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  • 1.
    Adams, Marc A.
    et al.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Ding, Ding
    University of Sydney, Australia.
    Sallis, James F.
    University of California, USA.
    Bowles, Heather R.
    National Institutes of Health, USA.
    Ainsworth, Barbara E.
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bull, Fiona C.
    The University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Carr, Harriette
    Ministry of Health, New Zealand.
    Craig, Cora L.
    School of Public Health, Canada.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Fernando Gomez, Luis
    Hagstromer, Maria
    Klasson-Heggebo, Lena
    Inoue, Shigeru
    Lefevre, Johan
    Macfarlane, Duncan J.
    Matsudo, Sandra
    Matsudo, Victor
    McLean, Grant
    Murase, Norio
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Tomten, Heidi
    Volbekiene, Vida
    Bauman, Adrian
    Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants' response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA. Methods: A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted on pooled IPS adults (N=11,541) aged 18 to 64 years old (mean=37.5 +/- 12.8 yrs; 55.6% women) from 11 countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U. S. This subset used the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) that briefly assessed 7 attributes within 10-15 minutes walk of participants' residences, including residential density, access to shops/services, recreational facilities, public transit facilities, presence of sidewalks and bike paths, and personal safety. LCA derived meaningful subgroups from participants' response patterns to PANES items, and participants were assigned to neighborhood types. The validated short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured likelihood of meeting the 150 minutes/week PA guideline. To validate derived classes, meeting the guideline either by walking or total PA was regressed on neighborhood types using a weighted generalized linear regression model, adjusting for gender, age and country. Results: A 5-subgroup solution fitted the dataset and was interpretable. Neighborhood types were labeled, "Overall Activity Supportive (52% of sample)", "High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities (16%)", "Safe with Active Transport Facilities (12%)", "Transit and Shops Dense with Few Amenities (15%)", and "Safe but Activity Unsupportive (5%)". Country representation differed by type (e. g., U. S. disproportionally represented "Safe but Activity Unsupportive"). Compared to the Safe but Activity Unsupportive, two types showed greater odds of meeting PA guideline for walking outcome (High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities, OR=2.26 (95% CI 1.18-4.31); Overall Activity Supportive, OR=1.90 (95% CI 1.13-3.21). Significant but smaller odds ratios were also found for total PA. Conclusions: Meaningful neighborhood patterns generalized across countries and explained practical differences in PA. These observational results support WHO/UN recommendations for programs and policies targeted to improve features of the neighborhood environment for PA.

  • 2.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Effects on white blood cells in senior citizens during post exercise recovery in three different environments (indoors, simulated outdoors and outdoors)2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Natural environments are known to promote health and may also provide extraordinary conditions for post exercise recovery (Kuo 2015). In the project Health Effects of Recreation Outdoors (HERO) we explore the hypothesis that post exercise recovery in natural environments may be reflected in white blood cell counts (WBC). In our study 50 seniors (age >65 years) performed moderate physical activity (20 min) followed by passive recovery (2h) in three different environments (indoors, simulated outdoors and “true” outdoors).

    Method

    The experimental setup was a randomized cross-over design, thus all test persons did all treatments in a randomized order. We sampled white blood cells (WBC-diff), which were used to detect and quantify inflammatory response.

    Results

    Our early findings provide some support for the hypothesis that environment may impose differences in recovery effectiveness. White blood cell count (WBC-diff) appears to differ between the treatments and there is a significant interaction between sampling time and recovery environment in the monocytes, suggesting that the monocyte numbers differ, not only between sampling times but also between environments. In addition, WBC also show that some of the test persons develop leukocytosis during exercise and that white blood cell levels decrease rapidly immediately post exercise to levels significantly lower than base line values.

    Discussion

    Our results suggest that moderate physical activity in senior citizens may result in acute leukocytosis (see e.g. Sand et. al. 2013) and that recovery effectiveness (e.g in monocyte response) may be dependent upon environmental factors. The clinical importance of our results are not fully understood but there has been suggested an “open window” immediately post exercise in which infection risk may be elevated (Pedersen & Toft 2000) and it is possible that recovery out of doors may reduce this risk.

    References

    Sand, K., L, Flatebo, K., Andersen, M., B., Maghazachi, A., A. (2013) World J Exp Med 20; 3(1): 11-20

    Pedersen, B., K. & Toft, A., D. (2000) Br J Sports Med 34:246–251

    Kuo, M. (2015) Frontiers in Psychology 6:1-8

  • 3. Alexander, Anneli
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    IPAQ environmental module; Reliability testing2006In: Journal of Public Health, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 76-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Alexander, Anneli
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    Metodprövning av IPAQs miljömodul2005In: Läkarstämman, Stockholm, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andreasson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Keeping Death at Bay through Health Negotiation: Older Adults' Understanding of Health and Life within Gym and Fitness Culture2016In: Activities, Adaptation & Aging, ISSN 0192-4788, E-ISSN 1544-4368, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 200-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses older adults’ trajectories leading to membership in a gym, and the ways in which they negotiate their self-understanding, aging, and health in this context. Emanating from an ethnographic study, the arguments are based on a constructionist approach. The results show that older adults’ decision to start going to a gym should be understood in relation to an individualized health care system in Swedish society and as a means of negotiating deteriorating health, retirement, lost body capacity, and the meaning of becoming old. The physical activities carried out and the social relationships developed in these contexts are used to construct an empowered self-understanding prepared to challenge the “stiffness” of the dying body.

  • 6. Bergman, Patrick
    Barn och fysisk aktivitet2007In: Sjukgymnastdagarna, Stockholm, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7. Bergman, Patrick
    Health enhancing physical activity and the neighbourhood environment2008In: The Stockholm Seminars on Physical Activity and Public Health, GIH, Stockholm, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Bergman, Patrick
    Health enhancing physical activity, sociodemograpic factors and the neighbourhood environment2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9. Bergman, Patrick
    Physical activity in european adolescents2008In: European childhood obesity group, Porto, Portugal, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The number of repeated observations needed to estimate the habitual physical activity of an individual to a given level of precision.2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 2, article id e0192117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity behavior varies naturally from day to day, from week to week and even across seasons. In order to assess the habitual level of physical activity of a person, the person must be monitored for long enough so that the level can be identified, taking into account this natural within-person variation. An important question, and one whose answer has implications for study- and survey design, epidemiological research and population surveillance, is, for how long does an individual need to be monitored before such a habitual level or pattern can be identified to a desired level of precision? The aim of this study was to estimate the number of repeated observations needed to identify the habitual physical activity behaviour of an individual to a given degree of precision. A convenience sample of 50 Swedish adults wore accelerometers during four consecutive weeks. The number of days needed to come within 5-50% of an individual's usual physical activity 95% of the time was calculated. To get an idea of the uncertainty of the estimates all statistical estimates were bootstrapped 2000 times. The mean number of days of measurement needed for the observation to, with 95% confidence, be within 20% of the habitual physical activity of an individual is highest for vigorous physical activity, for which 182 days are needed. For sedentary behaviour the equivalent number of days is 2.4. To capture 80% of the sample to within ±20% of their habitual level of physical activity, 3.4 days is needed if sedentary behavior is the outcome of interest, and 34.8 days for MVPA. The present study shows that for analyses requiring accurate data at the individual level a longer measurement collection period than the traditional 7-day protocol should be used. In addition, the amount of MVPA was negatively associated with the number of days required to identify the habitual physical activity level indicating that the least active are also those whose habitual physical activity level is the most difficult to identify. These results could have important implications for researchers whose aim is to analyse data on an individual level. Before recommendations regarding an appropriate monitoring protocol are updated, the present study should be replicated in different populations.

  • 11.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Andersson, Magdalena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Physical activity and its influence on monitoring of physical activity2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Mårild, Staffan
    Physical activity behaviour in Children 2-8 years2010In: ICO2010 Pre Congress Meeting Sociocultural, Behavioral and Economic Factors in Obesity Prevention, Stockholm. Sweden, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Grjibovski, A. M.
    Hagstromer, M.
    Patterson, E.
    Sjöström, M.
    Congestion road tax and physical activity2010In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0749-3797, E-ISSN 1873-2607, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 171-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Large-scale policy and environmental changes, such as congestion road taxes, may be a way to promote active transportation. PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the potential effect of a congestion road tax on physical activity. METHODS: Baseline data were collected during October-November 2003, follow-up data in May 2006, and analysis was performed in September 2008. The short self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess physical activity. Data from those with access to motorized vehicles in the Stockholm region (n=165), where the tax was in place, were compared with those from the Goteborg/Malmo regions (n=138). Within each region before and during the road tax implementation, the data were analyzed for differences in time spent at different intensity levels of physical activity, in addition to sitting, as well as for changes in reported time in overall (weighted) physical activity. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the magnitude of the changes of the intensity levels of physical activity, weighted overall physical activity, or sitting, between Stockholm and Goteborg/Malmo. Among those exposed to the congestion road tax and with access to motorized vehicles, an increase in moderate physical activity (p=0.036); overall physical activity (p=0.015); and a reduction in time spent sitting (p=0.009) was observed. No differences were observed among those unexposed. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study on the influence of a congestion road tax on levels of physical activity, though inconclusive, suggest that policy changes such as a congestion road tax might promote improvements in physical activity levels in individuals with motorized vehicles.

  • 14. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Bauman, Adrian
    Sjöström, Michael
    Adherence to physical activity recommendations and the influence of socio-demographic correlates - a population-based cross-sectional study2008In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 8:367Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sallis, James F
    Sjöström, Michael
    The association between health enhancing physical activity and neighbourhood environment among Swedish adults a population-based cross-sectional study2009In: International Journal of Behaviour Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 6, p. Article ID: 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study examines the relationship of neighbourhood environment factors with walking and total health enhancing physical activity.

    Methods

    A population-based cross-sectional study. The short self-administered version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess health enhancing physical activity including walking. The neighbourhood environment was assessed using a 17-item environmental module. A principal component analysis among the environmental variables was conducted. The factor scores were divided into tertiles and independent associations between factor tertiles and physical activity categories and walking were studied by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for confounders.

    Results

    In adjusted models, a lower odds ratio (OR) for reaching the middle, OR: 0.66 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47–0.98), and upper, OR: 0.65 (0.45–0.95), tertile of walking was observed among those in the lowest tertile of the degree of urbanisation. A higher OR for reaching the middle, OR: 1.84 (1.28–1.64), and upper tertile, OR: 1.64 (1.14–2.36), of walking was observed among those in the lowest tertile of fear of crime. A higher OR for reaching the high category of total health enhancing physical activity was observed among those in the lowest, OR: 2.01 (1.32–3.05), and middle tertile, OR: 1.52 (1.02–2.25), of the factor degree of urbanisation.

    Conclusion

    The findings suggest that the environment is differentially related to walking and total health enhancing physical activity. This should be explored in future research to disentangle the complex relationship between different levels and aspects of physical activity and their relationship with the environment.

  • 16. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Forskning pågår...: Barn, Fysisk aktivitet och hälsa2007In: Fysioterapeuten, no 6-7, p. 40-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Oja, Pekka
    Sjöström, Michael
    Environmental factors are associated with level of physical activity.2006In: CDC conference on physical activity and public health, Atlanta USA, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Sjöström, Michael
    Kan närmiljön påverka befolkningens aktivitetsnivå?2005In: Läkarstämman, Stockholm, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Patterson, Emma
    Grjibovski, Andrej M
    Sjöström, Michael
    Gender differences in physical activity among Swedish adults2006In: American College of Sports Medicine, 53rd Annual Meeting., Denver, Colorado, USA., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöstrom, Michael
    Närmiljö och fysisk aktivitet2006In: Svensk Idrottsmedicinsk Tidskrift, no 2, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    Urban-Rural difference in the influence of environmental features on physical activity2008In: International conference on Physical Activity and Health, Amsterdam, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Linder, Jan
    Äng, Björn
    Electromyographic evaluation of cervical neck muscles among aviatory pilots2001In: Sjukgymnastdagarna, Stockholm, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Patterson, Emma
    Hagströmer, Maria
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Ortega, Fransciso B
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Manios, Yannis
    Rey-López, J. Pablo
    Phillipp, Katharina
    von Berlepsch, Juliana
    Sjöström, Michael
    Concurrent validity of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-A) in European adolescents – The HELENA study2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24. Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Patterson, Emma
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Sjöström, Michael
    How long is a day?2008In: International Conference on Physical Activity and Health, Amsterdam, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bonn, Stephanie E
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva
    Karolinska Institutet;Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge.
    Sjölander, Arvid
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bälter, Katarina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    A validation study of the web-based physical activity questionnaire Active-Q against the GENEA Accelerometer2015In: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Valid physical activity assessment in epidemiological studies is essential to study associations with various health outcomes.

    OBJECTIVE:

    To validate the Web-based physical activity questionnaire Active-Q by comparing results of time spent at different physical activity levels with results from the GENEA accelerometer and to assess the reproducibility of Active-Q by comparing two admissions of the questionnaire.

    METHODS:

    A total of 148 men (aged 33 to 86 years) responded to Active-Q twice and wore the accelerometer during seven consecutive days on two occasions. Time spent on six different physical activity levels including sedentary, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) as well as additional combined categories of sedentary-to-light and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity was assessed. Validity of Active-Q was determined using Spearman correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and the Bland-Altman method. Reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) comparing two admissions of the questionnaire.

    RESULTS:

    The validity correlation coefficients were statistically significant for time spent at all activity levels; sedentary (r=0.19, 95% CI: 0.04-0.34), LPA (r=0.15, 95% CI: 0.00-0.31), sedentary-to-light (r=0.35, 95% CI: 0.19-0.51), MPA (r=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.42), VPA (r=0.54, 95% CI: 0.42-0.67), and MVPA (r=0.35, 95% CI: 0.21-0.48). The Bland-Altman plots showed a negative mean difference for time in LPA and positive mean differences for time spent in MPA, VPA and MVPA. The ICCs of test-retest reliability ranged between r=0.51-0.80 for the different activity levels in Active-Q.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    More moderate and vigorous activities and less light activities were reported in Active-Q compared to accelerometer measurements. Active-Q shows comparable validity and reproducibility to other physical activity questionnaires used today.

  • 26.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    A two-peaked increase of serum myosin heavy chain-α after full distance triathlon demonstrates heart muscle cell death2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is an ongoing debate about the significance of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) elevation after strenuous exercise: heart muscle cell death versus physiologic mechanism of release through an intact cell membrane. While cTnT is a small molecule (37 kDa), cardiac specific myosin heavy chain-alpha (MHC-α) is much larger (224 kDa) and an increase after exercise could hardly be explained by passage through an intact cardiac cell membrane. PURPOSE: To measure MHC-α, and other biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP); cTnT, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MG), creatinine (C), and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) before and after a full distance Ironman in order to answer the question of heart muscle cell death versus physiologic changes. 

    Methods: In 52 non-elite athletes (14 female, 38 male; age 41.1 ± 9.7, range 24-70 years; all completed the race) biomarkers were measured by standard laboratory methods 7 days before, directly after, and day 1, 4 and 6 after the race. MHC-α was measured with a commercially available ELISA with no cross reactivity with other myosins. 

    Results: The course of MHC-α concentration [µg/L] was 1.33 ± 0.53 (before), 2.57 ± 0.78 (directly after), 1.51 ± 0.53 (day 1), 2.74 ± 0.55 (day 4) and 1.83 ± 0.76 (day 6). Other biomarkers showed a one-peaked increase with maximal values either directly after the race or at day 1: cTnT 76 ± 80 ng/L (12-440; reference <15), NT-proBNP 776 ± 684 ng/L (92-4700; ref. < 300), CK 68 ± 55 µkat/L (5-280; ref. < 1.9), MG 2088 ± 2350 µg/L (130-17000; ref.< 72), and creatinine 100 ± 20 µmol/L (74-161; ref. < 100), CRP 49 ± 23 mg/L (15-119; ref.< 5). There was a significant correlation between MHC-α and NT-proBNP (R=0.48; p<0.001) but neither between MHC-α and cTnT (R=0.13; p=0.36) nor MHC-α and myoglobin (R=0.18; p=0.2). 

    Conclusion: An Ironman leads to remarkable disturbances in biomarkers as e.g. cTnT was in the range of myocardial infarction in 100% of women and 97% of men. This is to our best knowledge the first investigation of MHC-α after strenuous exercise and its two-peaked increase most likely represents first release from the cytosolic pool and later from cell necrosis including the contractile apparatus. However, many questions remain, not at least why MHC-α baseline levels are as high as 1.33 ± 0.53 µg/L. 

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Two-peaked increase of serum myosin heavy chain-α after Ironman demonstrates heart muscle cell death2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 5 Supplement 1, p. 186-, article id 734Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Increase of biomarkers after the Kalmar Ironman in male and female non-elite triathletes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strenuous and prolonged exercise like marathon, ultra running and triathlon can lead to changes in biomarkers of cardiac, muscle and kidney functional damage.

    We present the data of 29 (15 male, 14 female) non-elite participants of the Kalmar Ironman 2015 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling, 42 km running). Pre-race electrocardiograms and echocardiograms showed a high frequency of abnormalities. Post race elevations of troponin T, creatine kinase, myoglobin, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, aspartataminotransferas, creatinine and leucocytes returned to normal in almost all cases within 5-8 days. In 100% of male and 93% of female participants’ troponin T increase was compatible with the diagnosis of minor myocardial infarction. Some results are shown in the table (* denotes level of significance between male and female results).

                                               Before race         Directly after race        5-8 days after race

    CK [µkat/L]                                      

    male                                                 3.7 ± 2.1**       48,1 ± 44.1                4.5 ± 4.0

    female                                   1.5 ± 0.7          30.5 ± 41.5                3.1 ± 3.6

    Myoglobin [µg/L

    male                                      58.3 ± 35.9        2449 ± 1923             51.3 ± 38.5

    female                                    30.6 ± 11.0         1134 ± 756*             50.4 ± 67.7

    Creatinine [µmol/L]

    male                                       87.4 ± 11.4         119.9 ± 23.4           85.1 ± 12.1

    female                                     73.0 ± 13.4         84.1 ± 14.1***        69.6 ± 6.3

    p-NT-proBNP [ng/L]

    male                                        60.1 ± 25.2          658.7 ± 354.9        61.9 ± 22.7

    female                                      95.5 ± 69.5          907.9 ± 433.1        76.9 ± 26.9

    Troponin T [ng/L]

    male                                         8.5 ± 4.3             68.1 ± 41.1           7.4 ± 4.4

    female                                       7.1 ± 4.9             54.3 ± 49.5           5.8 ± 1.7

    The results will be discussed in the light of the current literature and the so far unanswered question about the long-term significance of repetitive organ damage due to strenuous exercise. Long-term follow-up of these athletes is needed.

  • 29.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital; Justus-Liebig Universität Giessen, Germany.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Danielsson, Tom
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Johansson, Therése
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schreyer, Hendrik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Breyne, Antonia
    Justus-Liebig Universität Giessen, Germany.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Hjärtmarkörer ökar efter intensiv motion - oklar klinisk betydelse: Data från förstudie av Kalmar IronWoman-studien visar på troponin T-värden som vid hjärtinfarkt2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 31-33, article id D3CRArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochemical changes after strenuous exercise - data from the Kalmar Ironman

    Strenuous and prolonged exercise like marathon, ultra running and triathlon can lead to changes in biomarkers of cardiac, muscle and kidney functional damage. We present the data of 30 (15 men, 15 women) participants of the Kalmar Ironman 2015. Pre-race electrocardiograms and echocardiograms showed a high frequency of abnormalities. Post race elevations of troponin T, creatine kinase, myoglobin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and creatinine returned to normal in almost all cases within 5-8 days. In all but one participant the troponin T pattern was compatible with the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is an up-to-date unanswered question whether the increase of troponin represents myocardial damage or just is a benign consequence of an intermittent change of the permeability of myocardial cell membranes.

  • 30.
    Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Maximal Oxygen Consumption Predicts Skeletal and Heart Muscle Biomarkers Changes after a Full Distance Ironman2017In: 19:e Kardiovaskulära Vårmötet 2017 / [ed] Svenska Hjärtförbundet, 2017, article id 148-A-A1701Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximal Oxygen Consumption Predicts Skeletal and Heart Muscle Biomarkers Changes after a Full Distance Ironman

     

    Strenuous exercise like marathon or triathlon leads to disturbances of several biomarkers, not at least markers of skeletal and heart muscle damage. Different predictors of biomarker changes, e.g. sex, age and training experience have been discussed in the literature with contradictory results. To our best knowledge, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) has not been investigated in this setting.

    PURPOSE:  To evaluate predictors of biomarker changes in an Ironman triathlon.

    METHODS: In 39 non-elite athletes (10 female, 29 male; age 41.1 ± 9.7, range 24-70 years) who had performed a 20 m shuttle run test to predict VO2 max, biomarkers (cardiac troponin T (cTnT; reference < 14 ng/L), creatine kinase (CK; ref. < 1.9 µkat/L), myoglobin (MG; ref. <72 µg/L), and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; ref. < 300 ng/L) were measured by standard laboratory methods 7 days before, directly after, and day 1, and 6 after the race.

    RESULTS: VO2 max was on average 49.9 ± 6.4 O2 ml/kg/minute (range 36.5-63.9). Three biomarkers measured directly after the race were predicted by VO2 max: CK (53 ± 50 µkat/L; R= -0.44; p=0.005), MG (2137 ± 2614 µg/L; R= -0.31; p=0.056) and NT-proBNP (772 ±2614 ng/L; R= -0.35; p=0.027). cTnT (75 ± 89) was not significantly predicted by VO2 max but cTnT leakage was, in contrast to the other biomarkers, higher with higher VO2 max (R= 0.10; p=0.55) and return to normal appeared to be faster with higher VO2 max.

    CONCLUSION: Earlier research into predictors of biomarker changes after strenuous exercise has found contradictory results concerning age, sex and training experience. In the present Kalmar IronWoMan study VO2 max was found to be a good predictor of biomarker changes with higher VO2 max values being correlated to lower values for CK, NT-proBNP and MG.           

  • 31.
    Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Maximal Oxygen Consumption Predicts Skeletal and Heart Muscle Biomarkers Changes after a Full Distance Ironman2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 519-, article id 1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strenuous exercise like marathon or triathlon leads to disturbances of several biomarkers, not at least markers of skeletal and heart muscle damage. Different predictors of biomarker changes, e.g. sex, age and training experience have been discussed in the literature with contradictory results. To our best knowledge, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) has not been investigated in this setting.

    PURPOSE:  To evaluate predictors of biomarker changes in an Ironman triathlon.

    METHODS: In 39 non-elite athletes (10 female, 29 male; age 41.1 ± 9.7, range 24-70 years) who had performed a 20 m shuttle run test to predict VO2 max, biomarkers (cardiac troponin T (cTnT; reference < 14 ng/L), creatine kinase (CK; ref. < 1.9 µkat/L), myoglobin (MG; ref. <72 µg/L), and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; ref. < 300 ng/L) were measured by standard laboratory methods 7 days before, directly after, and day 1, and 6 after the race.

    RESULTS: VO2 max was on average 49.9 ± 6.4 O2 ml/kg/minute (range 36.5-63.9). Three biomarkers measured directly after the race were predicted by VO2 max: CK (53 ± 50 µkat/L; R= -0.44; p=0.005), MG (2137 ± 2614 µg/L; R= -0.31; p=0.056) and NT-proBNP (772 ±2614 ng/L; R= -0.35; p=0.027). cTnT (75 ± 89) was not significantly predicted by VO2 max but cTnT leakage was, in contrast to the other biomarkers, higher with higher VO2 max (R= 0.10; p=0.55) and return to normal appeared to be faster with higher VO2 max.

    CONCLUSION: Earlier research into predictors of biomarker changes after strenuous exercise has found contradictory results concerning age, sex and training experience. In the present Kalmar IronWoMan study VO2 max was found to be a good predictor of biomarker changes with higher VO2 max values being correlated to lower values for CK, NT-proBNP and MG.           

  • 32.
    Danielsson, Tom
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital.
    Schreyer, Hendrik
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    ten Siethoff, Lasse
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ragnarsson, Thony
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Tugetam, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Blood biomarkers in male and female participants after an Ironman-distance triathlon2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1-9, article id e0179324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: While overall physical activity is clearly associated with a better short-term and long-term health, prolonged strenuous physical activity may result in a rise in acute levels of blood-biomarkers used in clinical practice for diagnosis of various conditions or diseases. In this study, we explored the acute effects of a full Ironman-distance triathlon on biomarkers related to heart-, liver-, kidney- and skeletal muscle damage immediately post-race and after one week's rest. We also examined if sex, age, finishing time and body composition influenced the post-race values of the biomarkers.

    METHODS: A sample of 30 subjects was recruited (50% women) to the study. The subjects were evaluated for body composition and blood samples were taken at three occasions, before the race (T1), immediately after (T2) and one week after the race (T3). Linear regression models were fitted to analyse the independent contribution of sex and finishing time controlled for weight, body fat percentage and age, on the biomarkers at the termination of the race (T2). Linear mixed models were fitted to examine if the biomarkers differed between the sexes over time (T1-T3).

    RESULTS: Being male was a significant predictor of higher post-race (T2) levels of myoglobin, CK, and creatinine levels and body weight was negatively associated with myoglobin. In general, the models were unable to explain the variation of the dependent variables. In the linear mixed models, an interaction between time (T1-T3) and sex was seen for myoglobin and creatinine, in which women had a less pronounced response to the race.

    CONCLUSION: Overall women appear to tolerate the effects of prolonged strenuous physical activity better than men as illustrated by their lower values of the biomarkers both post-race as well as during recovery.

  • 33. De Miguel-Etayo, P.
    et al.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Oja, L.
    Ahrens, W.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Consortium, IDEFICS
    Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among European children: the IDEFICS study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. De Vriendt, T.
    et al.
    Clays, E.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Karolinska Inst, Unit Prevent Nutr, Dept Biosci & Nutr, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden .
    Vicente-Rodriguez, G.
    Nagy, E.
    Dietrich, S.
    Manios, Y.
    De Henauw, S.
    Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents--the HELENA study2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 717-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. METHODS: The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach alpha) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. RESULTS: Cronbach alpha-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor criterion validity of the ASQ, especially in girls. CONCLUSIONS: In our European adolescent sample, the ASQ had an acceptable internal reliability and construct validity and the adolescents' gender and pubertal stage systematically contributed to the ASQ variance, but its test-retest reliability and criterion validity were rather poor. Overall, the utility of the ASQ for assessing perceived stress in adolescents across Europe is uncertain and some aspects require further examination.

  • 35. DeHenauw, Stefaan
    et al.
    Gottrand, Fredreique
    DeBourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
    Leclercq, Cathrine
    Kafatos, Antony
    Molnar, Denes
    Marcos, Acenscion
    Castillo, Manuel J
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Gilbert, Chantal
    Bergman, Patrick
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Manios, Yannis
    Breidenassel, Christina
    Kersting, Matilde
    Moreno, Luis A
    Nutritional status and lifestyle of adolescents from a public health perspective. The HELENA Project - Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence.2007In: Journal of Public Health, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 187-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HELENA Project—Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence—is a European, collaborative research project financed by the EU Sixth Framework Programme in the area of nutrition-related adolescent health. The basic objective of the HELENA project is to obtain reliable and comparable data from a random sample of European adolescents (boys and girls aged 13–16 years) on a broad battery of relevant nutrition and health-related parameters: dietary intake, food choices and preferences, anthropometry, serum indicators of lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism, vitamin and mineral status, immunological markers, physical activity, fitness and genetic markers. The HELENA project is conceived as a scientific construction with four complementary sub-studies that are elaborated through 14 well-defined work packages. Sub-studies are focused, respectively, on “a cross-sectional description of lifestyles and indicators of nutritional status (HELENA-CSS)”, “a lifestyle education intervention programme (HELENA-LSEI), “a metabolic study with cross-over design (HELENA-COMS)” and a “study on behaviour, food preferences and food development” (HELENA-BEFO). The project unites 20 research centres from 10 European countries. In addition, the consortium comprises five SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) that are actively involved in the research activities. The core of the HELENA project study material is an overall European cohort of 3,000 adolescents, equally recruited in ten cities from nine countries. Standardization of methods among partners is a key issue in the project and is obtained through the development of standard protocols, training sessions, validation sub-studies and pilot projects. Health-related problems have a tendency to evolve in cycles, with ever new problems emerging in ever new contexts that call for appropriate and tailored actions. The HELENA project is expected to offer essential elements for use in the overall machinery of required public health nutrition cycles. It is of the greatest importance for its results to prove useful that it can communicate with other initiatives on the level of science and society.

  • 36.
    Demmelmaier, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Nordgren, Birgitta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Opava, Christina H
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Current and Maintained Health-Enhancing Physical Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study2013In: Arthritis Care and Research, ISSN 0893-7524, E-ISSN 1529-0123, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 1166-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe and identify the explanatory factors of variation in current and maintained health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, current HEPA was assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and maintained HEPA with the Exercise Stage Assessment Instrument, the latter explicitly focusing on both aerobic physical activity and muscle strength training. Sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychosocial data were retrieved from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality (SRQ) registers and a postal questionnaire. The explained variations in the respective HEPA behaviors were analyzed with logistic regression.

    RESULTS: In all, 3,152 (58.5%) of 5,391 persons identified as eligible from the SRQ registers responded to the questionnaire. Current HEPA was reported by 69%, and maintained HEPA by 11% of the respondents. The most salient and consistent factors explaining variation in both current and maintained HEPA were self-efficacy, social support, and outcome expectations related to physical activity.

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring maintained physical activity in a large well-defined sample of persons with RA. Our results indicate that a minority perform maintained HEPA, including both aerobic physical activity and muscle strength training, and that psychosocial factors are the most salient and consistent in the explanation of HEPA variation.

  • 37.
    Demmelmeier, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    Uppsala University.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Nordgren, Birgitta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Opava, Christina H
    Karolinska Institutet ; Karolinska University Hospital.
    Pain rather than self-reported sedentary time explains variation in perceived health and activity limitation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross sectional study in Sweden2017In: Rheumatology International, ISSN 0172-8172, E-ISSN 1437-160X, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 923-930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate (1) the amount of self-reported time spent sedentary among a large cohort of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) the contribution of sedentary time to explain perceived health and activity limitation in RA beyond that of previously known correlates. This cross-sectional study used data from a postal questionnaire and the Swedish Rheumatology Quality registers (SRQ). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess sedentary time (sitting) and moderate, vigorous and walking activity (MVPA). Sociodemographics, pain, fatigue, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety/depression, disease duration, MVPA and sedentary time were included in multiple regression models with perceived health (Visual Analogue Scale 0-100) and activity limitation (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire) as dependent variables.

    RESULTS:

    In all 3152 (59%) of 5391 persons identified as eligible from the SRQ, responded to the questionnaire. 2819 individuals with complete data on all study variables were analysed. Mean time (SD) spent sedentary was 257 (213) minutes per day. Sedentary time did not contribute significantly to explain perceived health and only minimally to explain activity limitation. Instead, variation was mainly explained by pain; for perceived health (Beta = 0.780, p < 0.001) and for activity limitation (Beta = 0.445, p < 0.001).The results indicate a non-significant role of sedentary time and a need for increased focus on pain in the management of RA. Future studies should use prospective designs and objective assessment methods to further investigate the associations between sedentary time and health outcomes in persons with R

  • 38.
    Ding, Ding
    et al.
    University of California San Diego, USA ; San Diego State University, USA ; University of Sydney, USA.
    Adams, Marc A.
    University of California San Diego, USA ; Arizona State University, USA.
    Sallis, James F.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Norman, Gregory J.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Hovell, Melbourn F.
    San Diego State University, USA.
    Chambers, Christina D.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Hofstetter, C. Richard
    San Diego State University, USA.
    Bowles, Heather R.
    National Cancer Institute, USA.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Craig, Cora L.
    Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute, Canada.
    Fernando Gomez, Luis
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Macfarlane, Duncan J.
    Ainsworth, Barbara E.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Bull, Fiona C.
    Carr, Harriette
    Klasson-Heggebo, Lena
    Inoue, Shigeru
    Murase, Norio
    Matsudo, Sandra
    Matsudo, Victor
    McLean, Grant
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Tomten, Heidi
    Lefevre, Johan
    Volbekiene, Vida
    Bauman, Adrian E.
    Perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity in 11 countries: Do associations differ by country?2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increasing empirical evidence supports associations between neighborhood environments and physical activity. However, since most studies were conducted in a single country, particularly western countries, the generalizability of associations in an international setting is not well understood. The current study examined whether associations between perceived attributes of neighborhood environments and physical activity differed by country. Methods: Population representative samples from 11 countries on five continents were surveyed using comparable methodologies and measurement instruments. Neighborhood environment x country interactions were tested in logistic regression models with meeting physical activity recommendations as the outcome, adjusted for demographic characteristics. Country-specific associations were reported. Results: Significant neighborhood environment attribute x country interactions implied some differences across countries in the association of each neighborhood attribute with meeting physical activity recommendations. Across the 11 countries, land-use mix and sidewalks had the most consistent associations with physical activity. Access to public transit, bicycle facilities, and low-cost recreation facilities had some associations with physical activity, but with less consistency across countries. There was little evidence supporting the associations of residential density and crime-related safety with physical activity in most countries. Conclusion: There is evidence of generalizability for the associations of land use mix, and presence of sidewalks with physical activity. Associations of other neighborhood characteristics with physical activity tended to differ by country. Future studies should include objective measures of neighborhood environments, compare psychometric properties of reports across countries, and use better specified models to further understand the similarities and differences in associations across countries.

  • 39. Grjibovski, Andrej M
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Hurtig-Wennlof, Anita
    Meusel, Dirk
    Ortega, Francisco B
    Patterson, Emma
    Poortvliet, Eric
    Rizzo, Nico
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Wärnberg, Julia
    Sjöström, Michael
    A dropout analysis of the second phase of the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study2006In: Journal of Public Health, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 261-268Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    DeBourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Ortega, Francisco B
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Manios, Yannis
    Rey, Pablo
    Phillipp, Katharina
    Von Berlepsch, Juliana
    Sjöström, Michael
    Concurrent validity of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-A) in European adolescents - The HELENA study2008In: Int J Obes (Lond), Vol. 32, p. S42-S48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Oja, Pekka
    Sjöström, Michael
    Are over weight adults less physically active than normal weight adults?2006In: 2nd annual meeting of HEPA Europe, Tampere Finland, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42. Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Sjöstrom, Michael
    Är överviktiga mindre aktiva än normalviktiga?2005In: Läkarstämman, Stockholm, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Sjöström, Michael
    Experiences of the use accelerometers to assess physical activity on a national sample – The ALPHA project2008In: International Conference on Physical Activity and Health, Amsterdam, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Sjöström, Michael
    The International Prevalence Study; Health Enhancing Physical Activity in Sweden.2006In: Journal of Public Health, Vol. 14, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle.
    Grooten, Wim
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    A holistic approach in measuring occupational physical activity: challenges and potentials2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Håkansson, Krister
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholm University.
    Ledreux, Aurelie
    Karolinska Institutet ; Medical University of South Carolina, USA.
    Daffner, Kirk
    Harvard Medical School, USA.
    Terjestam, Yvonne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Carlsson, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte
    Medical University of South Carolina, USA.
    Mohammed, Abdul K. H.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    BDNF Responses in Healthy Older Persons to 35 Minutes of Physical Exercise, Cognitive Training, and Mindfulness: Associations with Working Memory Function2017In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 645-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a central role in brain plasticity by mediating changes in cortical thickness and synaptic density in response to physical activity and environmental enrichment. Previous studies suggest that physical exercise can augment BDNF levels, both in serum and the brain, but no other study has examined how different types of activities compare with physical exercise in their ability to affect BDNF levels. By using a balanced cross over experimental design, we exposed nineteen healthy older adults to 35-minute sessions of physical exercise, cognitive training, and mindfulness practice, and compared the resulting changes in mature BDNF levels between the three activities. We show that a single bout of physical exercise has significantly larger impact on serum BDNF levels than either cognitive training or mindfulness practice in the same persons. This is the first study on immediate BDNF effects of physical activity in older healthy humans and also the first study to demonstrate an association between serum BDNF responsivity to acute physical exercise and working memory function. We conclude that the BDNF increase we found after physical exercise more probably has a peripheral than a central origin, but that the association between post-intervention BDNF levels and cognitive function could have implications for BDNF responsivity in serum as a potential marker of cognitive health.

  • 47.
    Jiménez-Pavón, David
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Konstabel, Kenn
    Research Centre National Institute for Health Development, Estonia.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Pohlabeln, Hermann
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos
    Research & Education Institute of Child Health, Cyprus.
    Siani, Alfonso
    National Research Council, Italy.
    Iacoviello, Licia
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy.
    Molnár, Dénes
    University of Pécs, Hungary.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Gent University, Belgium.
    Pitsiladis, Yannis
    University of Glasgow, UK.
    Moreno, Luis A
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors in young children: a cross-sectional study (the IDEFICS study)2013In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 11, article id 172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The relevance of physical activity (PA) for combating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in children has been highlighted, but to date there has been no large-scale study analyzing that association in children aged ≤9 years of age. This study sought to evaluate the associations between objectively-measured PA and clustered CVD risk factors in a large sample of European children, and to provide evidence for gender-specific recommendations of PA.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a longitudinal study in 16,224 children aged 2 to 9 were collected. Of these, 3,120 (1,016 between 2 to 6 years, 2,104 between 6 to 9 years) had sufficient data for inclusion in the current analyses. Two different age-specific and gender-specific clustered CVD risk scores associated with PA were determined. First, a CVD risk factor (CRF) continuous score was computed using the following variables: systolic blood pressure (SBP), total triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and sum of two skinfolds (score CRFs). Secondly, another CVD risk score was obtained for older children containing the score CRFs + the cardiorespiratory fitness variable (termed score CRFs + fit). Data used in the current analysis were derived from the IDEFICS ('Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS') study.

    RESULTS: In boys <6 years, the odds ratios (OR) for CVD risk were elevated in the least active quintile of PA (OR: 2.58) compared with the most active quintile as well as the second quintile for vigorous PA (OR: 2.91). Compared with the most active quintile, older children in the first, second and third quintiles had OR for CVD risk score CRFs + fit ranging from OR 2.69 to 5.40 in boys, and from OR 2.85 to 7.05 in girls.

    CONCLUSIONS: PA is important to protect against clustering of CVD risk factors in young children, being more consistent in those older than 6 years. Healthcare professionals should recommend around 60 and 85 min/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA, including 20 min/day of vigorous PA.Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/173.

  • 48.
    Kwak, Lydia
    et al.
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kremers, Stef P J
    Department of Health Promotion and Health Education, University of Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rizzo, Nico S
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Associations between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement.2009In: Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 155, no 6, p. 914-918.e1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the associations between objectively assessed intensity levels of physical activity and academic achievement and test whether cardiovascular fitness mediates the association between physical activity and academic achievement.

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were gathered in Swedish 9th-grade students (n = 232; mean age = 16 years; 52% girls). School grades, pubertal phase, skinfold thickness, cardiovascular fitness, and physical activity were measured objectively. Mother's education, family structure, and parental monitoring were self-reported. Data were analyzed with linear regression analyses.

    RESULTS: After controlling for confounding factors, academic achievement was associated with vigorous physical activity in girls (beta = .30, P < .01; explained variance of the model 26%), which remained after inclusion of fitness (beta = .23, P < .05; explained variance 29%). The association was not mediated by fitness. In boys, academic achievement was associated with pubertal phase (beta = .25, P < .05). After inclusion of fitness, it was only associated with fitness (beta = .25, P < .05; explained variance of the model 30%).

    CONCLUSION: In girls, academic achievement was associated with vigorous physical activity and not mediated by fitness, whereas in boys only fitness was associated with academic achievement. Further studies are necessary to investigate the potential longitudinal effect of vigorous physical activity on academic achievement, the role of fitness herein and the implications of these findings for schools.

  • 49. Meusel, Dirk
    et al.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Bergman, Patrick
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Ortega, Francisco B
    Sjöström, Michael
    Efficient and comprehensive analysis of accelerometer data to measure physical activity in large populations – the ALPHA project.2007In: 15th European Congress on Obesity, Budapest, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Meusel, Dirk
    et al.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Bergman, Patrick
    Ruiz, Jonatan R
    Ortega, Francisco B
    Sjöström, Michael
    ALPHA - Instruments for Assessing Levels of Physical Activity and Fitness2007In: Ernährung, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 360-265Article in journal (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 66
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