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  • 1.
    Björgvinsson, Erling
    et al.
    Malmö University.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Creative class struggles2014In: Making Futures: Marginal Notes on Innovation, Design and Democracy / [ed] Pelle Ehn, Elisabet M. Nilsson and Richard Topgaard, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2014, 1, p. 173-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Exploring the Meaning Problem of Big and Small Data Through Digital Method Triangulation2019In: Nordicom Review, ISSN 1403-1108, E-ISSN 2001-5119, Vol. 40, p. 79-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, knowledge building through combinations of methods in a digital context is discussed and explored. Two types of digital bigger and smaller data-driven media studies are used as examples: digital focus groups and the combination of internet traffic measurements, surveys and diaries. The article proposes the concept of digital method triangulation. Digital method triangulation is argued to be a way to approach the "meaning problem" to make sense of small and big data. Digital method triangulation is argued 1) to stimulate the innovative use of known methods for unexpected dimensions within the studied topic; 2) with appropriate theoretical and meta-theoretical reflections, to provide more certainty in conclusions; and 3) to assist in constructing a more comprehensive perspective on specific analyses. The conclusion is that triangulation is even more important in the digital realm, as it facilitates dialogue between conventional and digital methods, dialogue that seems crucial to capture the complexities of the onlife.

  • 3.
    Leckner, Sara
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Young persons’ willingness to pay for cross-media consumption: a study of demand and use in a multi-platform media environment.2018In: 7th European Communication Conference Centres and Peripheries: Communication, Research, Translation Conference Booklet, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current media landscape, cross-media consumption is not a new occurrence, in particularly not for younger consumers. Young consumers are a target group highly sought after by the media industry, but it has been hard to get this group to pay for content, especially for non-entertainment such as news, and thus, to found business models that work in a digital environment (e.g. Chiou and Tucker 2013;Goyanes 2014). There have, however, been indications that younger people are more inclined to pay for online content than print (e.g. Chyi and Lee 2013; Goyanes 2014; Picard 2014). In the present study, we investigate the cross-media demand of younger people and their willingness to pay for media content by using a survey based on a probability sample of Swedish participants aged 16-31 (n=1287); what platforms and content they use, what they pay for and how much they are willing to pay. By studying attitudes to access as well as actual inventories of access among young people, media-usage patterns and perceptions can be understood as taking place within set frames. These frames are set by various actors, in this study theoretically based on definitions of audiences (e.g., McQuail 2010), diffusion of media and cross media use (e.g., Rogers 2005), and consumer behaviour (e.g., Ekström 2010). The preliminary results indicate that the respondents both use and highly value access to both old and new media content and services and want to gain access to general as well as particular content.But in line with previous research, consumers do not always use what they prefer and are not willing to pay for what they use (e.g. Chyi and Lee 2013; Cook and Attari 2012). Price and supply were considered important, but currently the respondents “solved their media consumption in other ways” than paying, however, video-on-demand and streaming solutions, as well as particular content (like sports or TV series), were found to be more attractive to pay for. Subscription-based revenue models also appeared more appealing than one-time payments. These results can have important implications for the media industries future businesses.

  • 4.
    Ringfjord, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Raising Theoretical Concept Understanding In Courses With Journalist Students2017In: The 2nd EuroSoTL conference, June 8-9 2017, Lund, Sweden: Long paper / [ed] Roy Andersson, LTH Lund, Lund University , 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of teaching a theory course for journalism students, year three, preparing for thesis work. The purpose is to increase understandings of theoretical tensions in professions-oriented education and how they can be dealt with. Research questions are: 1. How are journalism students self-perception of theory and its relevance to them and their thesis, before and after a theory course using more student active learning elements? 2. How can selfperceptions be understood in relation to course evaluations and student performance? 3. What values can be understood as made possible of the different pedagogic elements and how are contextual aspects influencing? Didactic decisions for the course were guided by student-active learning: constructing learning through performing actions (Piaget, 1951), through experiential education (Dewey, 1938) emphasizing the learner in the learning process, and higher-level thinking skills (Bloom, 1956). Course aim was to socialize students into a more academic line of thinking, paired with strengthening them to integrate theory and practice. Therefore, the course combined following elements in progression: 1) Seminar, 2) Mini Lectures, and 3) Exercises. Method in the study is self-assessment (Bourke, 2010), first at the beginning of the course, second ten weeks after thesis for Bachelor degree. Course evaluation and teacher self-reflection is added as assessment perspective. Theory used to analyze the results is the embedding of research and inquiry through scaffolding (Healey et al, 2014). The analysis also includes Schulman’s (2005) signature pedagogies. Results imply there is a need to engage in changes of perceptions of what journalism is (practice-academia). This confirms the vital importance for professional learning of knowledge setting types and the epistemic practices and resources they offer (Nerland and Jensen, 2014)

  • 5.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Uppsala University.
    En gökunge i public service-boet?: Publikens roll i digitaliseringen av marksänd television2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a Swedish setting an audience orientation is applied to investigate public service TV in the ongoing development of terrestrial digital television. Focus is on institutionalised politics and public service TV companies Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) and Utbildningsradion (Education Radio).

    In a case study through a multitude of material, emphasizing policy docu­ments and interviews but also including media coverage, it is explored how and why the audience is involved in public service digital TV development. Is it an operation in the public interest, and what does this mean for public service as a media policy principle? 

    The empirical result indicates a complex and problematic audience, which is not constantly prioritized but always present. The audience legacy is threa­tened in public service TV by a consumer orientation. Concluding implications are on the one hand that feedback from the audience can not only be based in ratings and market analysis. On the other hand there is a need for an attitude towards public service legitimacy as utopian realism.

  • 6.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    En workshop om utmaningsbaserat lärande2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en workshop för att utforska och pröva vad utmaningsbaserat lärande skulle kunna vara. Den empiriska grunden för workshop-tillfället är ett pågående deltagarorienterat arbete vid Malmö högskola i form av först en strategi, sedan ett arbete i form av forskningscirkel och därefter lärandecirklar. I strategidokumentet Strategi 2020 har Malmö högskola temat: ”att utveckla högskolans pedagogik så att den ger studenterna bästa möjliga förutsättningar att leda och agera i olika förändringsprocesser. Arbetsnamnet för denna pedagogik är ”utmaningsbaserat lärande”’ (http://www.mah.se/Nyheter/Nyheter-2013/Var-med-och-utveckla-utmaningsbaserat-larande/). Under våren 2014 anordnade Centrum för Akademiskt Lärarskap i samarbete med enheten Innovation och utveckling vid gemensam förvaltning, en forskningscirkel med deltagare från olika fakulteter på högskolan där begreppet undersöktes. De definierande teman som utkristalliserades från detta deltagarorienterade arbete var: 1) Kritiskt görande, 2) Bygga på faktiska samhällsutmaningar, 3) ”Problem” förhandlas i samspel mellan lärare och studenter. Under 2015 sker fakultetsspecifika cirklar, så kallade lärandecirklar, för att skapa mer verksamhetsnära prövande i olika former. I detta workshop-tillfälle används forskningscirkel-perspektivet på ett komprimerat sätt för att fortsätta utforska och pröva vad utmaningsbaserat lärande skulle kunna vara. Vägledande för workshop-upplägget är att vara ett ”agonistic space” (Mouffe, 2000) där utmaningsbaserat lärande närmas som en arena för experiment för högskolepedagogisk utveckling snarare än en lösning. Genom att delta i workshopen får du dels inblick i det arbete som har gjorts, dels bidrar du till fler röster och perspektiv på ett pågående utvecklingsarbete.

  • 7.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Exploring how to research webisodes2019In: Media Mixing 2019: International symposium at Lund University, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I explore how to research webisodes as mixed modes of media production, distribution and reception. I argue that appropriate theoretical and meta-theoretical reflections are needed to research mixed modes of media production, distribution and reception in relation to each other. I use the notion of the ‘circuit of culture’ (du Gay 2013) to describe a theoretical foundation to understand relations between how cultural products – mixed modes or not – are produced, distributed and consumed. As a mixed mode technology product, the webisode is referred to as an example. A webisode is defined by its distribution. Production aspects can be very different, for example The Walking Dead webisodes or Fan-produced re-edited soap opera webisodes. The former invites discussions on business opportunities (Peirce 2012), the latter invites discussions on audiences as readers and consumers of resistance (Dhaenens 2012). A simple example used in the paper is that audiences can be studied as and by online focus groups articulating mixed modes in various ways. The Fan-produced re-edited soap opera webisode imply that audiences can be producers at the same time, hence becoming a particular form of “privatized leisure” (du Gay 2013:104) as consumption as well as production. On the other hand, The Walking Dead webisodes are part of a commercialized setting, hence becoming a produced “privatized leisure” offered for consumption. Online traces of both the online focus groups and the traffic data of the usage of the webisodes can further knowledge on location, temporality and sharing/storing.

  • 8.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Exploring Twitter as network site for research on and in social innovation.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doing research on and in social media highlights the complexity of seeing a researcher as something outside of a media practice. In this paper I articulate and explore my own research presence in social media, framing it in the context of doing research on (and in) ‘social innovation’. I argue that social media tools in fact can be seen as a social innovation of it’s own. Using the microblog tool Twitter I engage in different forms of practice: 1) following my followers social innovation activity on Twitter 2) asking my followers for social innovation examples on Twitter 3) conduct searches for social innovation on Twitter. Discussing production of this scientific knowledge I touch upon social circumstances surrounding social innovation. I present the ability of Putnam’s research on civicness to understand and explore possible value of social media practice in this context. Results implicate an intricate ongoing weaving of connecting practices, what I describe as themes of ‘cross-pollinations’, ‘personal as political’ and ‘dynamic communities’. I claim that the established norm of reciprocity and the forms it can take is especially interesting to explore more for doing research on and in social media.

     

     

  • 9.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    How Critical Digital Method Development can Strengthen Studies of Media and Terrorism2019In: Media and Journalism in an Age of Terrorism / [ed] Renaud de la Brosse and Kristoffer Holt, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019, p. 168-Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I argue and describe how studies of digital media and terrorism can be strengthened by increased methodological awareness concerning critical approaches and digital methods as critical digital methods. Critical digital method development is research involved in a reflexive project regarding digital methods and their role in shaping critical terrorism studies. The chapter includes suggestions for how this critical digital method development can be furthered.

  • 10.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    How to understand and use action research as critical digital methods2019In: Nordmedia 2019: Communication, Creativity & Imagination: Challenging the Field, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research methods are not neutral. There are different views on the value of both method and different methods and whether the use of theories plays a role in both study design and conclusions that can be drawn. Transferring media-bound methods from one medium to another is problematic because the methods used often carry a form of media understanding. What is problematic is that methods are often accompanied by a certain understanding that points to certain conclusions. It is linked to arguments about media and materiality, see for example about the media theory of Meyrowitz (1994). For example, it is problematic to use text-bound methods straight for audio or audiovisual media (see eg Hayles, 2004). See more Severson (2016) on method development linked to user-generated material and Leckner and Severson (2019) on method development as digital method triangulation.

    Digital media is both an interesting object of study in itself and as a means to explore how to use digital media as methods (digital methods). Media is a way to describe the tools we use to communicate across distances, across time and to more people at once than we could with our own voice and body. In common usage “media” is for communicating with more than just one person. Digital media is also the elements made possible by the combination of computers, software, and networks: interactivity and group forming. When you look at it in this way, the most important parts of digital media are not simply the conversion of regular media to digital formats. Digital media is also taking advantage of new capabilities relating to interactivity and group forming.

    For us scholars, probably the most significant aspect of “digitalness” is the accessibility and searchability that is offered with computerised media products compared to analogue media. Previous research methods often entailed great efforts on the material-gathering part of conducting a study. Furthermore, in the online and social media world, more information, such as social media interactions etc. are easily available for a large part of available media products, allowing us insights not only into the universe of the sender (as in classical content analysis), but also hints about the receptive sides (how many page views, “likes”, how many shares, etc where such things tell us something about how the readers have chosen to act based on the content).

    There are different theories and principles for collection and analysis of digital media. Several new fields of research are suggested and being formed: digital humanities, new media studies, digital methods. What is important to understand is that these emerging fields are normative and also ideologically divided. This is particularly evident when evaluating the ethical aspects of the study of digital media. The Association of Internet Researchers is a wellknown, wellestablished and well-renowned initiative for internet ethics. Their approach to ethics is to use their ethics documents as a starting point for inquiries and reflection. They see the documents as enriched by comments and contributions, hoping that others – where we are – will continue to call attention to issues and resources in Internet research ethics for debate and deliberation by the ethics working committee.

    Action research methodologies are inherently normative and have been discussed, used and criticized in various fields in media and journalism. Action research as method development is one issue in the research front in media and journalism studies (see for example Wagemans & Witschge, 2019). Participant-oriented initiatives that strengthen a good society are based on a more applied theoretical approach, where methodological aspects are involved. The collective knowledge development is important in an action research project. It can be called interactive research (Nielsen and Svensson, 2006), action research and participatory action research (Whyte, 2010). In digital media development, there is participatory design (Bödker and Pekkola, 2010). Classical qualitative data collection methods are interviews and observations, where the quest for understanding and qualities is crucial. Participant-oriented action research strives for interaction and joint knowledge production where the decisive factor is that some form of social change occurs. It is thus a more interventionist-based research, rather than as anthropology where participation is considered to prevent reflection and analysis. In participant-oriented action research, the goal is to go close, to do things together where the researcher from his position does not have the opportunity to create change without interaction with the participants. It is well in the international research front linked to media, see Löwgren and Reimer (2013). The classical theoretical concepts are such as “empowerment”, “participation” and “the commons”. Empowerment focuses on identifying capacity instead of risk and arguing for cooperation instead of authoritarian experts (Perkins and Zimmerman, 1995). Participation is about participating in an event (a situation, an action), which can be linked to political life as civic participation, but also to popular cultural phenomena as participatory culture (Jenkins et al, 2005). The commons describes resources held together, that are gifts and something in common (Barnes, 2006). The (new) concepts that are more connected to digital media development are crowd culture, open innovation and co-creation. Crowd culture is based on arguments about “wisdom of the crowds” where the collective intelligence is taken advantage of rather than an individual expert (Surowiecki, 2004). The phenomenon has also been referred to as collective action, when people create things together without traditional organizational structures (Shirky, 2008). Open innovation is the thesis that innovation and development should take place not only within businesses but also together with partners outside to share risk and reward (Chesbrough, 2003). It also coincides with “democratizing innovation” which claims that there is something democratizing in the fact that people participate in the development of products they use (von Hippel, 2005). Co-creation is partly used as a way of showing that value creation takes place in interaction between companies and consumers (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2004). Firstly, it points to a change for design, to go from user-centered design to designing with the users, with the opportunity to create new arenas for collective creativity (Sanders and Stappers, 2008). For a critical discussion on democratizing innovation, see Björgvinson and Severson (2014) and Severson (2014).

    This paper discusses and presents: how to understand and use action research as critical digital methods? The idea is that in the meeting between classical and new concepts, analytical opportunities are created for both critical discussions and potential actions. It is argued that critical approaches in action research studies encompass theoretical foundation, methodological tradition and what digital media as data can and could mean for society.

    The argument is that we need more advanced knowledge in the field of digital media and methods for sampling and analysis, concerning action research methods. We need further ability to integrate knowledge, analyse and manage complex phenomena, issues and situations. And finally, we need further developed ability and conditions to work independently and collectively with research, development or other qualified activities.

     

    Critical digital method development can strengthen action research studies. To make this argument, the epistemological and ontological assumptions of action research as critical digital methods are explained first. Critical methods are an invitation “to engage reflexively on methods and their role in shaping your critical research” (Montgomerie, 2017, p. 1). The underlying argument of a critical methodological perspective is that methods can be part of a critical project only if it is seen as non-neutral approaches to organize empirical material and shape a research design. Hence, methods carry political visions (Montgomerie, 2017). Critical method development is the advancement of the contemporary study of a particular research field by considering how methods shape what is critical about a piece of research. See further in Severson (2019) in an example of critical digital method development in studies of media and terrorism.

    This is followed by an argument of which applicable research designs that can be identified and described. Examples are given from Swedish and international examples of action research applications within media and journalism research. The discussion then focuses on methods for data collection within critical digital methods in relation to action research as creating knowledge together.

    These issues are used as reference points for the discussion:

    1. Reusing/renewing traditional methods in a digital context (”virtual methods”) and to separate ”found data” (automatically generated) and ”made data” (meaningful contextualised data) (Jensen, 2012)
    2. Digitally created methods: methods that are ”embedded” in the units that process online data (Rogers, 2013).

     

    The discussion highlights the value of stimulating innovative use of known methods for unexpected dimensions within the studied topic in relation to the tension with classical method concepts validity and reliability. The value of action research with appropriate theoretical and meta-theoretical reflections, are argued to provide more certainty in conclusions; and to be able to assist in constructing a more comprehensive perspective on specific analyses that otherwise are not made or not possible. The discussion includes particularly the value of awareness of the online-offline contexts as an onlife setting, being “inextricably interwoven” with each other (Simon & Ess, 2015: 157). Implications of this increased awareness can mean many things. It is argued that there are still few examples of action research making use of virtual and digital methods, even though they seem to be crucial in order to capture the complexities of the onlife. The paper ends with a reflection that critical interrogation of assumptions and biases of action research as part of configuring science needs further work.

     

    References

    von Hippel, E (2005) Democratizing innovation. MIT Press.

    Barnes, P (2006) Capitalism 3.0. Berrett-Koehler.

    Björgvinsson, E and Severson P (2014) Theme III Creative class struggles. In P. Ehn, E.M. Nilsson & R. Topgaard (Eds.) Making Futures: Marginal Notes on Innovation, Design and Democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Bödker, S and Pekkola, S (2010) A short review to the past and present of participatory design, in Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, 22(1).

    Chesbrough, HW (2003) Open Innovation. Harvard Business School Press.

    Hayles, Katherine (2004). Print Is Flat, Code Is Deep: The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis. Poetics Today, 25(1): 67-90.

    Jenkins H, Puroshotma R, Clinton K, Weigel M, and Robison, AJ (2005). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture, available at http://www.newmedialiteracies.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/NMLWhitePaper.pdf.

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn (2012). Lost, Found, and Made: Qualitative Data in the Study of Three-Step Flows of Communication. I Ingrid Volkmer (red.), The Handbook of Global Media Research, s. 435-450.  Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Leckner, S and Severson, P (forthcoming) Exploring the meaning problem of big and small data through digital method triangulation. Nordicom Review 40, Special Issue 1.

    Löwgren, J and Reimer, B (2013) Collaborative Media Production, Consumption, and Design Interventions. MIT Press.

    Meyrowitz, J (1994) Medium Theory, p. 50-77 in Crowley, David J. & Mitchell, David (eds.) Communication Theory Today. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

    Montgomerie, J (2017) Reimagining critical methods. In Critical Methods in Political and Cultural Economy, edited by Johnna Montgomerie, 1-19, London: Routledge.

    Nielsen KA and Svensson, L (2006) Action Research and Interactive Research. Shaker Verlag.

    Perkins, DD and Zimmerman MA (1995) Empowerment Theory, Research, and Application. I American Journal of Community Psychology 23 (5).

    Prahalad CH and Ramaswamy, V (2004) Co-creation experiences. Journal of Interactive Marketing 18 (3).

    Rogers, R (2013) Digital Methods. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    Sanders, EBN and Stappers, PJ (2008). Co-creation and the new landscapes of design. I CoDesign 4(1).

    Severson, P (2014) Stories on futuremaking in everyday practices from managers within the creative industries. In P. Ehn, E.M. Nilsson & R. Topgaard (Eds.), Making Futures: Marginal Notes on Innovation, Design and Democracy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Severson, P (2016) Medvetna frågor och val: Utveckling av metoder för att undersöka användargenererat material i digitala kontexter. Nordicom Information 38, 57-70.

    Severson, P (2019) How Critical Digital Method Development can Strengthen Studies of Media and Terrorism, In R. de la Brosse & K. Holt (Eds.) Journalism in a world of terrorism – terrorism in the world of journalism. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    Shirky, C (2008) Here comes everybody. Penguin Group.

    Simon, J and Ess, C (2015). The ONLIFE initiative: A concept reengineering exercise. Philosophy and Technology, 28(1): 157-162.

    Surowiecki, JM (2004) Wisdom of the crowds. Doubleday; Anchor.

    Wagemans, A and Witschge, T (2019) Examining innovation as process: Action research in journalism studies. Convergence, 25(2), 209–224.

    Whyte, WF (2010)[1943] ”Bilaga A. Om utvecklingen av Street Corner) Society”, i Whyte, WF Street Corner Society: Den sociala strukturen i en italiensk amerikansk slumstadsdel. Éga

  • 11.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Jurisdiktion i professionella identitets-berättelser på ett interaktionsdesign-företag2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta paper syftar till att undersöka jurisdiktion som kommer till uttryck i professionella identiteter kopplat till interaktionsdesign. Det studeras utifrån intervjuer med 14 anställda på ett interaktionsdesigns-företag, genomförda efter en semi-strukturerad intervjuguide tematiserad som livsberättelse kopplade till yrkesutveckling. Fokus är berättelser om hur kontroll av arbetsområdet interaktionsdesign kan förvärvas och upprätthållas. Det görs utifrån professionella identiteter, vilket innebär att belysa vem man identifierar sig med och på vilket sätt det sker kopplat till utbildningsinstitutionen och arbetsorganisationen. Det handlar också om att uppmärksamma vad man söker sig till och från i karriärförändringar. Det medför även att åskådliggöra hur livs- och arbetslivserfarenheter förhåller sig till varandra.

     Resultaten visar att arbetsplatsen har stor betydelse. I karriärförändringar märks att förändring sker utifrån främst ett sökande efter målet bra interaktionsdesign. Tillåts inte denna goda interaktionsdesign, byter man företag. Det framgår också att utbildningar är viktiga men inte helt lyckats skapa det som personerna vill göra: god användbarhet. Därför har de fått bygga sin utveckling själv, där företaget förkroppsligar det egna idealet. Företaget har också möjlighet att fylla personernas behov att få trygghet i anställningen, både i betydelsen säker inkomst och att få skapa kvalitet. Denna goda interaktionsdesign skapas genom att göra de mest användarvänliga produkterna och tjänsterna, där det handlar om att kunna bevisa nyttan genom metoder för användarstudier samt genom att mäta effektivitet. God interaktionsdesign anses därmed ta ett särskilt ansvar för kunden, samt ingå i ett större hela av att agera i allmänhetens intresse: att bidra till en god medieutveckling. Överlag finns ett stort upplevt ansvar kring denna goda interaktionsdesign.

     Analysen visar på att det skulle kunna gå att argumentera för närvaron av en ”användarupplevelse-jurisdiktion”, där arenan är det teknologiska och det socio-materiella står i fokus. Grunden är det socialas betydelse som en del av det materiella, med normer och värderingar kring användarvänlighet och användarupplevelse, som förutsätter både en teknisk och en mer estetisk kompetens. 

  • 12.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Medvetna frågor och val: Utveckling av metoder för att undersöka användargenererat material i digitala kontexter2016In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 57-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an article concerning the development of methods for studying user-generated content (UGC) in digital contexts. Method development can advantageously mean applying analytical reference points: a form of perspective making and navigation with a common understanding of where different disciplines can contribute. Cultural studies on ‘pleasure’ raises the understanding connected to how UGC creates meaning for the people who use and create the material, for the content which has different meanings and for the view that politics is broader than news. Design research on ‘personas’ recalls how images of users are built into the development of services as well as in research. Informatics (computer science) ‘data mining’ deepens understanding of the importance of the digital as research material (data) and the skills that are required to analyse the data. These three analytical points of reference work in interaction with discussions related to tools about precisely how a study may be designed.

  • 13.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Participatory design theory on collaboration to further understanding of journalistic practices2013In: Defending Democracy: Nordic and Global Diversities in Media and Journalism / [ed] Harald Hornmoen & Kristin Skare Orgeret, Nordicom, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the field of participatory design is argued as offering valuable theoretical insight to further understanding of journalistic practices in the context of digital media’s participatory possibilities.

    Participatory design is referred to and used as perspectives sharing concern for a ‘more humane, creative and effective relationship between those involved in technology’s design and its use’ (Suchman, 1993). Tensions within the participatory design field concerning collaborative ethics are presented and discussed. Latour’s Actor Network Theory is argued as bridging participatory design with existing journalism research.

    Gatekeeping, White’s (1950) classic concept, is used as an example what participatory design can mean for studying journalistic practices. The theoretical concept ‘relational gatekeeping’ is presented as valuable to understand gatekeeping processes in media and news production, adding insight by focusing on aligning formations, like alliances and affiliations. 

  • 14.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Public service media engaging in fan-based social networked practices2013In: The Place of Public Service Broadcasting: Transnationalism, Localism and Identity in the Digital Age, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is exploring how public service media is engaging in fan-based social networked practices. The purpose is to describe and contribute to a deepened understanding of articulations and re-negotiations of the public service media ideal of being in the public interest taking place in activities based on the involvement of ‘fans’.

     

    The theoretical underpinnings are twofold: building on the argument from Beck (2005), to start from networks to understand institutions, and from Jenkins (1992, 2006) to relate fan-culture to participatory culture in media development.

     

    A case study is made of a campaign 2009, from the Swedish public service television company Swedish Television, called Dear Steve Jobs (http://dearstevejobs.com/). The campaign was directed towards the CEO of Apple, Steve Jobs, to make him approve the application SVT play for iPhone. The campaign was started by a PR-agency and spread in social media. A qualitative analysis is made of the material in social media (blogs, Twitter and Facebook), what was written about the campaign in Swedish daily press and an interview with the project leader for the campaign.

     

    Results show that the socio-material aspects of social networked media include being an arena where interest and admiration (fans) creates a space where democratic values becomes intertwined with commercial efforts. 

  • 15.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Searching for voice as democratic values in contemporary Swedish web archive initiatives2017In: Digital Democracy: Book of Abstracts / [ed] ECREA Sections: Communication and Democracy; and Media Industries and Cultural Production, Flemmingsberg, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents initial results from a study of various contemporary web archive initiatives in Sweden. Archives are subjective rather than objective, as well as methods for archiving and tracking and searching and documenting for digital material research (MacNeil & Eastwood,2017). The purpose of the study is to analyse and distinguish what voices are made present in the web archive initiatives, how digitization matter in this voice-making and how this can be understood in relation to democratic values.

    The method is a qualitative content analysis of the web archive initiatives online presence (the archive web site), including both self-decriptions and the site’s affordances. Empirically the material for the analysis consist of the following Swedish national archive initiatives:

    1. Kungliga Biblioteket, Sweden’s national library, a national initiative to preserve the cultural heritage of the aftermath;

    2. Rättviseförmedlingen, NGO, uses inquiries and dissemination of lists using social media to broaden the selection of competencies;

    3. The Center for Business History, a non-profit association with companies as primary members, works to preserve and tell business history;

    4. Platsr, Riksantikvarieämbetets site for stories and memories where anyone can contribute;

    5. Kringla, collects heritage archives.

    These archive initiatives have different aims, different initiators with different interaction and contributing actors, and use different (and more or less visible) archiving methods.

    The analysis focuses on voice in the archive, based on Carpentier’s analysis model (2011) forparticipant-oriented processes. Analysis show variations of values linked to voice where technologydirects attention and power to certain “voices” (themes, categories etc). These variations, this diversity,is discussed in relation to resistance and the perspective of how the archive is part of larger public (public voice). The paper concludes with a discussion of these various public voice’s implicationsin relation to democratic values as universal service, participation and agency.

  • 16.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Social media support and strengthen public service media among media professionals2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is studying how public service-media is "talked about" within the social media tool twitter (www.twitter.com). Following the Swedish twitter-sphere, I take a netnographic approach following these issues: 

    1. How, where and why becomes public service-broadcasting a twitter theme? 

    2. How person-oriented vs institution-oriented is the discussion?

    3. What underlying values can be found in the discussion?

    The analytical framework is participatory culture that is a landmark of the new media logic: affiliations, expressions, collaborative problem-solving and flows of media. Main result is that within social media a strong support for public service-values can be found. One special example is how the the online service SVT play, starts a "twitter-appeal" concerning Apple allowing it to be an application for iPhone.

  • 17.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Stories on futuremaking in everyday practices from managers within the creative industries2014In: Making Futures: Marginal Notes on Innovation, Design and Democracy / [ed] Pelle Ehn, Elisabet M. Nilsson and Richard Topgaard, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2014, 1, p. 258-266Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Strategic development of educational technologies2014In: Educational Development in a changing world, 16-18 June, 2014, Stockholm, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses strategic educational development of educational technologies. A case study (Yin, 1994) is made of a higher education organisation exploring potential for social media as educational technology. The analysis highlights the value of understanding characteristics of social media in relation to formal information and communication systems as Learning Management Systems (LMS). Technical action is an exercise of power (Feenberg and Friesen, 2012), and the value lies in acknowledging complexity in technology adoption for education (Ferneding, 2003).

     A relationship between social media and LMS is therefore discerned by using the analytical concepts risk and autonomy, argued to be of specific relevance for higher education. Educational technology researchers use the concept risk, not as a theoretical or analytical concept but as describing a change where technological deterministic approaches and politicization are risk factors for (autonomous) education (Ferneding, 2003; Selwyn, 2011 and 2013). Autonomy in the context of the interplay between higher education and digital technology can describe a desired learner autonomy (Boud, 2012), or where student’s expectations of social autonomy from digital technology can create a tension in higher education of de-professionalisation, not having the autonomy to decide not to acquire the competence (Selwyn, 2011).

     In the case the willingness to deploy autonomy was highly influenced by perceived risks. Established academic hierarchies were both performed and questioned. The blurring of roles and boundaries and the paradigmatic changes that were project goals were by some perceived as highly risky business. Open and collaborative were seen as threatening integrity and expert knowledge. The presence of authority also influenced the project. In the project there was dispersed authority. At the same time the project was very grounded in articulated risks, and activities were clearly oriented towards seeking safety. A perceived risk was that the University should include and work with students on other platforms otherwise they would attend other Universities, companies or the internet for education. A boundary practice of relevance for reducing risk is informed consent. For LMS, or e-mail as work process, the issue of informed consent does not occur, but for participating in social media in different ways informed consent became an issue and articulated not so much among the participants in the project but among others in the organisation. Social media became distancing from business as usual, as should be in a strategic educational development of educational technologies, but the goal of the project was seen as ‘doing social media’ rather than doing development of educational technologies’. Risk aspects of social media that came up during the project were blurring boundaries and integrity, as well as misbehaviour. And at the same time social media created safe communities for students in a course connected to the project. What we see is the LMS and social media being perceived in different ways. For social media it is depending on what individuals see as safe and/or risk and what other individuals do with the material online. For some it is valuable that social commenting is made public. For some it is involved with some kind of risk. For the LMS the clear-cut boundaries can be seen as safe-making in the roles of the teacher and the student, where digital contact is one on one and the LMS is mainly for administrative purposes.

     For initiatives on educational technologies there are different situated perceived risks related to autonomy that can be of value for understanding resistance to strategic development. Technology is not so much determining development, as perceived risks and ascribed link to autonomy. The orientation of student perspective in the project emphasised learner autonomy, but became a tension of de-professionalisation regarding less autonomy in relation to technology. 

  • 19.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Super Teletext: A Social Shaping of Teletext as Locating Newness in a Media Convergence Future2016In: Teletext in Europe: From the Analogue to the Digital Era / [ed] Halvard Moe and Hilde Van den Bulck, Gothenburg: Nordicom, 2016, p. 131-149Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of teletext’s role in the development of digital terrestrial television in Sweden, particularly as super teletext, focusing on the public service television company Sveriges Television (Swedish Television) (SVT), and this company’s policy documents, both strategy documents and public service audits, in the period 1996-2002. The purpose is to articulate and deepen our understanding of teletext’s involvement in this development, guided by the following questions: What were the arguments SVT used for approaching and developing teletext? How did teletext’s placement in the organization change? What general understanding about the dynamics of media change can be found in teletext development? The analysis is made from the general epistemological standpoint of social shaping of technology, the specific media convergence theory often used as a hypothesis for digital media development, and an identifiable concept to highlight the local and situated aspect of newness in media technology development. The main results suggest that super teletext initially made it possible for teletext to be a part of locating newness in a media convergence future in: connecting teletext to a media convergence hypothesis; serving as an aligning-symbol between TV and PC; functioning as an argument for technological experiments; ascribing newness as a way of securing public service values in a digital future. Later, super teletext was described as inferior to teletext, in a combination of lacking interactivity and going beyond teletext’s close relationship with news and the tradition of news culture.

  • 20.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    The Politics of Women’s Digital Archives and Its Significance for the History of Journalism2018In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 6, no 9, p. 1222-1238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the politics of digital archives focused explicitly on women journal- ists and their work. A key question is here the wider implications and value for journal- ism historiography. A qualitative analysis is conducted of the online presence of two illustrative archives, one an oral history project called Women in Journalism and the other a women’s history database called Kvinnsam. The analysis finds that whereas the archives do not lend themselves to participation as agency in co-constructing history, they give access to otherwise nonsearchable, nonvisible, and nonaccessible material of relevance to the history of women journalists and their work. The agency and political power of the archives are dependent on institutions, first, to simply materialize as online archives and, second, to (potentially) affect political matters and express political acts of resistance. For journalism history studies, this means engaging with the archives that exist, what forms they have, and how they are used. For digital journalism, this also implies a discussion of how archival experimenting could develop the field.

  • 21.
    Severson, Pernilla
    Malmö University.
    Using profession theory concept jurisdiction to further understanding of SOTL’s bridging boundary conditions and possibilites2015In: EuroSoTL 2015: Bridging Boundaries through the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning: Proceedings of the inaugural European conference on the scholarship of Teaching and Learning / [ed] Catherine O'Mahoney, Bettie Higgs and Sandra Irwin, Cork: Centre for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (CIRTL), University College Cork Copyright © CIRTL 2015 , 2015, p. 29-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) is discussed in relation to profession studies. SoTL is situated and constructed as an academic skills development process for teaching higher education. In many ways SoTL can be understood as professionalisation of a field of work as well as professional development in higher education. In this paper profession theory inspires a furthering of SoTL by using the analytical concept jurisdiction; which means groups of people managing to get jurisdiction within a line of work. Jurisdiction is a way to demarcate against other groups. It is linked to differentiation (divide in areas of responsibility), and integration (cooperation in teams). Jurisdiction is to claim something. SoTL claims to create high quality higher teaching and learning. Being an academic developer is claiming jurisdiction of a certain form of expertise, not resembling traditional meanings of expertise. In this paper a suggestion of a start of history of jurisdictions of SoTL is given by referring to classic work of Bass, Boyer and Schulman, on how they present who served these jurisdictions, where they came from, how it was created, how conflict shaped participants. It is discerned that jurisdiction makes articulate how degradation implicates competition. It brings forward values of constructing and placing academic development organisations in academia. It also brings a deepened understanding of frictions in the everyday life of an academic developer. In conclusion it is argued that profession studies can enrich SoTL, by acknowledging competition and possible cooperation, bridging boundaries is made possible.

  • 22.
    Severson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Media and Journalism.
    Leckner, Sara
    Malmö Universitet.
    Media audiences imagining themselves in relation to future living2017In: Audiences2030 Imagining a Future for Audiences: Book of Abstracts / [ed] CEDAR network, Lisboa, 2017, Vol. 1, p. 36-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audience studies have a history of studying people reading, listening and watching mass media at home. Domestication, as Silverstone and Haddon (1996) describe it, is an understanding of the design/domestication interface, implying a process of mutually shaping. This study contributes to an understanding of the future of audiences as still taking place in a home where connected media becomes integrated.

    By using a survey of students (n=1287) on what media selection is considered to be important to have access to in future student accommodation, a study is made of the implications of a youthful audience and a connected audience.

    The results show that students use and highly value access to both old and new media content and services and want to gain access to general as well as particular content and services (like sports or TV series). Hence, youthful audiences self-perceived attitudes towards being and becoming connected audiences imply a domestic access resembling the value of public access. Understandings of connected media in relation the interplay of youthful audiences and accommodation illustrate the socio-political challenge of the domestic sphere as configuring and offering a universal service. The socio-political challenge of structuring future connected audiences is what connections are actually made possible by access. By studying attitudes to access as well as actual inventories of access in the domestic sphere, media usage patterns and perceptions can be understood as taking place within set frames. These frames are set by various actors, like owners of apartment buildings, as more or less in a dialogue with and agency of potential audiences.

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