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  • 1.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    A new clinical muscle function test for assessment of hip external rotation strength: Augustsson Strength Test2016In: The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, E-ISSN 2159-2896, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 520-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non–athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test.

    Methods

    Fifty–three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test–retest reliability.

    Results

    No significant test–retest differences were observed. Intra–class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93–0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76–4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156).

    Conclusions

    The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non–athletes and athletes. The test is practical and easy to perform in any setting and could therefore provide additional information to the common clinical hip examination, in the rehabilitation or research setting, as well as when conducting on–the–field testing in sports.

    Level of evidence

    3

  • 2.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    University of Gothenburg ; Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Documentation of strength training for research purposes after ACL reconstruction2013In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1849-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this systematic literature reviewwas to evaluate strength training protocol documentationduring rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)reconstruction. The aim was further to present recommendationsconcerning what components (i.e. methods,principles and training variables) could be considered vitalto document when it comes to strength training for researchpurposes after ACL reconstruction.Methods A search of the PUBMED/MEDLINE, CINAHLand SportDiscus databases was made of relevant literaturerelating to strength training after ACL reconstruction. Thedatabase search was based on relevant medical subjectheadings terms (strength/resistance/weight training, anteriorcruciate ligament reconstruction/rehabilitation). Theliterature was reviewed regarding the way methods andvariables were documented in strength training protocolsduring rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction in peerreviewedoriginal prospective articles.Results The systematic literature search identified 139citations published between January 1983 and May 2012.Six studies contained a strength training programme-part ofthe rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction thatmet the inclusion criteria. Basic information (i.e. trainingfrequency, intensity, volume, progression or the duration ofthe training period) regarding the strength training protocolsused during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction was notdocumented in full in four of the studies.Conclusion The results clearly indicate the need of amore standardised and detailed way of documentingstrength training for research purposes after ACL reconstructionin order to increase the value of future studies onthis subject. This review gives recommendations onstrength training protocol documentation after ACLreconstruction to facilitate this goal.

  • 3.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bruno, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg.
    Swärd, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg.
    Development of a new isometric strength test using an isoinertial-based weight machine2010In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method of measuring maximal isometric strength, using an isoinertial-basedweight machine. The aim was also to investigate the reliability of the isometric strength test and the dynamic one-repetitionmaximum (1 RM) test in women and men. Healthy recreational weight trainers (15 women and 15 men) were tested firstly for maximal isometric strength and secondly for 1 RM-strength using an isoinertial-based (gym) knee-extension weightmachine. The isometric test was carried out with the subject performing a muscle action that dislodged a particular testweight (within 5 s) and, as a result, a weighted rope fell out of the weight stack and the trial was regarded as successful. The test was repeated with increments of weight until failure. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test – retest reliability. High ICCs ( 0.90) were found for both the isometric and the 1 RM-strength tests, in both women and men. In conclusion, our new clinical test is a reliable tool for healthy, relatively strong subjects for the establishmentof maximal isometric strength using an isoinertial-based weight machine. The test can be used by physical therapists, athletic trainers and strength and conditioning coaches in clinical practice, working with strength training and rehabilitation.

  • 4.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia
    Lund university;Halmstad university.
    Styrketester2018In: Idrottsskada: Från prevention till säker återgång till idrott / [ed] Eva Rasmussen Barr & Annette Heijne, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, p. 159-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    University of Gothenburg.
    Thomeé, Roland
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svantesson, Ulla
    University of Gothenburg.
    Performance Enhancement Following a Strength and Injury Prevention Program: A 26-Week Individualized and Supervised Intervention in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players2011In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 399-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 26-weekindividualized and supervised strength and injury prevention program onperformance enhancement in young female volleyball players whocompleted resistance training with either a supervised and individualizedtraining program (experimental group, n=10) or an unsupervised nonindividualizedtraining program (control group, n=17). Exposure and injurydata were collected during the 2006-2007 season (baseline season) andthe 26-week program was conducted during the 2007-2008 season(intervention season). All players were tested for physical performance. Atpost-test, the players in the experimental group had improved significantlymore than the players in the control group for squat (p<0.0001), benchpress (p=0.048), push-ups (p=0.02) and sit-ups (p<0.0001) but not for thevertical jump test. Thirty-five percent (6/17) of the players from the controlgroup and 80% (8/10) of the players in the experimental group completedthe resistance training with compliance of no less than 50%. The presentstudy shows the importance of individualization and supervision forresistance training in young female athletes when it comes to compliance,strength gains and performance.

  • 6.
    Thomeé, Roland
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Neeter, Camille
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Gustavsson, Alexander
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Thomeé, Pia
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    Gothenburg University.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Variability in leg muscle power and hop performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction2012In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1143-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this prospective study was to describe the variability in leg muscle power and hop performance up to 2 years among patients following ACL reconstruction and specifically to illustrate the effects of various criteria for an acceptable level of muscle function.

    Methods Eighty-two patients (56 men and 26 women) with a mean age of 28 years, who underwent ACL reconstruction using either hamstring tendons (n = 46) or apatellar tendon (n = 36), were assessed pre-operatively and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery with a battery of three lower extremity muscle power tests and a battery of three hop tests. Results Leg symmetry index (LSI) values at group level ranged between 73 and 100% at all follow-ups. When the tests were evaluated individually, patients reached an average LSI of C90% at 24 months. The success rate at 24 months for the muscle power test battery, that is, patients with an LSI of C90% in all three tests, was 48 and 44% for the hop test battery. The success rate at 24 months for both test batteries on all six muscle function tests was 22%. The criterion of an LSI of C80% resulted in 53% of the patients having an acceptable level on all six tests, while with a criterion of an LSI of C100%, none of the patients reached an acceptable level.

    Conclusion At group level and in single muscle function tests, the muscle function outcome 1 and 2 years after ACL reconstruction is satisfactory in the present study and on a par with the results presented in the literature. However, when using more demanding criteria for a successful muscle function outcome, using batteries of tests or increasing the acceptable LSI level from C90% to C95% or C100%, the results are considered to be poor. It is suggested that this should be taken into consideration when presenting results after ACL rehabilitation, deciding on the criteria for a safe return to sports, or designing rehabilitation programmes after ACL reconstruction.

    Level of evidence Prognostic prospective cohort study, Level I.

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