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  • 1.
    Golsteyn, Bart H. H.
    et al.
    Maastricht University, Netherlands ; IZA (Institute of Labor Economics), Germany ; Stockholm University.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University ; IZA (Institute of Labor Economics), Germany.
    Earnings over the Life Course: General versus Vocational Education2017In: Journal of Human Capital, ISSN 1932-8575, E-ISSN 1932-8664, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 167-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two common hypotheses regarding the relative benefits of vocational versus general education are (1) that vocational skills enhance relative short-term earnings and (2) that general skills enhance relative long-term earnings. Empirical evidence for these hypotheses has remained limited. Based on Swedish registry data of individuals in short (2-year) upper secondary school programs, this study provides a first exploration of individuals' earnings across nearly complete careers. The descriptive earnings patterns indicate support for both hypotheses 1 and 2. The support holds when grade point average and family fixed effects are controlled for and also when enrollment in further education and fertility decisions are taken into account.

  • 2.
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University, Sweden;IZA, Germany.
    Gender identity and relative income within households: evidence from Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bertrand et al. (2015) show that among married couples in the US, the distribution of the share of the household income earned by the wife exhibits a sharp drop just to the right of .50. They argue that this drop is consistent with a social norm prescribing that a man should earn more than his wife. We repeat this analysis for Sweden, ranked as one of the world’s most gender equal countries. Analyzing Swedish population register data, we do not find support for the norm that a man should earn more than his wife.

  • 3.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University;IZA, Germany.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University.
    Flexibility at a cost - Should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2016In: Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 7, p. 69-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions. Also, the estimated returns in this study are more than twice the size compared with earlier studies of Swedish adults who enrolled AE at the upper secondary level. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Flexibility at a cost: should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

  • 5.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University.
    The long-term earnings consequences of general vs. specific training of the unemployed2015In: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training programs for the unemployed typically involve training specific skills in demand amongst employers. In 1997, Swedish unemployed could also choose general schooling at the upper secondary level. This offers a unique opportunity to assess the theoretically ambiguous long-term relative earnings of general vs. specific training for unemployed. Analyzing detailed administrative data 1990–2010, we find 1) that specific training is associated with higher earnings in the short run, 2) that earnings converge 5–7 years post program and 3) that individuals act on their comparative advantages. When we extrapolate our estimates to life-time earnings, there is overall a relative advantage of specific training. However, for females with limited prior education, we find a relative life-time earnings advantage of general training. JEL-codes: I21, J62, J68 © 2015, Stenberg and Westerlund.

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