to have granted the detainees a sense of honor and self-esteem, not least after the war. Their narratives today represent a form of continued resistance.

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    Abstract
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