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  • 1.
    Boldeman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dal, Henrik
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cosco, Nilda
    North Carolina State University.
    Moore, Robin
    North Carolina State University.
    Bieber, Brad
    North Karolina State University.
    Blennow, Margaretha
    Södersjukhuset.
    Pagels, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Söderström, Margareta
    Köpenhamns Universitet.
    Wester, Ulf
    Statens Strålskyddsinstitut.
    Mårtensson, Fredrika
    SLU.
    Preschool outdoor play environment may combine promotion of childrens physical activity and sun protection. Further evidence from Southern Sweden and North Carolina: Les aires de jeux extérieures en école maternelle peuvent associer promotion de l´activité physique et protection solaire. Noveaux arguments de Suéde du Sud et de Caroline Nord2011In: Science & sports, ISSN 0765-1597, E-ISSN 1778-4131, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Boldeman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Söderström, Margaretha
    Mårtensson, Fredrika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Moore, Robin
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Cosco, Nilda
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Bieber, Brad
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Pagels, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Wester, Ulf
    The Health Promoting Potential of Preschool Outdoor Environments: Linking  Research to Policy2015In: Revisiting social factors: advancing research into people and place / [ed] Lindsay, Georgia; Morhayim, Lusi, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2015, p. 111-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. University of Gothenburg.
    Pagels, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Christel
    University of Gothenburg.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Levels of Physical Activity during Physical Education lessons in Sweden2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    The aim of this study was to measure the percentage of sedentary light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) provided by physical education (PE) lessons for Swedish second, fifth and eighth grade students, aged eight, 11 and 14.

    METHODS:

    We observed 39 PE lessons and divided them into seven lesson categories: ball play, ball games, dance, fitness, playing games, orienteering and gymnastics. Physical activity (PA) during PE was estimated using accelerometers and the height and weight of the children were measured.

    RESULTS:

    We studied 149 children: 63 in the second grade, 66 in the fifth grade and 19 in the eighth grade. On average, 25% of the PE lessons were spent in MVPA and the mean %MVPA varied with the lesson content, with fitness, orienteering and playing games being the most intense. The highest %MVPA was in the fitness category, providing 33% (8-62%) for girls and 37% (7-72%) for boys. With the exception of the second grade, no significant gender differences in %MVPA were seen.

    CONCLUSION:

    The content of Swedish PE lessons affected the %MVPA in all age groups. In some content, individuals reached two-thirds of their daily PA recommendations, highlighting the potential that PE contributes to public health goals.

  • 4.
    Pagels, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Promenaden som sänker blodfettern2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 55-58Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En rask promenad 30 minuter om dagen förändrar kolesterolvärdena iblodet i samma grad som vissa blodfettssänkande mediciner. Det visarvår studie av trettiotre friska vuxna som vi följde under tre veckor.Motionen gav även positiva effekter på kroppsvikt och BMI.

  • 5.
    Pagels, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Comparison of pedometer and accelerometer measures on physical activity in preschool children 3-5 years of age2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 116-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Pagels, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Att studera förskolebarns fysiska aktivitet2013In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 510-517Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förskolebarns fysiska aktivitet har en viktig hälsopromotiv effekt mot flera av våra välfärdssjukdomar. Därför är det av yttersta vikt att förskolemiljön stimulerar förskolebarnen till en hälsosam fysisk aktivitet. I Kidscape projektet studerade vi förskolebarns fysiska aktivitet under vistelsen på förskolan. Syftet var att hitta faktorer i skolgårdens utemiljö som påverkar barnens aktivitetsmönster. Aktivitetsmönstret studerades med både subjektiva (CARS och kvalitativ observation) och objektiva metoder (pedometri och accelerometri). Resultatet visade att förskolebarnens fysiska aktivitet var högre i förskolor med en bra skolgårdsmiljö. Slutsats: förskole gårdens utformning kan främja en hälsosam fysisk aktivitet hos förskolebarn.

  • 7.
    Pagels, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Archer, Trevor
    Inst för Psykologi, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lidman, Ulf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Influence of moderate, daily,physical activity upon body composition and blood lipid profile in swedish adults2012In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 9, p. 867-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health organizations suggest that adults ought to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity daily physical activity. This study investigated the effects of a 30-minute single daily bout of brisk walking upon risk factors for CHD with blood lipid profile in particular. Methods: Thirty-three (25-45 y) adults, were randomly assigned into an exercise group (EG) (n=16, (9w) and a control group (CG) (n=17 (6w). The EG walked briskly 30 minutes daily during the 3 weeks test period. Compliance/adherence was maximal throughout the 3-week intervention due to stringent daily monitoring. Results: The EG showed a significant decrease in concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) during the intervention period. A significant inverse correlation between Δ energy expenditure/day and Δ LDL-C (r = -0.39, P<0.05) and an improvement in weight and BMI in the EG was found. Average steps during 30 minutes brisk walking bout was 3669 steps/bout generating a mean energy expenditure of 191 kcal/bout. Conclusions: The most unique findings were that daily single bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity for 30 minutes, during 3 weeks, induced favourable effects upon body weight, BMI and blood concentration of LDL-C and TC in healthy adults.

  • 8.
    Pagels, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. University of Gothenburg.
    De Leon, Antonio Ponce
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Martensson, Fredrika
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kylin, Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet ; Stockholm County Council.
    A repeated measurement study investigating the impact of school outdoor environment upon physical activity across ages and seasons in Swedish second, fifth and eighth graders2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: School children are confined to and exposed to outdoor environment that happens to be at their disposal during compulsory school time. The health-promoting potential of outdoor environment, and the use of it, is therefore important. We have studied the impact of school outdoor environment in terms of playground features, space, topography and vegetation upon the patterns of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) across ages and seasons in Swedish pupils at compulsory school. Methods: Four schools in the Middle and Southern parts of Sweden, with outdoor environments differing in playground features, space, topography and vegetation were analyzed during one school year. A sample of 196 children was drawn from eligible pupils in grades 2, 5 and 8, aged 7-14 years. PA was monitored with time-stamped Actigraph accelerometers GT3X+, measuring different intensity levels during outdoor time. Maps were used to mark places where the children stayed and what they did during outdoor time. Results: Mean MVPA during outdoor stay was 39 minutes for the entire school year, time in MVPA correlated positively with outdoor time, as did MVPA with used outdoor play area (p < 0.001). Outdoor MVPA declined with age, boys accumulated more MVPA than girls at all ages (p < 0.001). Ball play areas increased MVPA in 5th graders in September and May (p < 0.001). Overall, ball play areas increased 5th graders' relative MVPA, and helped maintaining it with increasing age in boys but not in girls, whereas woodland stimulated and contributed to maintaining girls' MVPA with increasing age. Outdoor temperature significantly impacted (p < 0.01) MVPA throughout all seasons. Conclusion: We conclude that school outdoor environment design and outdoor play time impact physical activity on a daily basis and may contribute to increasing girls' physical activity and moderate the sharp decline in physical activity by age. The school outdoor environment may thus be a potential health promoter during school time.

  • 9.
    Pagels, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Raustorp, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. University of Gothenburg.
    Guban, Peter
    Stockholm County Council.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Compulsory school in- and outdoors: implications for school children’s physical activity and health during one academic year2016In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 1-11, article id 699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulated school days entail less free-living physical activity (PA) and outdoor stay, which may jeopardize the opportunities for cohesive moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and, by extension, children’s health. The role of outdoor stay during school time for pupils’ free-living PA vs. physical education (PE) and indoor stay was studied during one academic year in 196 pupils aged 7–14 years at four schools in mid-southern Sweden during five consecutive days each in September, March, and May. Actigraph GT3X+ Activity monitors were used. Predictors for PA during school stay were expressed as mean daily accelerometer counts and were measured per season, day, grade, gender, weather, and time outdoors. Overall, free-living PA outdoors generated the highest mean accelerometer counts for moderate and vigorous PA. Outdoor PA and PE, representing 23.7% of the total school time contributed to 50.4% of total mean accelerometer counts, and were the greatest contributors to moderate and vigorous PA. Age and weather impacted PA, with less PA in inclement weather and among older pupils. More time outdoors, at all seasons, would favorably increase school children’s chances of reaching recommended levels of PA.

  • 10.
    Pagels, Peter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Wester, Ulf
    Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Stockholm.
    Söderström, Margareta
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark;Lund University.
    Lindelof, Bernt
    Karolinska Univ Hosp;Karolinska Institutet.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet;Stockholm Cty Council.
    Suberythemal Sun Exposures at Swedish Schools Depend on Sky Views of the Outdoor Environments - Possible Implications for Pupils' Health2016In: Photochemistry and Photobiology, ISSN 0031-8655, E-ISSN 1751-1097, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More scheduled outdoor stay is increasingly advocated for school children. This study measured 2(nd), 5(th) and 8(th) graders' erythemal UV-exposure in September, March and May at four Swedish schools. We related those exposures, as fractions of total available ambient radiation, to the schools outdoor environments differing in amount of shade, vegetation, and peripheral city-scape quantified as percentage of free sky view calculated from fish-eye photographs. Exposures correlated with the sky views (with exceptions in May) and were suberythemal. The exposures were also below the threshold limit of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for hazard evaluation of UVR but were potentially enough for adequate vitamin D formation according to a cited model calculation - as illustrated in the results and discussed. The school environments, typical in southern and middle Sweden, offer enough shade to protect children from overexposure during seasons with potentially harmful solar UV radiation. Pupils' outdoor stay may be extended during September and March. In May extended outdoor stay of the youngest pupils requires a more UVR-protective environment.

  • 11.
    Raustorp, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Pagels, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Cosco, Nilda
    North Carolina State University.
    Söderström, Margareta
    Köpenhamns Universitet.
    Mårtensson, Fredrika
    SLU.
    Accelerometer measured level of physical activity indoors and outdoors during preschool time in Sweden and the United States2012In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 801-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is important to understand the correlates of physical activity (PA) to influence policy and create environments that promote PA among preschool children. We compared preschoolers' PA in Swedish and in US settings and objectively examined differences boys' and girls' indoor and outdoor PA regarding different intensity levels and sedentary behavior. Methods: Accelerometer determined PA in 50 children with mean age 52 months, (range 40-67) was recorded during preschool time for 5 consecutive weekdays at 4 sites. The children wore an Actigraph GTIM Monitor. Results: Raleigh preschool children, opposite to Malmo preschoolers spent significantly more time indoors than outdoors (P < .001). Significantly more moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was observed outdoors (P < .001) in both settings. Malmo children accumulated significantly more counts/min indoors (P < .001). The percent of MVPA during outdoor time did not differ between children at Raleigh and Malmo. Conclusion: Physical activity counts/minutes was significantly higher outdoors vs. indoors in both Malmo and Raleigh. Malmo preschoolers spent 47% of attendance time outdoors compared with 18% for Raleigh preschoolers which could have influenced the difference in preschool activity between the 2 countries. Time spent in MVPA at preschool was very limited and predominantly adopted outdoors.

  • 12.
    Raustorp, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pagels, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Physical activity decreased by a quarter in the 11-12 year old Swedish boys between 2000 and 2013 but was stable in girls. A smartphone effect?2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 8, p. 808-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ¨AimThis study explored physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and overweight and obesity from 2000 to 2013 using a convenience sample of second- and fifth-grade Swedish schoolchildren aged 8-9years and 11-12years, respectively. MethodsWe examined cross-sectional cohorts of 126 second-grade children in 2000, 84 in 2006 and 44 in 2013 and 105 fifth-grade children in 2000 and 38 in 2013. No fifth graders were available in 2006. Physical activity data were collected based on pedometer readings over four consecutive weekdays, and height and weight were measured. Identical instruments and procedures were used in all three years. ResultsThere was an increase in physical activity in second-grade girls from 2000 to 2006 (p<0.01), which then stabilised between 2006 and 2013, but second-grade boys and fifth-grade girls were stable throughout the study period. Fifth-grade boys decreased significantly (24%) from 16670 to 12704 steps per day (p<0.01) from 2000 to 2013. Mean BMI scores remained stable over time. ConclusionTime trends in physical activity differed between boys and girls. Second-grade boys and fifth-grade girls were stable throughout, whereas second-grade girls increased from 2000 to 2006 before stabilising. Fifth-grade boys showed a significant 24% reduction from 2000 to 2013. Changes in recess and leisure time habits, such as smartphone use, may have influenced the result.

  • 13.
    Wester, Ulf
    et al.
    Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Sweden.
    Pagels, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Boldemann, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Proxy-estimated by Sky View Fish-eye Photography-Potentials and Limitations from an Exploratory Correlation Study2019In: Photochemistry and Photobiology, ISSN 0031-8655, E-ISSN 1751-1097, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 656-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potentials and limitations of sky view fish-eye photography and calculation of the percentage of free sky (sky view factor, SVF) as a proxy to estimate solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in shade settings are investigated using controlled situations. SVF and measured solar UVR exposure correlated at high mid-latitude (56.65 degrees N) near autumnal equinox in September. The correlation was enhanced by splitting the sky view images into a south- and a north-half and weighting the south-half higher to account for the direct sun. Sky view images from eight different settings with SVF-values 98.3% - 14.9% were compared to exposure measurements by polysulphone film dosimeter badges in the horizontal zenith-, vertical-south-, east-, west- and north-directions and their combinations. The sky view images were un-split and un-weighted or split and the semi-skies given south/north weights (3.0/1.0) or a higher weight ratio (3.5/0.5). Of all tested combinations split sky view SVFs weighted 3.0/1.0 and compared to horizontal (zenith-oriented) dosimeters yielded the highest correlation (R-2 = 0.96). The weight ratio (3.5/0.5) yielded the 2(nd) highest correlation (R-2 = 0.90) both compared to measured horizontal exposure and compared to the horizontal exposure averaged with the vertical-south-oriented exposure. SVF from sky view fish-eye photography may estimate solar UVR exposure in shade settings.

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