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  • 1.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    A new clinical muscle function test for assessment of hip external rotation strength: Augustsson Strength Test2016In: The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, E-ISSN 2159-2896, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 520-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Dynamic clinical tests of hip strength applicable on patients, non–athletes and athletes alike, are lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to develop and evaluate the reliability of a dynamic muscle function test of hip external rotation strength, using a novel device. A second aim was to determine if gender differences exist in absolute and relative hip strength using the new test.

    Methods

    Fifty–three healthy sport science students (34 women and 19 men) were tested for hip external rotation strength using a device that consisted of a strap connected in series with an elastic resistance band loop, and a measuring tape connected in parallel with the elastic resistance band. The test was carried out with the subject side lying, positioned in 45 ° of hip flexion and the knees flexed to 90 ° with the device firmly fastened proximally across the knees. The subject then exerted maximal concentric hip external rotation force against the device thereby extending the elastic resistance band. The displacement achieved by the subject was documented by the tape measure and the corresponding force production was calculated. Both right and left hip strength was measured. Fifteen of the subjects were tested on repeated occasions to evaluate test–retest reliability.

    Results

    No significant test–retest differences were observed. Intra–class correlation coefficients ranged 0.93–0.94 and coefficients of variation 2.76–4.60%. In absolute values, men were significantly stronger in hip external rotation than women (right side 13.2 vs 11.0 kg, p = 0.001, left side 13.2 vs 11.5 kg, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences in hip external rotation strength normalized for body weight (BW) between men and women (right side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.17 kg/BW, p = 0.675, left side 0.17 kg/BW vs 0.18 kg/BW, p = 0.156).

    Conclusions

    The new muscle function test showed high reliability and thus could be useful for measuring dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients, non–athletes and athletes. The test is practical and easy to perform in any setting and could therefore provide additional information to the common clinical hip examination, in the rehabilitation or research setting, as well as when conducting on–the–field testing in sports.

    Level of evidence

    3

  • 2.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    University of Gothenburg ; Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Documentation of strength training for research purposes after ACL reconstruction2013In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1849-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this systematic literature reviewwas to evaluate strength training protocol documentationduring rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)reconstruction. The aim was further to present recommendationsconcerning what components (i.e. methods,principles and training variables) could be considered vitalto document when it comes to strength training for researchpurposes after ACL reconstruction.Methods A search of the PUBMED/MEDLINE, CINAHLand SportDiscus databases was made of relevant literaturerelating to strength training after ACL reconstruction. Thedatabase search was based on relevant medical subjectheadings terms (strength/resistance/weight training, anteriorcruciate ligament reconstruction/rehabilitation). Theliterature was reviewed regarding the way methods andvariables were documented in strength training protocolsduring rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction in peerreviewedoriginal prospective articles.Results The systematic literature search identified 139citations published between January 1983 and May 2012.Six studies contained a strength training programme-part ofthe rehabilitation protocol after ACL reconstruction thatmet the inclusion criteria. Basic information (i.e. trainingfrequency, intensity, volume, progression or the duration ofthe training period) regarding the strength training protocolsused during rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction was notdocumented in full in four of the studies.Conclusion The results clearly indicate the need of amore standardised and detailed way of documentingstrength training for research purposes after ACL reconstructionin order to increase the value of future studies onthis subject. This review gives recommendations onstrength training protocol documentation after ACLreconstruction to facilitate this goal.

  • 3.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bruno, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg.
    Swärd, Joakim
    University of Gothenburg.
    Development of a new isometric strength test using an isoinertial-based weight machine2010In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method of measuring maximal isometric strength, using an isoinertial-basedweight machine. The aim was also to investigate the reliability of the isometric strength test and the dynamic one-repetitionmaximum (1 RM) test in women and men. Healthy recreational weight trainers (15 women and 15 men) were tested firstly for maximal isometric strength and secondly for 1 RM-strength using an isoinertial-based (gym) knee-extension weightmachine. The isometric test was carried out with the subject performing a muscle action that dislodged a particular testweight (within 5 s) and, as a result, a weighted rope fell out of the weight stack and the trial was regarded as successful. The test was repeated with increments of weight until failure. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test – retest reliability. High ICCs ( 0.90) were found for both the isometric and the 1 RM-strength tests, in both women and men. In conclusion, our new clinical test is a reliable tool for healthy, relatively strong subjects for the establishmentof maximal isometric strength using an isoinertial-based weight machine. The test can be used by physical therapists, athletic trainers and strength and conditioning coaches in clinical practice, working with strength training and rehabilitation.

  • 4.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia
    Lund university;Halmstad university.
    Styrketester2018In: Idrottsskada: Från prevention till säker återgång till idrott / [ed] Eva Rasmussen Barr & Annette Heijne, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, p. 159-169Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Thomeé, Roland
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Styrketräning för idrott, motion och rehabilitering2019 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrketräning kan utövas som en egen idrott i form av tyngdlyftning och styrkelyft. Styrketräning bedrivs också i prestationshöjande syfte som ett viktigt komplement till andra träningsformer eller idrotter. Många styrketränar för att orka mer och klara vardag och fritid bättre. Sist men inte minst spelar styrketräning en viktig roll i att förebygga och behandla skador och sjukdomar.

    Styrketräning är inkluderande och kan utformas så att vem som helst, oberoende av ålder och fysisk status kan utföra den. Styrketräning är också skonsam och anpassningsbar och därför alltid ett alternativ när andra träningsformer blivit för krävande och inte längre fungerar att utföra. Styrketräning är dessutom en effektiv och utmanande träningsform, på kort tid kan man pressas till total utmattning.

    Det är alltså inte så konstigt att styrketräning är en av de vanligaste träningsformerna och idag har mer än två miljoner utövare i Sverige. Och i takt med att intresset för styrketräning ökar, så bidrar forskningen till att kunskapen om kropp och muskler också ökar. Denna bok är den mest heltäckande och ambitiösa om styrketräning som skrivits i Sverige och ger såväl kunskap som vägledning kring hur styrketräning ska bedrivas för att ge optimal effekt utifrån träningens syfte. Boken är indelad i olika kapitel som behandlar många olika aspekter av styrketräning. För att öka förståelsen och för att göra läsningen så stimulerande som möjligt är boken rikt illustrerad och försedd med faktarutor och sammanfattningar.

    Den nya upplagan av boken har både uppdaterats och utökats med nya forskningsrön, aktuella referenser och information i samtliga kapitel. Den tillämpade delen av boken har ytterligare fördjupats med nya bilder där de mest betydelsefulla styrketräningsövningarna demonstreras på ett unikt och pedagogiskt sätt för läsaren. Kapitlen Styrketräning för unga, gravida och äldre, Förebyggande och rehabiliterande styrketräning och Kostens betydelse vid styrketräning har alla nytt innehåll. Ett helt nytt kapitel, Träningsplanering och tester för styrketräning, har tillkommit.

    Styrketräning – för idrott, motion och rehabilitering riktar sig bland annat till aktiva och ledare inom idrottsrörelsen, hälso-, friskvårds-, gym- och fitnessbranschens aktörer och till utbildningar av fysioterapeuter, idrottsvetare, hälsovetare, biomedicinare, idrottslärare med flera.

  • 6.
    Hallberg, Sam
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Sansone, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Full recovery of hip muscle strength is not achieved at return to sports in patients with femoroacetabular impingement surgery2018In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to study dynamic hip external rotation strength in patients with Femoroacetabular impingement surgery (FAI) syndrome who have undergone unilateral arthroscopic treatment and returned to sports.

    MethodsA cross-sectional study was performed using an observational group (n = 22) and a matched control group (n = 22). Dynamic external rotation strength of the hip was measured using the Augustsson Strength Test, which has shown high reliability for examining side-to-side differences in hip muscle strength.

    ResultsDynamic hip external rotation strength was significantly lower in the arthroscopically treated hip compared with the non-treated hip within the observational group (p < 0.004).

    ConclusionThis cross-sectional study shows that at return to sports, patients who have undergone unilateral arthroscopic treatment for FAI syndrome do not have adequate hip muscle strength recovery. Rehabilitation protocols should, therefore, emphasise post-operative strength training of the hip muscles. Additional research is needed to determine the consequences of reduced hip strength for the long-term outcome after arthroscopically treated FAI. Clinical relevance: The results of this study underline the importance of post-operative strength training prior to returning to sports in patients with femoroacetabular impingement surgery.

    Level of evidenceIII.

  • 7.
    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    University of Gothenburg.
    Thomeé, Roland
    University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svantesson, Ulla
    University of Gothenburg.
    Performance Enhancement Following a Strength and Injury Prevention Program: A 26-Week Individualized and Supervised Intervention in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players2011In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 399-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 26-weekindividualized and supervised strength and injury prevention program onperformance enhancement in young female volleyball players whocompleted resistance training with either a supervised and individualizedtraining program (experimental group, n=10) or an unsupervised nonindividualizedtraining program (control group, n=17). Exposure and injurydata were collected during the 2006-2007 season (baseline season) andthe 26-week program was conducted during the 2007-2008 season(intervention season). All players were tested for physical performance. Atpost-test, the players in the experimental group had improved significantlymore than the players in the control group for squat (p<0.0001), benchpress (p=0.048), push-ups (p=0.02) and sit-ups (p<0.0001) but not for thevertical jump test. Thirty-five percent (6/17) of the players from the controlgroup and 80% (8/10) of the players in the experimental group completedthe resistance training with compliance of no less than 50%. The presentstudy shows the importance of individualization and supervision forresistance training in young female athletes when it comes to compliance,strength gains and performance.

  • 8.
    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Tranberg, Roy
    University of Gothenburg.
    Zugner, Roland
    University of Gothenburg.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Vertical drop jump landing depth influences knee kinematics in female recreational athletes2018In: Physical Therapy in Sport, ISSN 1466-853X, E-ISSN 1873-1600, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 133-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To examine whether different vertical drop jump (VDJ) landing depth (small versus deep) and stance width (wide versus narrow) may alter movement biomechanics in female recreational athletes. The purpose was also to identify whether leg muscle strength is a predictive factor for knee control during a VDJ.

    Design

    Cross-sectional.

    Setting

    Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Eighteen women aged between 18-30 years.

    Main Outcome Measures

    Three VDJ tests were used for biomechanical analysis: 1) small “bounce” jump (BJ), 2) deep “countermovement” jump with wide (CMJW) and 3) narrow foot position (CMJN). Subjects also performed an isometric knee-extension strength test, dichotomized to ‘weak’ versus ‘strong’ subjects according to median and quartiles.

    Results

    There were greater knee valgus angles during landing for both the CMJW and CMJN test compared to the BJ test (p≤0.05). Differences in knee valgus between weak and strong subjects were significant for the BJ test (p=0.044) but not for any of the other tests.

    Conclusions

    VDJ landing depth influences knee kinematics in women. Landing depth may therefore be considered when screening athletes using the VDJ test. Also, muscle strength seems to influence the amount of knee valgus angles, but the difference was not statistically significant (except for the BJ test) in this small cohort.

  • 9.
    Thomeé, Roland
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Neeter, Camille
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Gustavsson, Alexander
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Thomeé, Pia
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Augustsson, Jesper
    Gothenburg University.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital ; Gothenburg University.
    Variability in leg muscle power and hop performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction2012In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 1143-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this prospective study was to describe the variability in leg muscle power and hop performance up to 2 years among patients following ACL reconstruction and specifically to illustrate the effects of various criteria for an acceptable level of muscle function.

    Methods Eighty-two patients (56 men and 26 women) with a mean age of 28 years, who underwent ACL reconstruction using either hamstring tendons (n = 46) or apatellar tendon (n = 36), were assessed pre-operatively and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery with a battery of three lower extremity muscle power tests and a battery of three hop tests. Results Leg symmetry index (LSI) values at group level ranged between 73 and 100% at all follow-ups. When the tests were evaluated individually, patients reached an average LSI of C90% at 24 months. The success rate at 24 months for the muscle power test battery, that is, patients with an LSI of C90% in all three tests, was 48 and 44% for the hop test battery. The success rate at 24 months for both test batteries on all six muscle function tests was 22%. The criterion of an LSI of C80% resulted in 53% of the patients having an acceptable level on all six tests, while with a criterion of an LSI of C100%, none of the patients reached an acceptable level.

    Conclusion At group level and in single muscle function tests, the muscle function outcome 1 and 2 years after ACL reconstruction is satisfactory in the present study and on a par with the results presented in the literature. However, when using more demanding criteria for a successful muscle function outcome, using batteries of tests or increasing the acceptable LSI level from C90% to C95% or C100%, the results are considered to be poor. It is suggested that this should be taken into consideration when presenting results after ACL rehabilitation, deciding on the criteria for a safe return to sports, or designing rehabilitation programmes after ACL reconstruction.

    Level of evidence Prognostic prospective cohort study, Level I.

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