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  • 1.
    Andersson, Robert
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Police Education.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A nationalized police – the case of Sweden: Styrning av svensk polis2017In: Nordic Police Research Seminar : Nordisk politiforskningsseminar. Proceedings - Oslo 8th-9th September 2016 / [ed] Larsson Paul & Skjevrak, Pernille, Oslo: Politihøgskolen i Oslo , 2017, p. 54-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015 a reform made the national Swe- dish police even more centralized as a means for improving efficiency and results. This was exactly fifty years after the origi- nal nationalization of the police –

    a reform said to be done in the same spirit of centralizing for efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and problematize the arguments behind the nationalization in 1965. How and why was

    the police nationalized and what was the chief political arguments for doing this? The paper also aims to discuss what the meaning of efficiency in policing means politically. 

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Marie
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Historia.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Vägen till kvinnlig tronföljd 1952-19802005In: Scandia: Tidskrift för historisk forskning, ISSN 0036-5483, no 2, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    During the 28 years from the first motion in the

    Riksdag right up to 1980, when the fully cognatic

    right of inheritance came into force, the question

    of female succession to the throne principally dealt

    with the monarchy as an institution. A critical -

    and benevolent - interpretation on the introduction

    of female succession is that it became easier to

    accept at a time when the political role of the

    monarchy had practically come to an end.

    For the non-socialist parties the claim on female

    succession was a way of retaining and consolidating

    the monarchy, but this was done with overtones of

    equality between women and men. For the Social

    democrats and the Communists the resistance to

    the introduction of female succession was a way

    of avoiding a reinforcement of the monarchy which

    in turn might be an obstacle to the future change-

    over to republic. It should be pointed out that

    succession to the throne was a relatively distinct

    right – left question in the politics. The true picture

    of the non – Socialist actions can be seen as an

    interplay of normative and institutional starting-

    points. In terms of purpose and means it was a

    combination of those. The actions of the Social

    democrats was characterized by pragmatism.

    That the party did not carry the matter of republic

    might above all be motivated by the fact that the

    party assumed that the national support of the

    monarchy was strong.

    We want to emphasize that it was mostly male

    politicians with the non - Socialist parties who

    pursued the policy of introducing female

    succession to the throne. An exception to this

    was the participation of Ingrid Gärde - Widemar

    in first motion in the Riksdag in 1952. This could

    indicate that this was not a question of equality

    between women and men, which aimed at

    influencing the normative level, but was to a

    greater extent a question of the institutional

    level. Another explanation might have been that

    the question of female succession to the throne

    was a constitutional question and for that reason

    of greater political importance.

    It should be emphasized that the non – Socialist

    politicians derived inspiration from the monarchies

    in Europe which had female succession. They often

    referred to Denmark, where cognatic succession

    had been introduced in 1953. Hence it had been

    conceivable that the Social democrats in Sweden

    had referred to Norway as an example of a monarchy

    which at that time had no female succession and

    yet there had been Social democratic governments

    for a long time. They did not however do so. None

    of monarchies in Europe had fully cognatic succession.

    In this manner Sweden was unique Europe at this time.

  • 3.
    Erlingsson, Gissur
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Uppsala University.
    Kommunsammanläggningarna 1952-1974: Hur blev de politiskt möjliga?2010In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 14, no 3-4, p. 3-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During 1952–1974 the Swedish municipal structure was radically reformed. In 22 years the number of municipalities was reduced from 2 498 to 278. What makes suchlarge-scale reforms possible? We answer this question by analyzing the politicsbehind the amalgamation reforms. We investigate (a) the main arguments for theamalgamations, (b) the degree of consensus behind the decisions, (c) if any alternativeswere presented in the debates leading up to the reforms, and finally (d) how itwas politically possible to push through these reforms. Two different models ofexplanation are put to the test; evolutionary accounts, which see the amalgamationsas rational adaptations to changing social and economic circumstances are contrastedwith a social conflict perspective, which explains the amalgamations in terms of theirdistributional consequences. We argue that an analysis of Sweden's municipal amalgamationreforms supports the social conflict perspective.

  • 4.
    Erlingsson, Gissur
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ödalen, Jörgen
    Linköping University.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Understanding large-scale institutional change: Social conflicts and the politics of Swedish municipal amalgamations, 1952–19742015In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 195-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A remarkable reform in modern Swedish political history was the transformation of the local government structure between 1952 and 1974. In a mere 22 years, the number of municipalities was reduced from 2,498 to 277. This study aims to answer how such large-scale reforms could come about politically, particularly since much of the literature on institutions and political reform asserts that carrying out large-scale political change should be a difficult task. Two opposing stories of institutional change are presented: evolutionary accounts, which see the amalgamations as rational adaptations to changing circumstances, are contrasted with a social conflict perspective, which explains amalgamations in terms of their distributional consequences. By investigating the processes leading up to this vast restructuring of Swedish local political geography, we demonstrate that an understanding of these reforms as rational adaptations to changing circumstances, made on the basis of consensus among leading political actors, is not accurate. The reforms were not as uncontroversial and non-conflictual as they often have been portrayed. Our results weaken the evolutionary approach to institutional change, whilst supporting the social conflict perspective.

  • 5. Hanes, Niklas
    et al.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Municipal Preferences for State-imposed Amalgamations:: An Empirical Study Based on the Swedish Municipal Reform of 19522012In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 2733-2750Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Svensson, Anders
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jönköping University.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Elmqvist, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Home healthcare nurses’ experiences of being on stand by as a first responder in a ‘While Waiting For the Ambulance’ assignment2016In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 184-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe experiences of the ‘While Waiting for the Ambulance’ (WWFA) assignment, as described by home healthcare nurses (HHCNs). Since the early 1990s, municipal resources in Sweden, preferably firefighters, have been dispatched on WWFA. In order to further assist the local residents on an island in the southwest of Sweden, HHCNs have recently begun accompanying firefighters on WWFA. A reflective lifeworld approach was used for data analysis including in-depth interviews with eight HHCNs. When WWFA was established, the HHCNs experienced lack of clarity in where their responsibilities start and end. A split role is described, and there is a paradox in that the responders are meant to collaborate toward saving lives, when the assignment itself has a lack of collaborative structure. Ethical dilemmas and inner emotional worries led to the nurses expressing a need for support before, during and after WWFA.

  • 7.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Administrativa gränser kontra brandförsvaret2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Att skriva Stads- och kommunhistoria: En handledning för forskning med Stads- och kommunhistoriskt källmaterial2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The primary aim of this book is to encourage and

    facilitate the study of history of towns and

    municipalities. Various forms of social science

    research on Swedish local authorities might

    derive advantage from this book. The staff of

    local archives and prospective amateur researcher,

    for example among the members of local folklore

    society, also ought to enjoy the content of this

    book. Another purpose of the publication is to suggest continuous comparative studies, where Swedish

    municipalities are compared in different ways. The

    number of Swedish municipalities was considerably

    reduced during the second half of the 20th century.

    For that reason it is now the proper time to pursue

    comparative studies of municipalities which no longer

    exist and are replaced by greater administrative units.

    Too much of the previous research has been done as

    case studies of one singular rural district. It should be emphasized that many local investigations have been

    done by amateur researcher who have not always

    used a reliable scholarly scientific course of action.

    The source material for the proposed inquiries should

    mostly be taken from the Swedish municipal archives.

    In principle all the 290 present municipalities have their

    own archives, which means that there is a large

    supply of source material in the whole country.

    This is one of the greatest advantages of working

    with this type of historical source material. In

    the archives material is stored from the introduction

    of the current standard of municipality in 1863 and on.

    It deals thus with the period of more than 140 years

    during which the Swedish society has changed

    dramatically. Local material from towns and rural

    districts concerning the time up to 1862 is normally

    found in the national provincial record offices, so it

    is not always easily accessible from a geographical

    point of view.

    The book has been divided into a number of thematic

    fields, such as municipal divisions, local politics,

    the role of women in local politics, municipal finances

    and economic expansion, social welfare, educational

    systems, environmental issues, health care, fire

    protection the technical sector and cultural and

    recreational activities. This grouping means, that

    strictly speaking it is enough to read the sphere

    in which you show a keen interest, except the two

    introductory chapters, considering comprehensive

    facts in the field of municipal history. Each thematic

    field is then regularly divided into four items,

    background and earlier research, proposals for future

    research, limits of interpretation and source material.

    This order has not been used earlier, and the footnotes

    should give comparatively many references to other

    works which could be useful.

    Key words: source material, archives, municipalities, local politics.

  • 9.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Brist på svensk federalism 1634-20152007In: Federalism på svenska, Ratio, Stockholm , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Eije Mossberg kontra Gunnar Hedlund: Två utpräglade pragmatiker med stora likheter och stora skillnader2004In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, no 1, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Ett eldfängt ämne: Utvecklingen av kommunernas brandförsvar 1945-19762009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following new laws regulating fire safety, instigated in 1944, all municipalities in Sweden were obligated to organize fire protection, starting in 1945. However, the municipalities were not obliged to arrange their own fire department, but were instead free to close deals with other municipalities or with voluntary as well as private contractors.

     

    Before 1945 only larger cities, ‘köpingar’, and certain specific municipalities were forced to organize a fire department. When new regulations were put into effect, Sweden was still divided into old municipalities (sockenkommuner), which remained until 1952. This study follows the development of fire protection in at the local level from 1945 until 1976 when a major merging of municipalities, which mostly remains until this day, took place.

    The study has two principal aims. The first one is to describe and analyse how revised legislation and the merging of municipalities effected the organization of fire protection in Swedish municipalities. The second aim is to explore decision-making on fire protection at the municipal level. In addition to the fire laws of 1944, 1962 and 1974 the two reforms on the merging of municipalities (1952, 1962-74) were the important junctures during the 30 year period of investigation.

    Between 1952 and 1976 the number of independent fire departments was reduced by almost 50 percent, and this has to be viewed as a major geographic centralization. This centralization, moreover, was facilitated by several factors. The most important was the reduction of industries, and the reduced population, in rural areas, as well as the technological innovations within agriculture. Furthermore, two additional reasons for this centralization were firstly that roads were significantly improved at the country-side, and, secondly, that the remaining fire fighting equipment, not least fire trucks, were modernized. The conflicts that emerged at the municipal decision-making arena often had a geographical dimension, meaning, among other things, that the personal residence of politicians often meant more to their decision than their respective party-affiliation. Furthermore, Swedish municipalities were allowed to proceed with the centralization in spite of far-reaching state control in the area of fire protection, resulting from the fact that ‘länsstyrelsen’ always had to approve of their organization of fire security. Nonetheless, relevant state agencies displayed a great flexibility vis-à-vis the municipalities during this process of change.  

  • 12.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ett obetydligt samhällsproblem: Kvinnlig brottslighet i Sverige 1950-19592016 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities.
    Från sockenkommun till storkommun: En analys av storkommunreformens genomförande 1939-1952 i en nationell och lokal kontext2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this study is to provide a deeper and more complete understanding of why the great municipal amalgamation (storkommunreformen) during the 1940s became the political solution to the problem that the Government believed many of Sweden’s municipalities had in satisfactorily providing for a local welfare society. The study also describes the results of this large-scale reorganization process. The events examined include the political decision-making process at the national level that took place during 1939-1949, as well as the regional/local realization of these decisions during 1946-1952.

    The parliamentary treatment of the municipal division issue should be viewed as a good example of what researchers have termed a Swedish decision-making model. One clear manifestation of this was the fact that the national commission that investigated the question primarily formulated the principles for the reform. The committee’s proposal received strong endorsements in the reports from the reviewers of the proposal. The government authorities and many of the municipalities felt that a new division of municipalities was justified. Opposition that did occur came mostly from rural municipalities with small populations. Many of these municipalities believed that the present municipal divisions functioned well as they were.

    Of those municipalities that were affected by amalgamation, 39 percent of them did not agree with the decision. The majority of these could agree to merge with other municipalities, but not with the municipalities stipulated by the authorities. Considering the fact that the then current divisions were based on a long tradition, demands for retaining independence could have been greater. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that 66 percent of all larger municipalities were formed using some level of force. This still indicated a relatively widely distributed opposition to the amalgamation decisions, however.

  • 14.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Från storkommun till kommunblock: En djupstudie av reformen som skapade de moderna svenska kommunerna 1959−1974.2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In 1959, just seven years after Sweden had implemented a reform of the division of the municipalities, the Social Democratic government considered that there could be need for a second reform, and consequently a commission was launched. In the first part of 1961 a proposal for a reform was delivered. The country would be divided into municipal blocks, which should normally have at least inhabitants 1975. The blocks should be built up though the chief town principle, and should be economically and geographical continuous areas, which had a close relationship with the chief town principle. A parliamentary majority, considered of Social Democrats, Communists and Liberals, stood behind a policy decision, taken in early 1962, to implement the reform in accordance with the commission’s proposals. Only the municipal blocks formation was compulsory. All municipal aggregation would be done on a voluntary basis by Local Authorities own initiative.

    During 1963 and 1964 the Government stipulated that the country’s 1006 municipalities would form 282 municipal blocks. In 1965, 1967 and 1969 the number of municipalities was reduced from 1006 to 848. The Social Democratic government considered that number insufficient. So the party, immediately after the victory in the 1968 election, went in for using a coercive law in order to complete the reform at the latest 1974. Parliamentary decision on compulsory legislation was adopted in 1969 with a conflict following the block boundary. The Social Democrats and the Left Communists wanted coercive legislation, while the three non-Socialist parties were against removing voluntariness. The Socialist reversal was a breach of faith in relation to the parliamentary decision 1962. The change in position was hardly in favor of the party in the elections in 1970 and 1973.

    The reform was completed by aggregations in 1971 and 1974, where the largest aggregation time was 1971. Then the number of municipalities decreased from 848 to 464. By 1974 there were only 278 left. 49 municipalities were pooled coercively. Most of them had Conservative majority. There was a dividing line between the Social Democrats and the non-Socialists at the municipal aggregation decisions, where the non-Socialist parties to a much greater extent took a stand against aggregation. The main reason for the opposition was a fear of a loss of municipal services as a result of the centralization to the central town. Municipal democratic motives were raised, however, more sparingly. The same was true of reasons related to the concept of local identity.

    The Swedish municipality block reform was more ambitions than in the other Nordic countries. An important reason for the scale of aggregating was that the Social Democratic government showed great energy to implement the reform fully, despite of a lot of local protests. Another reason may have been that the public expansion was greatest in Sweden. On the other hand lower government spending, another task allocation in the public sector, lower degree of urbanization and less influence for Socialist parties and credible explanations for sparse or non-existent municipal aggregations.

  • 15.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Förbundet Sveriges kommuner och landsting2010In: Kommunalrätt: en introduktion för professionsutbildningar / [ed] Lars Zanderin och Annika Staaf, Malmö: Liber, 2010, 1, p. 95-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Förbundet Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting (SKL)2010In: Kommunalrätt: en introduktion för professionsutbildningar / [ed] Lars Zanderin och Annika Staaf, Stockholm: Liber, 2010, 1:2, p. 95-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Historia - ett ämne för arkivnötare?: Om användningen av otryckt källmaterial från arkiv i doktorsavhandlingar i historia 1969–2009 (2010)2011In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 108-125Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    I fyrkens tid. Politisk kultur i två ångermanländska landskommuner 1860-1930 (författare Erik Nydahl)2011In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, no 1, p. 175-176-Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Ingen kopia av riksdagsvalet: Utfallet av valen till kommunfullmäktige 2010 i landets 290 kommuner, med särskilda fallstudier av Sverigedemokraternas agerande.2011In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 449-463Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Kommunal demokrati i miniatyr: Holmön som Sveriges minsta kommun 1925/1952-1973 i en mikrohistorisk studie2011In: Heimen, ISSN 0017-9841, E-ISSN 1894-3195, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 161-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Kommunala reformer och kommunal demokrati under 150 år - med en blick mot framtiden2008In: Vem har ansvar för välfärden?: Hur uppgifterna fördelas mellan stat, landsting/region och kommun, Region Skåne, Sveriges kommuner och landsting, Västra Götalandsregionen , 2008, p. 115-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Lurifaxarnas framfart - Husebyaffären 1956-19642010In: Småländska brott: Brott och straff i Småland under 500 år / [ed] Johansson, Lennart, Nilsson, Roddy & Nordmark, Håkan, Växjö: Historiska föreningen i Kronobergs län , 2010, 1, p. 289-305Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Länets betydelse: Fallstudier av kommunblocksreformens lokala genomförande i Blekinge och Hallands län 1962-19742013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Män från landsbygden: Riksdagsledamöter i Bondeförbundet/Centerpartiet 1933-19702014In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, no 1-2, p. 95-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Niels Clemmensen, Konflikt och konsensus i kommunen , anmälan av Erik Wångmar2012In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, no 3, p. 538-540Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Något vid sidan av välfärden: Holmön som den sista småkommunen i Sverige 1925-19732008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Holmön, situated in the county of Västerbotten, consists of several islands in the Gulf of Bothnia. At the end of the year 1973 these islands only had 155 citizens. However, in spite of the small population size, these islands formed an independent municipality between 1925 and 1973, making it the smallest one in Sweden.

    This study deals with democracy and politics at the municipal level at Holmön, and the aim is to investigate the extent to which small political unites, such as Holmön, can manage the welfare duties imposed on all municipalities by national legislation.

    The main group of elected officials at Holmön were composed of a small assembly of dominant men. Only very few women participated, and the limited involvement of women were restricted to committees dealing with issues solely related to social life and schooling. The general political activity of the Holmön municipality was restricted to duties made compulsory

    by national legislation, and even though the municipality had a weak economy taxes were kept at low levels. Politics in the municipality was indeed characterized by economic thriftiness.

    In the study, Holmön is furthermore compared with other small municipalities, in Sweden as well in other Western European countries. Several of these countries – e.g. Finland, Norway and Iceland – to this day have municipalities with population sizes as small as Holmön.

  • 27.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Sambandet mellan kyrklig och kommunal indelning 1863-19992004In: Kyrkohistorisk årsskrift 2004, Svenska Kyrkohistoriska Föreningen, Uppsala , 2004, p. 20-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Before 1863 the rural parishes were responsible

    for both the ecclesiastical and the local government

    matters. By this time the parishes were divided in

    two different units, one for the ecclesiastical matters

    and one for the local government matters. Because

    of that the parishes and the local government areas

    were mostly the same. The mutal parish areas and the

    local government areas coincide in very few cases.

    The rare exceptions from that were combined town

    and countryside mutal parishes.

    When the parliament in 1919 decided a new law of

    division it was emphasized that the local government

    division was the most important division at the local l

    evel. Because of that the local government division

    should be totally independent from the parish division.

    In spite of that it was not so important before the great municipal amalgamation in Sweden in 1952. During the parliamentary treatment of the municipal division it was discussed to what extent the new large municipalities

    should coincide with the mutal parishes. The difficulty

    was that many mutal parishes hade less than 2000

    inhabitants, which was prescribed minimum population

    for the new large municipalities. During the local

    realization several municipalities wanted the mutal

    parishes to be new large municipalities, despite they

    hade less than 2000 inhabitants. Because of the

    decision in principle at national level the demands

    were mostly rejected. The great municipal

    amalgamation in 1952 was the last occasion

    when an ecclesiastical division was discussed as a

    model for the municipal division.

    At the mutal parish reform in 1962 the great municipals

    became a very important model for the new bigger mutal parishes. The Swedish Church was not entirely satisfied

    with this decision. There were probably two reasons.

    Partly it was a desire to keep mutal parishes in spite of

    the fact that they were located in more than one

    municipal, partly it might be easier to keep mutal

    parishes with rather few inhabitants. In 1962 70

    percent of the Swedish municipalities were a mutal

    parish at the same time.

    The strong connection between the municipalities and

    mutal parishes was not permanent for a long time.

    Already in 1962 the parliament made a decision in

    principle on a new municipal amalgamation. When

    the new municipal division was decided in 1964 very

    few municipalities had the same area as a mutal parish,

    because the new municipalities at least should have

    8000 inhabitants. Another consequence of the new

    municipal division was that the number of mutal parishes

    which were located in more than one municipality

    increased. Because of that it was necessary to change

    the mutal parish division. This process started in the

    early 1970s, but was not yet fully completed in 1999.

    These mutal parish adjustments have been the most

    important changes of the ecclesiastical division in

    Sweden during the last three decades of the 20th

    century. Since 1952 nearly all changes of the

    ecclesiastical division have been realized with the

    municipality division as a model. The Church has

    lacked fully freedom of action to change its own

    ecclesiastical division.

  • 28.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Political Science.
    Samlingsstyre - Blockstyre - Mångstyre: Kommunalpolitiska styrelseformer 1952-20022006Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    This book, with the title Coalition rule - bloc rule - multiple rule, deals with the development of the forms of government that have been put into practice in Swedish municipalities during the period 1952-2002. Forms of government refer to how the power, in the form of chairmanship of local administrations, has been distributed between the majority and minority in the different municipal councils. Two levels are involved in this study. First a national investigation, which for the main part of the period is done in the form of a total survey. Second, more detailed case studies applicable to the development in the county of Kronoberg, Småland.

    As the title indicates the development of the forms of government in Swedish municipalities can be classified into

    three main phases. The first phase, coalition rule, means that the majority and the minority shared chairmanships of local administrations. This was valid at the time of the starting-point of the study and continued until the beginning of the 1970s. The second phase, bloc rule, was seriously modelled during the first half of the 1970s and implied that one of the traditional political blocs had all the chairmanships in a municipality. The third and last phase, multiple rule, can be said to have started in the mid 1990s. This phase was characterised by softened bloc politics, among other things as a consequence of the fact that the Green Party and various local parties had the position as the balance of power in considerably more municipalities.

    The theoretical framework of the study is composed by the concepts of conflict and consensus, political culture, practice, hegemony and coalition formation. These five elements seem to be interrelated, and they should serve as suitable instruments of analysis. This should make the empirical results more possible to generalise. Conflict and consensus can be connected to the political culture by the fact that the political culture in a municipality can be characterised by either conflict or consensus. The political culture can then lead to a certain practice. For example, under a long succession of terms of office, a system is applied with as far-reaching majority marks

    as the law allows, where one of the traditional political blocs always is in power in the municipality. There is also an ambition to develop the theoretical insights better, in particular in two cases. First, there is an effort to formulate ideal models of municipal politics on the basis of the conception of hegemony. Second, there is an attempt to integrate the human factor in the theories of coalition formation.

  • 29.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Socknar som kom och socknar som gick: Förändringar av socken-/församlingsindelningen i Småland 1686-18622007Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Sparsamhet och konservatism i högsätet: om bondeförbundaren Axel Rubbestad2011In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, no 1, p. 23-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Stadsbegreppet i Sverige och i övriga Norden2011In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences. Statsvetenskap.
    Svenska statsråd 1945-20032005In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, no 2, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Så blev det Karlstads kommun 1971: Om kommunsammanläggningarna som ledde fram till den nuvarande kommunbildningen2012In: Pionjärer, kravaller och fattiga bönder: Berättelser om Karlstad med omnejd under 150 år, 1863-2012 / [ed] Jon Räftegård, Karlstad: Karlstads kommunarkiv , 2012, 1, p. 285-337Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Tage Erlander. Dagböcker 19592009In: Personhistorisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0031-5699, no 2, p. 236-238Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tillit och korruption: Korruption - Maktmissbruk och bristande tillit i svensk lokalpolitik 1963-20112013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Växjö University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Humanities. Historia.
    Vägen till sockensjälvstyelsens upphörande: Bakgrund och beslutsprocess rörande storkommunreformen2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Wångmar, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lennartsson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Historians and Their Sources: The use of unpublished source material in Swedish doctoral theses in history, 1959-2015, and in student bachelor's and master's theses, 2010-20152018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 365-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the development of the use of unpublished source material in Swedish doctoral theses in history, 1959–2015. The results show that the proportion of theses which rely on such materials has dropped in relation to the level that existed up to and including the year 2007. From having dropped below 90% only twice during the time period 1959–2007, the average for the years 2008–2015 is 77%. There are several explanations as to why this decline in use of unpublished source material has occurred. An initial explanation is that more doctoral theses are now published within the subdiscipline of historical science, in which, for example, history didactics and uses of history are included. History didactics and uses of history have gained more ground within the overall field of historical research during the last 10 years. The next-to-lowest figures are found in the category history of ideas, culture, and opinion history; a category which during the time period 2008–2015 remained at a fairly constant share of the total number of doctoral defences in history in Sweden in relation to the situation at the beginning of the 2000s.

  • 38.
    Wångmar, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lennartsson, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Historikerna och källorna: Om användningen av otryckt källmaterial i doktorsavhandlingar och examensarbeten i historia2017Book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Wångmar, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Loxbo, Karl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Finlands sätt bör bli Sveriges2010In: Kommunalvetenskaplig Tidskrift (i Finland), ISSN 0356-3669, no 1, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Wångmar, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Zanderin, Lars
    Historik och den kommunala rätten i förhållande till olika rättsområden2010In: Kommunalrätt: - en introduktion för professionsutbildningar / [ed] Lars Zanderin och Annika Staaf, Stockholm: Liber, 2010, 1:2, p. 11-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Brukspatronen som blev omyndig2018In: Det levande Huseby: en värld i förändring / [ed] Lars-Olof Larsson, Växjö: Historiska föreningen i Kronobergs län , 2018, 1, p. 124-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Wångmar, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Statligt eller kommunalt polisväsende i Sverige: argument förr och nu2018In: Kriminologi och poliskunskap: mötet mellan forskning och praktik / [ed] Peter Lindström & Ulf Sempert, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 197-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
1 - 42 of 42
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