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  • 1.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of northern pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0154488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development – which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations.

  • 2.
    Forsman, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Pike Esox lucius as an emerging model organism for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology: a review.2015In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 472-479Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pikeEsox luciusis a large, long-lived, iteroparous, top- predator fish species with a circumpolardistribution that occupies a broad range of aquatic environments. This study reports on a literaturesearch and demonstrates that the publication rate ofE. luciusresearch increases both in absolute termsand relative to total scientific output, and that the focus of investigation has changed over time frombeing dominated by studies on physiology and disease to being gradually replaced by studies on ecol-ogy and evolution.Esox luciuscan be exploited as a model in future research for identifying causes andconsequences of phenotypic and genetic variation at the levels of individuals, populations and speciesas well as for investigating community processes.

  • 3.
    Larsson, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Engstedt, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ecology, evolution, and management strategies of northern pike populations in the Baltic Sea2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S451-S461Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea populations of the northern pike (Esox lucius) have declined since the 1990s, and they face additional challenges due to ongoing climate change. Pike in the Baltic Sea spawn either in coastal bays or in freshwater streams and wetlands. Pike recruited in freshwater have been found to make up about 50 % of coastal pike stocks and to show natal homing, thus limiting gene flow among closely located spawning sites. Due to natal homing, sub-populations appear to be locally adapted to their freshwater recruitment environments. Management actions should therefore not involve mixing of individuals originating from different sub-populations. We offer two suggestions complying with this advice: (i) productivity of extant freshwater spawning populations can be boosted by modifying wetlands such that they promote spawning and recruitment; and (ii) new sub-populations that spawn in brackish water can potentially be created by transferring fry and imprinting them on seemingly suitable spawning environments.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Flink, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Predator-prey role reversal may impair the recovery of declining pike populations2019In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 927-939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many fish populations have experienced declines in recent decades due to anthropogenic disturbances, such as overfishing and habitat exploitation. Despite management actions, many populations show a limited capacity to recover. This may be attributed to reversal of predator-prey roles, yet empirical evidence to that effect remains scarce. Here, we combine field and laboratory studies to investigate the interaction between pike (Esox lucius), a large keystone top predatory fish, and the small-bodied mesopredatory threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in the Baltic Sea where pike populations have declined. Our data suggest that stickleback predation on pike larvae depletes a large proportion of the recruitment and influences the size distribution through size-selective predation, which is corroborated by a gape-limitation experiment and diet analysis of wild-captured sticklebacks. The effects of stickleback predation are present across several populations and years, and our data suggest that early arrival of sticklebacks has stronger effects on juvenile pike survival. Finally, we use data on pike gape-limitation and the size distribution of sticklebacks to illustrate the process of role reversal. These findings suggest that mesopredator behaviour can reduce recruitment of a top predator species and impair the capacity of populations to recover. This emphasizes predator-prey role reversal as an important ecological and evolutionary driver that influences the outcome of restoration and management actions.

  • 5.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sunde, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yildirim, Yeserin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Genetic differentiation between and within ecotypes of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea2019In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic systems often lack physical boundaries for gene flow, but ecological and behavioural barriers can form surprisingly fine spatial scale genetic patterns that challenge traditional, large scale management. To detect fine spatial scale structures, understand sources of intraspecific diversity, and design appropriate management plans requires identification of reproductively isolated units. This study reports on genetic differentiation in pike (Esox lucius) within a coastal area stretching 55 km from south to north in the central Baltic Sea. Pike is here an economically and ecologically important top predator that has declined in abundance. However, population structures have mostly been studied on large spatial scales, and without considering the potential for genetic divergence between the sympatric anadromous fresh water and the resident brackish water spawning ecotypes. To this end, 487 individuals from the east coast of Sweden and the island of oland, representing sympatric anadromous and resident spawning individuals, categorized to ecotype based on spawning location or otolith microchemistry, were genotyped for 10 microsatellites and used to test for divergence between ecotypes. Furthermore, divergence between regions (island/mainland), neighbouring spawning locations (n = 13) and isolation by distance within and between regions were evaluated for the anadromous ecotype. The results revealed strong genetic differences between regions, between spawning locations separated by as little as 5 km and the first evidence of genetic differentiation between resident and anadromous ecotypes; despite a high dispersal capacity of pike and a high connectivity within the study area. The signatures of isolation by distance indicated that connectivity among populations differed between regions, probably reflecting availability of spawning habitats. To safeguard against the challenges and uncertainties associated with environmental change, adaptive conservation management should aim to promote high intra-population functional genetic diversity without compromising the continued integrity and coexistence of the different ecotypes and of locally adapted sub-populations.

  • 6.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sun-basking fish benefit from body temperatures that are higher than ambient water2018In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1879, article id 20180639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In terrestrial environments, cold-blooded animals can attain higher bodytemperatures by sun basking, and thereby potentially benefit from broaderniches, improved performance and higher fitness. The higher heat capacityand thermal conductivity of water compared with air have been universallyassumed to render heat gain from sun basking impossible for aquaticectotherms, such that their opportunities to behaviourally regulate body temperatureare largely limited to choosing warmer or colder habitats. Here wechallenge this paradigm. Using physical modelswe first showthat submergedobjects exposed to natural sunlight attain temperatures in excess of ambientwater. We next demonstrate that free-ranging carp (Cyprinus carpio) canincrease their body temperature during aquatic sun basking close to thesurface. The temperature excess gained by basking was larger in dark thanin pale individuals, increased with behavioural boldness, and was associatedwith faster growth. Overall, our results establish aquatic sun basking as a novelecologically significant mechanism for thermoregulation in fish. The discoveryof this previously overlooked process has practical implications for aquaculture,offers alternative explanations for behavioural and phenotypicadaptations, will spur future research in fish ecology, and calls for modificationsof models concerning climate change impacts on biodiversity inmarine and freshwater environments.

  • 7.
    Sunde, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tamario, Carl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Variation in salinity tolerance between and within anadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius)2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental heterogeneity is a key determinant of genetic and phenotypic diversity. Stable andhomogenous environments tends to result in evolution of specialism and local adaptations, whiletemporally unpredictable environments may maintain a diversity of specialists, promote generaliststrategies, or favour diversified bet hedging strategies. We compared salinity tolerance between twoanadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox Lucius) that utilize freshwater spawning sites with differentsalinity regimes. Eggs from each population were artificially fertilized and incubated in a salinitygradient (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 psu) using a split-brood design. Effects on embryonic development, hatchingsuccess, survival of larvae, and fry body length were compared between populations and families.The population naturally spawning in the stable freshwater habitat showed signs of specialization forfreshwater spawning. The population exposed to fluctuating selective pressure in a spawning area withoccasional brackish water intrusions tolerated higher salinities and displayed considerable variation inreaction norms. Genetic differences and plasticity of salinity tolerance may enable populations to copewith changes in salinity regimes associated with future climate change. That geographically adjacentsubpopulations can constitute separate units with different genetic characteristics must be consideredin management and conservation efforts to avoid potentially negative effects of genetic admixture onpopulation fitness and persistence.

  • 8.
    Sunde, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sex-specific effects of outbreeding on offspring quality in pike (Esox lucius)2018In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 21, p. 10448-10459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific genetic admixture occurs when previously separated populations withina species start interbreeding, and it can have either positive, negative, or neutral effectson reproductive performance. As there currently is no reliable predictor for theoutcome of admixture, an increased knowledge about admixture effects in differentspecies and populations is important to increase the understanding about what determinesthe response to admixture. We tested for effects of admixture on F1 offspringquality in three subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius). Gametes were collected inthe field, and eggs from each female were experimentally fertilized with milt from amale from each population (one “pure” and two “admixed” treatments). Three offspringquality measures (hatching success, fry survival, and fry length) were determinedand compared between (a) pure and admixed population combinations and (b)the sex-specifictreatments within each admixed population combination (based onthe origin of the male and female, respectively). The results suggested that althoughthere were no overall effects of admixture on offspring quality, the consequences fora given population combination could be sex-specificand thus differ depending onwhich of the parents originated from one or the other population. All offspring qualitytraits were influenced by both maternal ID and paternal ID. Sex-andindividual-specificeffects can have implications for dispersal behavior and gene flow betweennatural populations, and are important to consider in conservation efforts.

  • 9.
    Tamario, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sunde, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Petersson, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Environmental Change and Management Actions for Migrating Fish2019In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 7, p. 1-24, article id 271Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration strategies in fishes comprise a rich, ecologically important, and socioeconomically valuable example of biological diversity. The variation and flexibility in migration is evident between and within individuals, populations, and species, and thereby provides a useful model system that continues to inform how ecological and evolutionary processes mold biodiversity and how biological systems respond to environmental heterogeneity and change. Migrating fishes are targeted by commercial and recreational fishing and impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Sadly, many species of migrating fish are under increasing threat by exploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, dispersal barriers, overfishing, and ongoing climate change that brings modified, novel, more variable and extreme conditions and selection regimes. All this calls for protection, sustainable utilization and adaptive management. However, the situation for migrating fishes is complicated further by actions aimed at mitigating the devastating effects of such threats. Changes in river connectivity associated with removal of dispersal barriers such as dams and construction of fishways, together with compensatory breeding, and supplemental stocking can impact on gene flow and selection. How this in turn affects the dynamics, genetic structure, genetic diversity, evolutionary potential, and viability of spawning migrating fish populations remains largely unknown. In this narrative review we describe and discuss patterns, causes, and consequences of variation and flexibility in fish migration that are scientifically interesting and concern key issues within the framework of evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. We showcase how the evolutionary solutions to key questions that define migrating fish-whether or not to migrate, why to migrate, where to migrate, and when to migrate-may depend on individual characteristics and ecological conditions. We explore links between environmental change and migration strategies, and discuss whether and how threats associated with overexploitation, environmental makeovers, and management actions may differently influence vulnerability of individuals, populations, and species depending on the variation and flexibility of their migration strategies. Our goal is to provide a broad overview of knowledge in this emerging area, spur future research, and development of informed management, and ultimately promote sustainable utilization and protection of migrating fish and their ecosystems.

  • 10.
    Tamario, Carl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sunde, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Petersson, Erik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Environmental Change and Management Actions for Migrating Fish2019In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 7, p. 1-24, article id 271Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration strategies in fishes comprise a rich, ecologically important, and socioeconomically valuable example of biological diversity. The variation and flexibility in migration is evident between and within individuals, populations, and species, and thereby provides a useful model system that continues to inform how ecological and evolutionary processes mold biodiversity and how biological systems respond to environmental heterogeneity and change. Migrating fishes are targeted by commercial and recreational fishing and impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Sadly, many species of migrating fish are under increasing threat by exploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, dispersal barriers, overfishing, and ongoing climate change that brings modified, novel, more variable and extreme conditions and selection regimes. All this calls for protection, sustainable utilization and adaptive management. However, the situation for migrating fishes is complicated further by actions aimed at mitigating the devastating effects of such threats. Changes in river connectivity associated with removal of dispersal barriers such as dams and construction of fishways, together with compensatory breeding, and supplemental stocking can impact on gene flow and selection. How this in turn affects the dynamics, genetic structure, genetic diversity, evolutionary potential, and viability of spawning migrating fish populations remains largely unknown. In this narrative review we describe and discuss patterns, causes, and consequences of variation and flexibility in fish migration that are scientifically interesting and concern key issues within the framework of evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. We showcase how the evolutionary solutions to key questions that define migrating fish-whether or not to migrate, why to migrate, where to migrate, and when to migrate-may depend on individual characteristics and ecological conditions. We explore links between environmental change and migration strategies, and discuss whether and how threats associated with overexploitation, environmental makeovers, and management actions may differently influence vulnerability of individuals, populations, and species depending on the variation and flexibility of their migration strategies. Our goal is to provide a broad overview of knowledge in this emerging area, spur future research, and development of informed management, and ultimately promote sustainable utilization and protection of migrating fish and their ecosystems.

  • 11.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Migratory behaviour and adaptive divergence in life-history traits of pike (Esox lucius)2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population divergence shaped by natural selection is central to evolutionary ecology research and has been in focus since Darwin formulated “The origin of species”. Still, the process of adaptive divergence among sympatric populations is poorly understood. In this thesis I studied patterns of adaptive divergence among subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius) that are sympatric in the Baltic Sea but become short-term allopatric during spawning and initial juvenile growth in freshwater streams. I also examined causes and consequences of phenotypic variation among individuals within subpopulations to evaluate the contribution of natural selection to population divergence.

     

    I first investigated homing behaviour and population structures of pike to assess the potential for adaptive divergence among sympatric pike that migrate to spawn in different streams. Mark-recapture data suggested that migrating pike displayed homing behaviour and repeatedly returned to the same stream. Analyses of microsatellite data revealed partial reproductive isolation among subpopulations spawning in different streams. These subpopulations, however, were truly sympatric during the life-stage spent in the Baltic Sea.

     

    To address whether short-term allopatry has resulted in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations I combined observational, experimental and molecular approaches. Observational data showed that subpopulations differed in morphological and life-history traits and common-garden experiments suggested that differences were, at least in part, genetically based. Moreover, QST-FST comparisons indicated that genetically based phenotypic differences has been driven by divergent selection, and a reciprocal translocation experiment showed that phenotypic variation represented local adaptations to spawning habitats. Finally, longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons among individuals revealed associations between phenotypes, performance and fitness components.

     

    In conclusion, my thesis illustrates how short-term allopatry due to migratory behaviour can result in adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations. These findings advance the understanding of evolutionary processes at the finest spatiotemporal scale and illustrate that local adaptations can arise in environments with high connectivity.  The results also emphasise that fine spatial scale population structures must be taken into consideration in management and conservation of biodiversity in the Baltic Sea.

  • 12.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berggren, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 26372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention hasbeen directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individualsand between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments.However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation andpopulation differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causesand consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations ofpike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experimentsindicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that populationdifferences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traitsfurther indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selectionwithin populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which iscritical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation.

  • 13.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Borger, Tobias
    Kalmar County Council.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Causes and consequences of repeatability, flexibility and individual fine tuning of of migratory timing in pike2016In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Many organisms undertake migrations between foraging and breeding habitats and while it is assumed that reproductive timing affects fitness, little is known about the degree of individual consistency, and about the causes and consequences of individual variation in migratory timing in organisms other than birds. 2. Here, we report on a 6-year mark-recapture study, including 2048 individuals, of breeding migration in anadromous pike (Esox lucius), an iteroparous top-predatory fish that displays homing behaviour. By repeated sampling across years at a breeding site, we first quantify individual variation both within and between breeding events and then investigate phenotypic correlates and fitness consequences of arrival timing to the breeding site. 3. Our data demonstrate that males arrive before females, that large males arrive later than small males, that the timing of breeding migration varies among years and that individuals are consistent in their timing across years relative to other individuals in the population. 4. Furthermore, data on return rates indicate that arrival time is under stabilizing viability selection, and that individuals who are more flexible in their timing of arrival during the first reproductive years survive longer compared with less flexible individuals. Finally, longitudinal data demonstrate that individuals consistently fine-tune their arrival timing across years, showing that the timing of arrival to breeding sites is influenced by experience. 5. These findings represent rare evidence of how between-and within-individual variations in migratory timing across breeding events are correlated with phenotypic and fitness traits in an ecologically important keystone species. Our results emphasize the importance of considering variation in migratory timing both between and within individuals in studies investigating the fitness consequences of migratory behaviour and have implications for future management.

  • 14.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forsman, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nordahl, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Johannessen, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Evolutionary divergence of adult body size and juvenile growth in sympatric subpopulations of a top predator in aquatic ecosystems2015In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 186, no 1, p. 98-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary theory predicts that different selective regimes may contribute to divergent evolution of body size and growth rate among populations, but most studies have focused on allopatric populations. Here, we studied five sympatric subpopulations of anadromous northern pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea subjected to allopatric habitats for a short period of their life cycle due to homing behavior. We report differences in adult body size among subpopulations that were in part due to variation in growth rate. Body size of emigrating juveniles also differed among subpopulations, and differences remained when individuals were reared in a common environment, thus indicating evolutionary divergence among subpopulations. Furthermore, a QST-FST comparison indicated that differences had evolved due to divergent selection rather than genetic drift, possibly in response to differences in selective mortality among spawning habitats during the allopatric life stage. Adult and juvenile size were negatively correlated across subpopulations, and reconstruction of growth trajectories of adult fishes suggested that body size differences developed gradually and became accentuated throughout the first years of life. These results represent rare evidence that sympatric subpopulations can evolve differences in key life-history traits despite being subjected to allopatric habitats during only a very short fraction of their life.

  • 15.
    Tibblin, Petter
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Koch-Schmidt, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stenroth, Patrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of salinity on growth and mortality of migratory and resident forms of Eurasian perch in the Baltic Sea2012In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 200-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, there are two forms of perch (Perca fluviatilis). One of the forms is migratory and spawns instreams entering the Baltic Sea. The other form is resident and spawns in brackish water. Both forms utilise the coastal habitat for foraging. We examined the spawning success of the two forms in fresh and brackish water (7 parts per thousand, equal to salinity in thesouth Baltic Sea). The experiments showed that hatching success was equally high in freshwater and in brackish water despite female origin. The survival of yellow-sac and free swimming fry was significantly reduced in brackish water, which was independent if the fish wasof migratory or brackish resident origin. Further, growth rate of perch fry was severely reduced in brackish water. The results indicate thatperch has not developed any tolerance to brackish water in the young life stages. The migratory life strategy of perch can thus be explained by higher survival of fry in freshwater.

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