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  • 1. Adman, Per
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: Explaining time related change in recognition of political rights among immigrants in Sweden2016In: Presented at SWEPSA 2016: Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, October 19–21, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Abandoning intolerance in a tolerant society: the influence of length of residence on the recognition of political rights among immigrants2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and empirically evaluates the idea that individual level political tolerance is influenced by the overall tolerance in society. Hence, the expectation is that more politically tolerant attitudes would be developed as a consequence of exposure to a social environment in which people in general are more inclined to accept freedom of speech, also when the message (or the messenger as such) challenges one’s own values and beliefs. The theoretical base of the analyses is a learning model, according to which more broad-minded and permissive attitudes, from a democratic point of view, are adopted as a result of (1) an adjustment stimulated by mere observation of an overall high-level of political tolerance in society (‘passive learning’), and (2) an adjustment due to cognition and interaction within important spheres in society (‘active learning’). Using surveydata, we explore empirically how length of residence among immigrants in high-tolerance Sweden are related to attitudinal measures of political tolerance, and to what extent a time-related effect is mediated through participation in ‘learning institutions’ of education, working-life, civil society and political involvement. In concert with expectations, the empirical findings suggest that an observed positive effect of time in Sweden on political tolerance may be explained by a gradual adoption of the principle that political rights should be recognized. Such an adoption, however, seems to require participation in activities of learning institutions, as we find that passive learning alone is not sufficient.

  • 3.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political integration in practice: explaining a time-dependent increase in political knowledge among immigrants in Sweden2018In: Social Inclusion, ISSN 2183-2803, E-ISSN 2183-2803, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 248-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholarly findings suggest that immigrants in Western countries, in general, participate less in politics and show lower levels of political efficacy than native-born citizens. Research is scarce, however, when it comes to immigrants’ knowledge about politics and public affairs in their new home country, and what happens with this knowledge over the years. This article focuses on immigrants in Sweden, a country known for ambitious multicultural policies, but where immigrants also face disadvantages in areas such as labor and housing markets. Utilizing particularly suitable survey data we find that immigrants, in general, know less about Swedish politics than natives, but also that this difference disappears with time. Exploring the influence of time of residence on political knowledge, the article shows that the positive effect of time in Sweden among immigrants remains after controlling for an extensive set of background factors. Moreover, the article examines this political learning effect through the lens of an Ability–Motivation–Opportunity (AMO) model. The findings suggest that the development of an actual ability to learn about Swedish politics—via education in Sweden, and by improved Swedish language skills—is an especially important explanation for the increase in political knowledge.

  • 4.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants’ Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies report high levels of political trust among immigrants in Western Europe. Notably, such confidence tend to be particularly pronounced among immigrants from countries without democratic institutions and poor records in terms of corruption level. Yet over time, members of these population categories tend to express decreasing levels of political trust. Following previous research, such a pattern may be explained by high initial—although with time retreating—expectations concerning the quality of institutions in Western Europe. Analyzing Swedish survey data—particularly appropriate in the light of competing hypotheses concerning acculturation and barriers to integration, including discrimination—this paper presents additional support for the importance of expectations when it comes to political trust. Our analyses suggest that the gradual development of more modest expectations regarding institutional performance in the new country is a trustworthy explanation of the falling levels of immigrants‘ political trust.

  • 5.
    Adman, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political Trust as Modest Expectations: Exploring Immigrants' Falling Confidence in Swedish Political Institutions2015In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political trust among immigrants in Western Europe seems to be surprisingly high, especially among immigrants from non-democratic countries with institutions plagued by corruption. Over time, however, trust tends to diminish among these individuals. In this paper we argue that this may neither be explained by acculturation nor by experiences of discrimination. Analysing Swedish survey data we instead conclude, although tentatively, that falling expectations regarding the performance of host country institutions is a fruitful explanation. Such expectations presumably become more modest the longer one has been living in Sweden, causing a time-related drop in the overall confidence in Swedish political institutions.

  • 6. Adman, Per
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Time for Tolerance: Exploring the Influence of Learning Institutions on the Recognition of Political Rights Among Immigrants2018In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Bay, Ann-Helén
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    An Introduction to Diversity, Inclusion and Citizenship in Scandinavia2010In: Diversity, Inclusion and Citizenship in Scandinavia / [ed] Bengtsson, Bo, Per Strömblad & Ann-Helén Bay, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8. Bengtsson, Bo
    et al.
    Strömblad, PerLinnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.Bay, Ann-Helén
    Diversity, Inclusion and Citizenship in Scandinavia2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Malmberg, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala universitet.
    Strömblad, Per
    Institute for Future Studies.
    Contact or isolation?: The effects of segregation on votes for xenophobic parties.2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10. Myrberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Etnisk organisering som brygga till politiskt engagemang?: En jämförande studie av politisk integration via föreningslivet i europeiska storstäder2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Myrberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Uppsala University;Malmö University.
    Etniska föreningar och politisk integration2017In: Valdeltagande och representation. Om invandring och politisk integration i Sverige. / [ed] Bevelander, Peter & Mikael Spång, Stockholm: Delegationen för Migrationsstudier , 2017, p. 141-182Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Palme, Joakim
    et al.
    Bäckman, Olof
    Johansson, Peter
    Strömblad, Per
    Institutet för Framtidsstudier.
    Sverige i framtiden: Segregation och integration2011In: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, no 4, p. 18-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Alla bjuds inte in till demokratin2007In: Framtider, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Att acceptera eller inte acceptera diskriminering.2014In: Surveyjournalen, ISSN 2001-9327, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Att studera segregationens konsekvenser2008In: Den delade staden / [ed] Lena Magnusson Turner, Umeå: Boréa förlag , 2008, 2Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Delaktighet i det segregrade Sverige2010In: Fokus 10: en analys av ungas inflytande, Stockholm: Ungdomsstyrelsen , 2010, p. 292-315Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Demokrati 2.02009In: Framtider, Vol. Nr 2, 2009Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Empowering Members of Ethnic Organisations: Tracing the political integration potential of immigrant associations in Stockholm2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Engagemang, mångfald och integration. Om möjligheter och hinder för politisk jämlikhet.2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EU Migration Policy and Regional Growth: Exploring prerequisites for political entrepreneurship and integration in ethnically diverse socities.2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Framtida politisk jämlikhet i IT-samhället?2008In: Fjorton perspektiv på framtiden. Samhälls- och humanvetenskapliga framtidsstudier / [ed] Alm, S & J Palme, Institutet för Framtidsstudier , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Internet, folket och eliterna2008In: Statsvetare ifrågasätter / [ed] Gustavsson, Hermansson & Holmström, Uppsala: Acta universitatis upsaliensis , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Kategorisering och integration. Om föreställda identiteter i politik, forskning, media och vardag.2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Kunskap för integration. Om makt i skola och utbildning i mångfaldens Sverige. Rapport från Integrationspolitiska maktutredningen.2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Much ado about something. Or: why political participation might be a fruitful focus when analysing segregation generated contexts of exclusion1997In: Nordisk Samhällsgeografisk Tidskrift, Vol. 25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Strömblad, Per
    Mångfald och social tillit, i kommuner och bostadsområden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political Entrepreneurs and immigrant's entrepreneurship2016In: Political Entrepreneurship: Regional Growth and Entrepreneurial Diversity in Sweden / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Charlotte Silander and Daniel Silander, Cheltenham Glos, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 149-170Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Strömblad, Per
    Uppsala Universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Politik på stadens skuggsida2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politiska entreprenörer och invandrades företagande2015In: Politiskt entreprenörskap: Den offentliga sektorns sätt att skapa bättre förutsättningar för entreprenörskap lokalt, regionalt och nationellt. / [ed] Daniel Silander & Charlotte Silander, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2015, p. 91-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Urban Inequality and Political Recruitment: A Case of Statistical Discrimination?2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Strömblad, Per
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Utanför demokratin? Del 3. Resurser för politisk integration.2000Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Vem litar på vem i det segregerade Sverige?: Kontakt, konflikt och kontextuella effekter av etnisk mångfald på social tillit2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Strömblad, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Väljare bedömer välfärden2011In: Den svenska väljaren / [ed] Hagevi, Magnus, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2011, p. 111-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Adman, Per
    Etniska föreningars betydelse för kvinnors och mäns politiska deltagande2009In: Föreningsliv, delaktighet och lokal politik i det mångkulturella samhället / [ed] Bo Bengtsson & Clarissa Kugelberg, Malmö: Egalité , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.
    Adman, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Exploring Political Trust Among Immigrants in Scandinavia2010In: ECPR Joint Sessions in Münster, 22–27 March 2010, Session 19: Institutional Performance and Political Support in Europe, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on differences in political trust between immigrants of different origins, residing in either Denmark, Norway or Sweden. The main question is how differences in the general propensity to hold confidence in various political institutions may be explained by previous political systems experiences. Utilising recent survey data we seek to explain variations in political trust by incorporating country-level data based on the Corruption Perceptions Index. Empirical analyses suggest that the strongest confidence in political institutions is found among immigrants who share a background in high-corruption countries. However, we also find that length of residence in the host country negatively influences political trust; hence, over time, immigrants belonging to this category will be positioned more on par with the rest of the population. Analysing possible reasons for this conditional effect, we find experiences of discrimination to be an insufficient explanation. Instead we argue that immigrants from less trust-worthy political regimes initially tend to have a very bright view on the system performance of stable democracies, such as the Scandinavian countries, but that experience and knowledge acquired over time engender a more critical, though arguably realistic, outlook.

  • 36.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Adman, Per
    From Naïve Newcomers to Critical Citizens? Exploring Political Trust Among Immigrants in Scandinavia2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Adman, Per
    From Naïve Newcomers to Critical Citizens?: Exploring Political  Trust Among Immigrants in Scandinavia2010In: Diversity, Inclusion and Citizenship in Scandinavia / [ed] Bengtsson, Bo, Per Strömblad & Ann-Helén Bay, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Adman, Per
    Moving to Trust? An Explorative Analysis of Political Trust Among Immigrants in Sweden2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adman, Per
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Political Integration through Ethnic or Nonethnic Voluntary Associations?2010In: Political research quarterly, ISSN 1065-9129, E-ISSN 1938-274X, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 721-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article challenges previous findings suggesting that ethnic associations promote political participation among immigrants. Analyzing recent survey data from Sweden, the authors find that political activity among immigrants is encouraged by associational involvement in general but not by associations based on ethnic origin. To explain this difference, the authors examine important causal mechanisms between associational involvement and political participation. They conclude that while ethnic associations induce the development of civic skills, they do not create enough opportunities for mobilization through networks of political recruitment. Hence, compared to associations in which both mechanisms operate, ethnic associations tend to provide less politically stimulating environments.

  • 40.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Adman, Per
    Utopia becoming dystopia?: Analyzing political trust among immigrants in Sweden.2011Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Beckman, Ludvig
    Ge alla inflyttade full rösträtt2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Analysing Associations as Political Participants: An application of the Civic Voluntarism Model on the organizational level2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Collective political action as civic voluntarism: analysing ethnic associations as political participants by translating individual level theory to the organizational level2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and empirically evaluates an analytical experiment, in which individual level explanations of differences in political participation are translated to an organizational level. Utilizing the ‘Civic Voluntarism Model’ of participation research, we analyse consequences of voluntary associations’ potentially politically valuable ‘resources’, ‘motivation’ and ‘recruitment networks’. We use unique data from a survey of ethnic associations in Stockholm, Sweden—which may be considered as particularly interesting since in Swedish integration policy such associations are expected to fulfil a formal political role. Estimating a series of regression models, our results suggest that the overall logic of how associational level political participation is encouraged resembles corresponding mechanisms on the individual level. We find that quite basic resources, such as the number of members in a given association, promote participation; also when motivation, as reflected in assessed importance of political influence, is accounted for. Similarly, the results confirm that access to political networks stimulates political participation among voluntary associations. We conclude that both our theoretical argument and empirical findings merit further analyses of ethnic associations as well as other collective actors' political participation in accordance with the approach taken in this study.

  • 44.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Uppsala University.
    Collective Political Action as Civic Voluntarism: Analysing Ethnic Associations as Political Participants by Translating Individual Level Theory to the Organizational Level2017In: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 111-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents and empirically evaluates an analytical experiment in which we seek to translate individual-level explanations of differences in political participation to an organizational level. Utilizing the Civic Voluntarism Model, we analyse the consequences of voluntary associations’ politically valuable ‘resources’, ‘motivation’, and ‘recruitment networks’. Using data from a survey of ethnic associations in Stockholm, Sweden, results suggest that the overall logic of how associational-level political participation is encouraged resembles corresponding mechanisms on the individual level. We conclude that both our theoretical argument and empirical findings merit further analyses of civil society actors’ political participation with the approach taken in this study.

  • 45.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Institute for Future Studies, PO Box 591, SE-101 31 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Institute for Housing and Urban Research, Uppsala University, PO Box 785, SE-80129 Gävle, Sweden.
    Empowering Members of Ethnic Organisations. Tracing the Political Integration Potential of Immigrant Associations in Stockholm2009In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 296-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The voluminous participation literature notwithstanding, knowledge is still scarce on how voluntary associations more precisely provide their members with politically significant human and social capital. This article focuses on the capacities of immigrant organisations to promote the political integration of ethnic minority members. Analysing a unique dataset, based on face-to-face interviews with representatives of 106 organisations of four different immigrant groups in Greater Stockholm, the study empirically investigates what the authors refer to as an association's ‘political integration potential’ (PIP) – the possibility of a given ethnic association to promote the inclusion of its members in the political community of the host society. As elements of PIP, the article examines associational-level political activity as well as support and mobilisation of individual members, and analyses how the former may be induced by the latter. Furthermore, the article tries to explain why some types of organisations do better than others in these respects. It finds that size and diversification of associations have an important impact on PIP, thus explaining observed differences between associations of the ethnic categories included in this study.

  • 46.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Etniska föreningar och politisk integration2009In: Föreningsliv, delaktighet och lokal politik i det mångkulturella samhället / [ed] Bo Bengtsson & Clarissa Kugelberg, Malmö: Egalité , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Institute for Futures Studies.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    Uppsala universitet.
    Political Participation of Ethnic Associations: Exploring the Importance of Organisational Level Differences in Resources, Motivation and Recruitment Networks.2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we apply the Civic Voluntarism Model (CVM) proposed by Verba, Schlozmanand Brady on the organisational level. Simultaneously contributing to the research on thepolitical integration of ethnic minorities, we examine resources, motivation and recruitmentnetworks of ethnic associations, and probe the extent to which these mechanisms influencecollectively organised political participation. We use data based on face to face interviewswith representatives of 106 organisations of four different immigrant groups in Stockholm.Our results indicate that participation rates of ethnic associations vary with size, access toinformation technology, level of internal democracy, overall aspiration to influence society,and contacts with political elites. Noteworthy, however, our analyses suggest that members’proficiency in the Swedish language is not important in this respect. Conceptually andmethodologically the study demonstrates how the CVM can be fruitfully applied whenanalysing differences in the political activity of voluntary associations.

  • 48.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences.
    Fritzell, Johan
    Segregation och social tillit2011In: Utanförskap / [ed] Alm, S., O. Bäckman, A. Gavanas och A. Nilsson, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University.
    Ethnic segregation and xenophobic party preference: Exploring the influence of the presence of visible minorities on local electoral support for the Sweden Democrats2016In: Journal of Urban Affairs, ISSN 0735-2166, E-ISSN 1467-9906, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 530-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the neighborhood-level presence of visible minorities on xenophobic party support. Drawing on previous research on support for xenophobic political parties in Europe, we explore variations in electoral preferences for the Sweden Democrats. We examine relationships between the presence of visible minorities at the neighborhood level, controlling for the level of unemployment and education both in terms of potentially additive and interactive effects. We find that increased exposure of visible minorities unambiguously leads to an increase in xenophobic voting if the district level of unemployment is high. Where unemployment is low the effect of increased exposure may instead lead to reduced xenophobic party support, due to complex interaction effects involving aggregate education level. The results are discussed in the light of possible public policy measures to combat unemployment in multicultural democracies.

  • 50.
    Strömblad, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University.
    Ethnic segregation and xenophobic party preference: exploring the influence of the presence of visible minorities on local electoral support for the Sweden Democrats2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides evidence of segregation-generated differences in political recruitment. Focusing on social-geographical differentiation in the urban landscape, we evaluate—in prior work largely neglected—contextual effects on requests for political participation. Consistent with previous research, our analyses suggest that political activists, who try to convince others to participate, systematically use a set of selection criteria when deciding whom to approach. However, using data based on a sample of inhabitants of Swedish cities and properties of their neighbourhoods, we also present evidence for aggregate-level social exclusion influences on individual-level recruitment efforts. Consistent with our theoretical framework, results indicate that the contextual effect stems both from the disproportional population composition in residential areas, and from recruiters‘ rational avoidance of areas marked by high levels of social exclusion. The net result, we conclude, is a reinforcement of urban inequalities when it comes to the chances to be invited to political life

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