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  • 1.
    Blyberg, Louise
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Olsson, Anders
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Fire exposed light-frame timber walls: A study on the effect of geometrical reduction of a vertically loaded I-section stud2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A wooden I-stud as a member of a light-frame timber wall is modelled with reducing flange width to simulate fire exposure. The stud is loaded with a vertical load and the effect of restraints from one gypsum board and the top and bottom rail is considered. Geometry and material values are chosen to correspond to a stud with flanges of solid wood and web of OSB (oriented strand board).

    A model with shell and beam elements is implemented in Abaqus. A buckling analysis is performed on a perfectly straight stud and then a geometrically nonlinear analysis is performed on a stud with an initial curvature. Both the buckling analysis and the geometrically nonlinear analysis show that even a large reduction of the flange width results only in moderate changes of the load-carrying capacity of the structure.

    In the report diagrams are presented from the geometrically nonlinear analysis where the critical load is easy to read once a failure stress is determined, but an estimate of the the failure stress is not given here.

  • 2.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Analytical models for splitting capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls based on fracture mechanics2017In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 165-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic design methods can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls. For such walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against uplift and tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints and the bottom rail will be subjected to crosswise bending, leading to possible splitting failure of the rail. In order to use these plastic design methods, a ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints must be ensured. In two earlier experimental programmes, the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail has been studied. Two brittle failure modes occurred during testing: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail and (2) a crack opening from the side surface of the bottom rail. In this article, a fracture mechanics approach for the two failure modes is used to evaluate the experimental results. The comparison shows a good agreement between the experimental and analytical results. The failure mode is largely dependent on the distance between the edge of the washer and the loaded edge of the bottom rail. The fracture mechanics models seem to capture the essential behaviour of the splitting modes and to include the decisive parameters.

  • 3.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Comparison of models and tests on bottom rails in timber frame shear walls experiencing uplift2015In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 94, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors present two different studies: one experimental study and one where analytical models developed to calculate the splitting failure capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls are evaluated and validated. The experimental study was divided into three parts with specimens matched to each other: (1) first the splitting capacity and failure mode of bottom rails subjected to uplift were studied; (2) then material properties such as tensile strength perpendicular to the grain; and (3) fracture energy were determined by testing specimens cut from the specimens belonging to study (1). The experimental results were compared with models based on a linear fracture mechanics approach presented earlier, using as input values results from (2) and (3). Almost all tested models show good agreement with the test results. The models showing the best agreement have been selected and proposed to be used as basis for calculation of the splitting failure capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Splitting capacity of bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls with double-sided sheathing2015In: The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 1937-3260, E-ISSN 1937-3279, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In partially anchored shear walls, the leading stud is not fully anchored against the uplift; hence the uplifting force is resisted by the sheathing-to-framing joint along the bottom rail. These joint forces will introduce crosswise bending and shear in the bottom rail leading to possible splitting failures. To design partially anchored shear walls, plastic design methods can be used and, therefore, the bottom rails must not fail in a brittle manner. In this paper, results of two experimental programmes with respect to the splitting capacity of bottom rails with double-sided sheathing due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls are presented. This was evaluated varying the distance between the washer edge and the edge of the bottom rail, and the pith orientation of the bottom rail. The experimental results show two brittle failure modes for the bottom rail: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail and (2) a crack opening from the edge surface of the bottom rail. The results indicate that the distance from the edge of the washer to the edges of the bottom rail has a decisive influence on the load-carrying capacity and failure modes of the bottom rail.

  • 5.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, Helena
    Tests on the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls2012In: WCTE World Conference on Timber Engineering, New Zealand, 15-19 July, 2012: Final Papers ; Architecture and Engineering Case Studies / [ed] Pierre Quenneville, 2012, p. 189-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed a new plastic design method for wood-frame shear walls at ultimate limit state. The method is capable of calculating the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not necessarily anchored against uplift. In fully anchored shear walls, the leading stud needs to be anchored using some kind of hold-downs to resist uplift and the bottom rail needs to be fixed by anchor bolts to resist horizontal shear forces. In partially anchored shear walls, where hold-downs are not provided, the uplifting force is resisted by the sheathing-to-framing joints along the bottom rail. Hence, it is important that the bottom rail is anchored to the floor structure or foundation by anchor bolts and, therefore, able to transmit the forces to the structure below. Because of the eccentric load transfer, transverse bending is developed in the bottom rail and splitting of the bottom rail can occur. In order to use the plastic design method, a ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints must be ensured. In this paper, results of tests on the splitting capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls are presented. Specimens with single-sided sheathing were tested, varying the size of washer, pith orientation of the bottom rails and anchor bolt position along the width of the bottom rail. The aim of the tests was to evaluate the influence of these parameters in order to avoid splitting failure of the bottom rail. Two types of brittle failure modes occurred during testing: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail and (2) a crack opening from the edge surface of the bottom rail along the line of sheathing-to-framing joints. These failure modes were mainly dependent on the washer size and the location of the anchor bolt. The results show that the distance between the edge of the washer and the loaded edge of the bottom rail has a decisive influence on the maximum load and the failure modes of the bottom rail.

  • 6.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Lidelöw, Helena
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Splitting capacity of bottom rail in partially anchored timber frame shear walls with single-sided sheathing2014In: The IES Journal Part A: Civil & Structural Engineering, ISSN 1937-3260, E-ISSN 1937-3279, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 83-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic design methods can be used for determining the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where hold-downs are not provided. In order to use these methods, a ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints must be ensured. Since the forces in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail will be subjected to bending and shear in the crosswise direction, and splitting of the bottom rail may occur. In this article, results of two experimental programmes on the splitting capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls are presented. Two brittle failure modes occurred during testing: (1) a crack opening from the bottom surface of the bottom rail; and (2) a crack opening from the edge surface of the bottom rail along the line of the sheathing-to-framing joints. The results show that the distance between the edge of the washer and the loaded edge of the bottom rail has a decisive influence on the maximum load and the failure modes of the bottom rail.

  • 7.
    Caprolu, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Analytical and experimental evaluation of the capacity of the bottom rail in partially anchored timber shear walls2012In: WCTE World Conference on Timber Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand, 15-19 July, 2012, 2012, p. 157-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed plastic design methods for light-frame timber shear walls that can be used fordetermining the load-carrying capacity when the shear walls are partially anchored. For such walls, the leading stud isnot fully anchored against uplift and tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints. Since theforces in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail willbe subjected to cross-wise bending, leading to possible splitting along the bottom side of the rail. Another possiblebrittle failure mode is splitting along the edge of the bottom rail in line with the sheathing-to-framing fasteners. Anexperimental program has been conducted using different anchor bolt locations, washer sizes and pith orientations. Afracture mechanics approach for the two failure modes is used to evaluate the experimental results. The comparisonshows a good agreement between the experimental and analytical results. The failure mode is largely dependent on thedistance between the edge of the washer and the edge of the bottom rail. The size of the washer seems also to havesome influence on the failure load. The fracture mechanics models seem to capture the essential behaviour of thesplitting modes and to include the decisive parameters. These parameters can easily be adjusted to experimental resultsand be used in design equations for bottom rails in partially anchored shear walls.

  • 8.
    Daerga, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Sweden.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    A complete timber building system for multi-storey buildings2014In: Construction Materials and Structures / [ed] Ekolu, SO; Dundu, M; Gao, X, 2014, p. 1164-1171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Masonite Flexible Building (MFB) system is a complete timber building system for commercial and residential multi-storey houses. The system is for tall and large buildings with long floor spans. The MFB system uses prefabricated wall, floor and roof elements which are delivered in flat packages and erected on the construction site. The MFB system might be classified as a panel construction, where the load-carrying structure consists of composite lightweight timber I-beams mechanically integrated with a composite laminated wood panel called PlyBoard T. The I-beams and the panel form a strong and rigid carcass for wall and floor elements, making the system well suited for high rise construction. A key feature of the MFB system is the connection technique which enables swift erection of the system units on site. The PlyBoard T panels are provided with a continuous slot along the periphery. The slot is used as a general connection interface for the joining of the wall elements. The floor elements are suspended and hooked onto the bearing walls using sheet steel hangers, allowing swift assembling of the floor deck and enabling direct vertical wall-to-wall load transfer parallel to grain. The paper presents the construction principles, system components and units, erection technique, functional and architectural aspects of the Masonite Building System.

  • 9.
    Daerga, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Slotted-in steel-plate connections for panel wall elements: experimental and analytic study2012In: WCT World Conference on Timber Engineering, New Zealand, 15-19 July, 2012: Final Papers, Architecture and Engineering Case Studies / [ed] Pierre Quenneville, 2012, p. 451-460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental and analytical study of a steel plate connection for joining walls in the Masonite Flexible Building (MFB) system. These connections are used partly for splicing the wall elements and partly for tying down uplifting forces and resisting horizontal shear forces in stabilizing shear walls. The steel plates are inserted in a perimeter slot in the plyboard panel (a composite laminated wood panel) and fixed mechanically with screw fasteners. The load-bearing capacity of the slotted-in steel plate connections are determined experimentally and derived analytically for different failure modes. The test results show ductile post-peak load-slip characteristics, indicating that a plastic design method for shear walls can be applied to calculate the horizontal load-bearing capacity. The slotted-in steel plate connection concept can also be used for joining shear walls to transverse walls for tying down purposes in order to simplify the stabilization system of the building. The use of transverse walls for resisting uplifting forces introduces a three-dimensional behaviour of the wall junction and a more effective load transfer.

  • 10.
    Daerga, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Suspended floor element connections for the Masonite flexible building system2012In: WCTE World Conference on Timber Engineering, New Zealand, 15-19 July, 2012: Final Papers ; Timber Engineering Challenges and Solutions / [ed] Pierre Quenneville, 2012, p. 465-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors present an experimental study of a suspended floor element connection (sheet steel hangers) employed in the Masonite Flexible Building (MFB) system. The hangers are mounted with screws and are pre-attached to the floor elements at manufacturing. This arrangement makes the design of the hanger critical with respect to safety and load transfer redundancy, since the screws transfer all the loads, both withdrawal and shear forces can act simultaneously. Tests have been carried out to examine the structural behaviour of the hanger. The two most critical load cases, vertical floor load and horizontal wind suction load, and three different screw joint configurations were investigated. The results indicate that the vertical distance between the screw joint and the upper edge of the rim beam should be increased and that withdrawal forces on the screws should be kept as low as possible. Some suggestions for improving the present design are given and a modified design is proposed to enhance the load-bearing capacity and to improve the overall safety and redundancy.

  • 11.
    Daerga, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    The Masonite flexible building system for multi-storey timber buildings2012In: WCTE World Conference on Timber Engineering, New Zealand, 15-19 July, 2012,: Final Papers, Poster papers / [ed] Pierre Quenneville, 2012, p. 645-650Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Masonite Flexible Building (MFB) system is a complete timber building system for commercial and residential multi-storey houses. The system is subdivided into two market variants; XL and Light. The XL version is for tall and large buildings with long floor spans while the Light version is adapted for smaller buildings with lower loads. Though differing in technical performance, the functional criteria are the same for both variants. The MFB system uses prefabricated wall, floor and roof elements which are delivered in flat packages and erected on the construction site. The MFB system might be classified as a panel construction, where the load-carrying structure consists of composite light-weight timber I-beams mechanically integrated with a composite laminated wood panel called

    PlyBoard™. The I-beams and the panel form a strong and rigid carcass for wall and floor elements, making the system well suited for high rise construction. A key feature of the MFB system is the connection technique which enables swift erection of the system units on site. The plyboard panels are provided with a continuous slot along the periphery. The slot is used as a general connection interface for the joining of the wall elements. The floor elements are suspended and hooked onto the bearing walls using sheet steel hangers, allowing swift assembling of the floor deck and enabling direct vertical wall-to-wall load transfer parallel to grain. The paper presents the construction principles, system components and units, erection technique and functional and architectural aspects of the Masonite Building System. KEYWORDS: Masonite Flexible Building system, multi-storey timber buildings, slotted-in connections

  • 12.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Gustafsson, Per Johan
    Lunds tekniska högskola, Byggnadsmekanik.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Finite element modelling of shear walls using connector shear elements based on continuum plasticity2010In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Computational Structures Technology / [ed] B.H.V. Topping, J.M. Adam, F.J. Pallarés, R. Bru and M.L. Romero, Stirlingshire, Scotland: Civil-Comp Press , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-frame timber buildings are often stabilised against lateral loads by using diaphragm action of roofs, floors and walls. The mechanical behaviour of the sheathing-to-timber joints has a significant impact on the structural performance of shear walls. Most sheathing-to-framing joints show non-linear load-displacement characteristics with plastic behaviour. This paper is focused on the finite element modelling of shear walls. The purpose is to present a new connector shear element based on the theory of continuum plasticity. The incremental load-displacement relationship is derived based on the elastic-plastic stiffness tensor including the elastic stiffness tensor, the plastic modulus, a function representing the yield criterion and a hardening rule, and another function representing the plastic potential. The plastic properties are determined from experimental results obtained from testing actual connections. Load-displacement curves for shear walls are calculated using the connector shear model and they are compared with experimental and other computational results. Also, the ultimate horizontal loadcarrying capacity is compared to results obtained by an analytical plastic design method. Good agreements are found.

  • 13.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technol.
    Gustafsson, Per Johan
    Lund University.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Modeling of shear walls using finite shear connector elements based on continuum plasticity2017In: Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2095-2430, E-ISSN 2095-2449, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 143-157Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Light-frame timber buildings are often stabilized against lateral loads by using diaphragm action of roofs, floors and walls. The mechanical behavior of the sheathing-to-framing joints has a significant impact on the structural performance of shear walls. Most sheathing-to-framing joints show nonlinear load-displacement characteristics with plastic behavior. This paper is focused on the finite element modeling of shear walls. The purpose is to present a new shear connector element based on the theory of continuum plasticity. The incremental load-displacement relationship is derived based on the elastic-plastic stiffness tensor including the elastic stiffness tensor, the plastic modulus, a function representing the yield criterion and a hardening rule, and function representing the plastic potential. The plastic properties are determined from experimental results obtained from testing actual connections. Load-displacement curves for shear walls are calculated using the shear connector model and they are compared with experimental and other computational results. Also, the ultimate horizontal load-carrying capacity is compared to results obtained by an analytical plastic design method. Good agreements are found.

  • 14.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Jacquier, Nicolas
    Byggnadstekniska Byrån.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Stiffness model for inclined screws in shear-tension mode in timber-to-timber joints2017In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 136, p. 580-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A stiffness model for inclined screws in timber joints, or as shear connectors in composite timber-to timber members, is presented. Elastic conditions applicable to the initial or linearized part of the load deformation response in the serviceability limit state are assumed. The model for the stiffness or slip modulus is general in nature; it includes both the dowel (or shearing) action and withdrawal action of the screw, the friction between the members and it takes into account possible dissimilar properties and geometries of the different parts of the joint configuration. The model is simplified in the sense that the screw is assumed rigid and the withdrawal stresses along the length of the screw are assumed evenly distributed. However, the effects of flexibility and extensibility of the screw are taken into account by applying a theoretically derived correction factor for the embedment and withdrawal stiffness modulus, respectively. The proposed model is illustrated showing the total stiffness versus the inclination, as well as the relative contributing effect from the shearing and withdrawal stiffness, respectively, the influence of the friction coefficient. Also, the effect of dissimilar properties and geometries between the two parts of the joint is illustrated. Experimental verification of the proposed model is also given. Comparisons with other stiffness models are also made. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15. Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Analysis of influence of imperfections on stiffness of fully anchored light-frame timber shear walls - elastic model2009In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 42, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Design against brittle failure of bottom rails in shear walls2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and buildings, ISSN 0965-0911, E-ISSN 1751-7702, Vol. 169, no 10, p. 782-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have developed a new plastic design method for light-framed timber shear walls, which is capable of analysing the load-bearing capacity of partially anchored shear walls. For proper application of the plastic method it is necessary to ensure ductile behaviour of the sheathing-to-framing joints and to avoid brittle failure of the bottom rail. In a partially anchored shear wall, the tying down forces are developed in the sheathing-to-framing joints along the bottom rail, which may introduce a brittle type of failure of the bottom rail that needs to be eliminated in order for the plastic method to be applicable. This paper deals with design of anchor bolts needed to tie down the bottom rail properly and it describes experimental results for proper design of washers for anchor bolts to avoid these splitting failures of the bottom rail. The effect of different washer sizes and location of the anchor bolts on the failure load when splitting of the bottom rail occurs is presented. The tests indicate that the failure load depends on the distance from the edge of the washer to the loaded edge of the bottom rail. An explicit design equation for the capacity of the bottom rail is presented.

  • 17. Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Design aspects on anchoring the bottom rail in partially wood-framed shear walls: CIB-W18/42-15-12009In: CIB-W18: Meeting forty-two, Dübendorf, Switzerland, August 2009 / [ed] Rainer Görlacher, Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Skog och trä.
    Effect of transverse walls on capacity of wood-framed wall diaphragms2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Skog och trä.
    Effect of transverse walls on capacity of wood-framed wall diaphragms: Part 22007In: CIB-W18: Meeting fourty, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20. Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Byggteknik.
    Effect of transverse walls on capacity of wood-framed wall diaphragms without tie-downs2008In: 10th World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Elasto-plastic model for analysis of influence of imperfections on stiffness of fully anchored light-frame timber shear walls2009In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 2182-2193Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Horizontal Stabilisation of Sheathed Timber Frame Structures Using Plastic Design Methods - Introducing a Handbook Part 1: Design Principles for Horizontal Stabilisation2016In: WORLD MULTIDISCIPLINARY CIVIL ENGINEERING-ARCHITECTURE-URBAN PLANNING SYMPOSIUM 2016, WMCAUS 2016, Elsevier, 2016, p. 618-627Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have developed a plastic design method for sheathed timber frame shear walls. It has been presented and discussed for inclusion in Eurocode 5 and a Swedish handbook has been presented. In the plastic method, you can choose to transfer the anchoring force via the leading stud to the substrate, corresponding to a fully anchored shear wall (no uplift of studs), but you can also choose to utilize the sheathings to transfer the tensile force via the sheathing-to-framing joints to the substrate by anchoring the bottom rail, corresponding to a partially anchored shear wall (studs experience uplift). By the plastic method several alternatives for anchoring the wall are possible and they can also be combined in such a way that each of them take a portion of the uplifting force, e.g. through a simple tying down device, through the sheathing-to-framing joints and through anchoring of the shear wall to the transverse wall. The method also makes it possible to include the load-bearing capacity of wall segments including openings. The handbook treats primarily shear walls, but for the sake of completeness some aspects of the roof and floor diaphragms are also discussed. The interior force distribution in sheathed timber frame walls weak in shear is discussed, as are the fundamental difference between the effect of vertical loads on the stabilisation of walls which are rigid or weak in shear, and how the plastic design method is applied to multi-storey timber buildings. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 23.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Horizontal Stabilisation of Sheathed Timber Frame Structures Using Plastic Design Methods - Introducing a Handbook Part 2: Design of Joints and Anchoring Devices2016In: WORLD MULTIDISCIPLINARY CIVIL ENGINEERING-ARCHITECTURE-URBAN PLANNING SYMPOSIUM 2016, WMCAUS 2016, Elsevier, 2016, p. 628-635Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this part 2, the practical design and strength of a number of different joints is described: (1) Sheathing-to-framing joints the plastic design method is based on the premise that the load-displacement relationship of the sheathing-to-framing joints has sufficiently large plastic deformation capacity; the sheathing-to-framing joints have great influence on the load-carrying capacity of the wall; (2) Stud-to-rail joints by utilizing the shear capacity of the stud-to-rail joints, the plastic design method can be simplified and the load-carrying capacity can be increased; (3) Hold down devices for the (leading) stud - the capacity of the tying down force of the hold down determines whether the shear wall will act as fully or partially anchored; tying down the shear walls by connecting them to the transverse walls leads to a 3-dimensioonal behaviour that is a very favourable for the load-carrying capacity and the stiffness of the shear wall; through transverse walls the anchoring of the leading stud can be reduced or eliminated (those types of transverse wall connections are not discussed in detail in this paper); and (4) Anchoring devices for the bottom rail in - partially anchored shear walls it is necessary that the bottom rail is anchored to the substrate against uplift. Characteristic values for the different types of joints are given. Also, joints between the panels in the walls, roofs and floors are described briefly. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 24.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Tests and Analyses of Slotted-In Steel-Plate Connections in Composite Timber Shear Wall Panels2017In: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, article id 7259014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theauthors present an experimental and analytical study of slotted-in connections for joining walls in the Masonite flexible building (MFB) system. These connections are used for splicing wall elements and for tying down uplifting forces and resisting horizontal shear forces in stabilizing walls. The connection plates are inserted in a perimeter slot in the PlyBoard (TM) panel (a composite laminated wood panel) and fixed mechanically with screw fasteners. The load-bearing capacity of the slotted-in connection is determined experimentally and derived analytically for different failure modes. The test results show ductile postpeak load-slip characteristics, indicating that a plastic design method can be applied to calculate the horizontal load-bearing capacity of this type of shear walls.

  • 25.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Andreasson, Sverker
    Plastisk dimensionering av horisontalbelastade skiv-regelstommar i trä2010In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, no 5, p. 45-48Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Daerga, Per Anders
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Recommendations for design of anchoring devices for bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls2010In: Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Timber Engineering / [ed] Ario Ceccotti, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Jensen, Joergen L.
    et al.
    The University of Auckland.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Quenneville, Pierre
    The University of Auckland.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Splitting of beams loaded perpendicular to grain by connections : simple fracture mechanics models2012In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), Auckland, New Zealand, July 15-19, 2012 (WCTE): Final paper ; Timber Engineering Challenges and Solutions / [ed] Pierre Quenneville, 2012, p. 388-396Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper gives a state-of-the-art report on splitting of beams loaded perpendicular to grain by connections. Special emphasis is placed on simple analytical models based on fracture mechanics. A new simple model is presented, existing models are reviewed and relations between the models are shown, and an existing model is generalized in a semi-empirical manner. The treatment of the splitting problem in some timber design codes is also reviewed, new test results are presented, and the models and design codes are discussed.

  • 28.
    Jensen, Joergen L.
    et al.
    Univ. of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Jiaotong, Xi'an
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Quenneville, Pierre
    Univ. of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Some comments on the Sugiyama opening coefficient method and lower-bound solutions for shear walls (Technical note)2012In: International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction Working Comission W18 - Timber Structures, Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Jensen, Joergen L.
    et al.
    The University of Auckland.
    Quenneville, Pierre
    The University of Auckland.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Beams loaded perpendicular to grain by connections: Combined effect of edge and end distance2012In: Proceedings of CIB-W18, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Jensen, Joergen L.
    et al.
    The University of Auckland.
    Quenneville, Pierre
    The University of Auckland.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Splitting of timber beams loaded perpendicular to grain by connections: Combined effect of edge and end distance2012In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 35, p. 289-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents experimental results of tests on splitting of laminated veneer lumber beams subjected to loading perpendicular to grain by single bolts with small edge and end distances. Two different edge distances were used, and a total of eight different combinations of edge and end distances were tested. Material properties such as perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength and mode I fracture energy of the tested beams were also determined by testing. The experimental results are compared with a simple analytical model based on quasi-nonlinear fracture mechanics, which takes into account the effect of the edge distance as well as the end distance. A generalized model is proposed, which applies to small and large edge distances and to small and large end distances, and which contains as a special case the linear elastic fracture mechanics model, which is currently used as the basis for calculation of the splitting capacity in the Europeans and Canadian timber design codes.

  • 31.
    Jensen, Jorgen L.
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Quenneville, Pierre
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Brittle Failures in Timber Beams Loaded Perpendicular to Grain by Connections2015In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 27, no 11, article id 04015026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A state-of-the-art review of simple analytical fracture mechanics models for calculation of the splitting capacity of timber beams loaded perpendicular to the grain direction by connections is presented. It is shown that most of the already available models are closely related and appear naturally as special cases of the most general model available. A new model, which is a semiempirical extension of an existing model based on a beam-on-elastic-foundation theory, is proposed. The so-called van der Put model, which forms the theoretical basis for the splitting equations used in the European and Canadian timber design codes, appears as a special case of the proposed model. The treatment of the splitting problem in some major timber design codes is reviewed and discussed based on the theoretical models and new test results. The approach used in the European timber design code where the maximum shear force on either side of a connection is considered rather than the total load applied on a connection is not in agreement with the test results presented. While the European and Canadian timber design codes apply a constant value for a material property related to the splitting performance irrespective of the material considered, the presented experimental results indicate that the material property for Radiata pine laminated veneer lumber can be close to twice the value for Douglas fir glulam. The presented test results also show that despite the fact that Douglas fir glulam has a significantly higher mean perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength than Radiata pine laminated veneer lumber, the splitting failure load of Radiata pine laminated veneer lumber is nevertheless significantly higher than that of Douglas fir glulam. The latter finding seems to be in disagreement with the German timber design code, according to which the splitting strength is proportional to the perpendicular-to-grain tensile strength. (C) 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 32.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Skog och trä.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    A plastic design method for incompletely anchored wood-framed wall diaphragms2006In: Proceedings of 9th World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Bygg.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    A plastic design procedure for wood frame wall diaphragms2008In: 10th World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Analysis of fully anchored light-frame timber shear walls — elastic model2009In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 42, p. 301-320Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektroteknik.
    Horisontalstabilisering av träregelstommar: Plastisk dimensionering av väggar med träbaserade skivor2009 (ed. 1500)Book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Horizontal Stabilisation of Sheathed Timber Frame Structures Using Plastic Design Methods - Introducing a Handbook Part 3: Basics of the Plastic Design Method2016In: WORLD MULTIDISCIPLINARY CIVIL ENGINEERING-ARCHITECTURE-URBAN PLANNING SYMPOSIUM 2016, WMCAUS 2016, Elsevier, 2016, p. 636-644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design of shear walls has been a topic of major discussions to develop a common European code for design of timber structures. The main problem has been that shear walls are fastened to the substrate in different ways in different countries and that this fact must be reflected in the code. In this part the requirements are given that must be met for the ductile characteristics of the sheathing to-framing joints in order for the plastic design method to be applicable. The method is based on the plastic lower bound theory. The fundamental prerequisites for the method are that the static equilibrium for the structure is fulfilled and that the sheathing-to framing joints are ductile. What requirements that should be made on the mechanical properties of the joints for the plastic design methods to be applicable and the precaution measures to take to avoid brittle behaviour are discussed. The two main principles for anchoring of sheathed timber frame shear walls, fully and partially anchored, are illustrated showing the static behaviour of the walls and the force distribution in the framing members and the sheathings. In addition, a general description of the design in the serviceability limit state is given. For medium-rise and taller buildings the serviceability limit state needs to be taken into account. There are no specified criteria for deformations in the present code. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 37.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Horizontal Stabilisation of Sheathed Timber Frame Structures using Plastic Design Methods - Introducing a Handbook Part 4: Design in Ultimate Limit State2016In: WORLD MULTIDISCIPLINARY CIVIL ENGINEERING-ARCHITECTURE-URBAN PLANNING SYMPOSIUM 2016, WMCAUS 2016, Elsevier, 2016, p. 645-654Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this part 4, the horizontal load -carrying capacity of fully and partially anchored sheathed timber frame walls subjected to arbitrary vertical loads is presented for different models. For fully anchored walls, the elastic method is summarised (for comparison reasons) and a corresponding simple plastic method is presented. For partially anchored walls, three different plastic methods are presented: (1) no contact forces between adjacent sheets occur; (2) contact forces between the sheets; and (3) contact forces between the sheets and also with stud-to-rail joints taken into account. All the proposed plastic models are based on plastic characteristics of the sheathing-to-framing joints and that a plastic lower bound method is used. The proposed models are simple and flexible and can be applied to different wall geometries, boundary conditions, loading configurations, and number of storeys. The developed plastic design methods for fully and partially anchored sheathed timber frame shear walls have been verified through extensive analytical and experimental studies. This part is the last one in a series introducing the handbook to the international community. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 38.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Byggteknik.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Plastic design of wood frame wall diaphragms in low and medium rise buildings2008In: CIB-W18: Meeting fourty-one, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Plastic models for analysis of fully anchored light-frame timber shear walls2009In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 2171-2181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andreasson, Sverker
    Ny handbok för horisontalstabilisering av skivbeklädda träregelstommar2010In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 2, p. 59-61Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Evaluation of two analytical plastic design models for light-frame shear walls2012In: WCTE, World Conference on Timber Engineering, New Zealand, 15-19 July, 2012: Final Papers, Poster Papers / [ed] Pierre Quenneville, 2012, p. 479-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to clarify the difference between two analytical models for plastic design ofshear walls and evaluate their potential for hand calculation by comparing calculated load-bearing capacities of differentwall configurations with the corresponding ones obtained by finite element analyses. The first analytical model is basedon a true plastic lower bound concept, i.e. always fulfilling the conditions of equilibrium. The second model is based onthe assumption that the full vertical shear capacity of the wall is utilized, considering that the vertical equilibrium isalways fulfilled but disregarding that the horizontal equilibrium of the wall is not always satisfied. If the shear capacityof the stud-to-rail joints is sufficiently large, then the second model is also a true plastic lower bound method. The ratiosbetween the calculated load-carrying capacities of the two analytical models are in the range between 1.00 – 1.24 with amean value of 1.12 for the wall and load configurations studied. Results from FE simulations show that the firstanalytical method underestimates the load-carrying capacity by about 10 %, but that the method gives very stablecapacity values relative to the FE simulations. It is further evident that there is a good agreement between the secondanalytical model and the results of the FE calculations at the mean level, but that this method has a considerably highervariation in the capacity values relative to the FE-simulations. Performed tests of different wall and load configurationsshow about 30 % higher measured capacities than calculated ones. The large deviations are mainly due to differences inthe manufacturing of the specimens for the sheathing-to-framing joint tests and the specimens for the wall tests.

  • 42.
    Källsner, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Girhammar, Ulf Arne
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Some design aspects on anchoring of timber frame shear walls by transverse walls2010In: Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Timber Engineering / [ed] Ario Ceccotti, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Köhler, Jochen
    et al.
    Sandomeer, Markus
    Isaksson, Tord
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Modelling the bending strength of timber components – Implications to test standards: CIB-W18/42-6-32009In: CIB-W18: Meeting forty-two, Dübendorf, Switzerland, August 2009 / [ed] Rainer Görlacher, Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurholzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. König, Jürgen
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Skog och trä.
    An easy-to-use model for the design of wooden I-joists in fire2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45. König, Jürgen
    et al.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Skog och trä.
    Modelling resistance of wooden I-joists exposed to fire2006In: Proceedings of 4th International Workshop Structures in Fire, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Byggteknik.
    Jarnerö, Kirsi
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Byggteknik.
    Källsner, Bo
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Byggteknik.
    Wooden floor structures with high transverse stiffness2008In: 10th World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Evaluation of shear modulus of structural timber utilizing dynamic excitation and FE analysis2012In: Proceedings of CIB -W18, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Shear modulus of structural timber evaluated by means of dynamic excitation and FE analysis2015In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 977-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the results from dynamic excitation of 105 centre boards of Norway spruce in edgewise bending are evaluated with respect to shear modulus using the FE method. Advantages of the method presented here, in relation to the torsion method given in EN 408 (Timber structures—structural timber and glued laminated timber—determination of some physical and mechanical properties, 2010), are that the testing is very simple to carry out and also that the shear stresses occur in the same way as in a beam subjected to bending. Although no alternative methods for evaluation of the shear modulus were applied in this study, results indicating a robustness of the suggested method are presented. According to calculations the estimated shear modulus varies considerably between different boards. The calculated mean value and standard deviation of the dynamic shear modulus is about 744 and 106 MPa, respectively. No significant correlation between the estimated shear modulus and the measured static modulus of elasticity in bending was found, but a correlation between calculated shear modulus and density was identified (R2 = 0.24). Conclusions of the results are that dynamic excitation of boards should be considered as an alternative method for determination of shear modulus in EN 408 (Timber structures—structural timber and glued laminated timber—determination of some physical and mechanical properties, 2010), and a relation between the board density and the board shear modulus, rather than a relation between the board MOE and the board shear modulus, should be stated in EN 338 (Structural timber—strength classes, 2009).

  • 49.
    Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Nytt paradigm för hållfasthetssortering av konstruktionsvirke: Projektrapport ett2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den undersökning som redovisas i denna rapport har genomförts under hösten 2012 och våren 2013 inom projektet "Nytt paradigm för hållfasthetssortering av konstruktionsvirke". Projektet som kommer att pågå under perioden december 2011 till juni 2014 går ut på att för industriellt bruk utveckla en nyligen föreslagen metod för hållfasthetssortering av konstruktionsvirke, vilken baseras på laserskanning i kombination med dynamisk excitering och densitetsbestämning av virke. Projektet finansieras till 50 % av VINNOVA och till 50 % av de företag som medverkar i projektet, nämligen Innovativ Vision AB (IV), Vida Vislanda AB, Södra Timber AB, Derome Timber AB och Dynalyse AB. Linnéuniversitetet (Lnu) och SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut AB (SP) samverkar med nämnda företag i utförandet av forskningen.

    Syftet med undersökningen är i först hand att utvärdera alternativa sätt för att bestämma densitet för virke och att verifiera implementeringen av programvara för industriellt bruk. Syftet är också att ta fram ett utökat material för att bedöma vilken precision den nya sorteringsmetoden kan erbjuda och för att bedöma hur känslig den är för olika typer förändringar och störningar som kan uppkomma. Undersökningen bygger på ett begränsat material och en mer omfattande undersökning planeras för genomförande under senare delar av projektet.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Källsner, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology. SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Nytt paradigm för hållfasthetssortering av konstruktionsvirke: Projektrapport två2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen som redovisas i denna rapport har genomförts under hösten 2013 och våren 2014 inom projektet "Nytt paradigm för hållfasthetssortering av konstruktionsvirke". Projektet, som pågår under perioden december 2011 till juni 2014, går ut på att för industriellt bruk utveckla en nyligen föreslagen metod för hållfasthetssortering av konstruktionsvirke, vilken baseras på laserskanning i kombination med dynamisk excitering och densitetsbestämning av virke. Projektet finansieras till 50 % av VINNOVA och till 50 % av de företag som medverkar i projektet, nämligen Innovativ Vision AB (IV), Vida Vislanda AB, Södra Timber AB, Derome Timber AB och Dynalyse AB. Linnéuniversitetet (Lnu) och SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut AB (SP) samverkar med nämnda företag i utförandet av forskningen.

    Ett syfte med undersökningen är att på ett stort material bestående av många olika virkesdimensioner verifiera de starka statistiska samband som sedan tidigare påvisats för ett begränsat antal plankor och dimensioner, mellan å ena sidan indikerande egenskaper som baseras på mätningar och beräkningar och å andra sidan böjstyrka, elasticitetsmodul och densitet. Ett annat syfte med undersökningen är att visa att nödvändig data kan samlas in av samma utrustning och under samma förhållanden som kommer att gälla vid framtida hållfasthetssortering baserad på den aktuella metoden. Slutligen är ett syfte att samla in och dokumentera data som kan användas för forskning och utveckling både inom och efter det att det aktuella projektet har avslutats.

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