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  • 1. Ala-Juusela, M.
    et al.
    Paiho, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Successful sustainable renovation business for single-family houses2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bonakdar, Farshid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Cost-optimum analysis of building fabric renovation in a Swedish multi-story residential building2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 84, p. 662-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analysed the cost-optimum level of building fabric elements renovation in a multi-story residential building. We calculated final energy use for space heating of the building considering a wide range of energy efficiency measures, for exterior walls, basement walls, attic floor and windows. Different extra insulation thicknesses for considered opaque elements and different U-values for new windows were used as energy efficiency measures. We calculated difference between the marginal saving of energy cost for space heating and the investment cost of implemented energy efficiency measures, in order to find the cost-optimum measure for each element. The implications of building lifespans, annual energy price increase and discount rate on the optimum measure were also analysed. The results of the analysis indicate that the contribution of energy efficiency measures to the final energy use reduces, significantly, by increasing the thickness of extra insulation and by reducing the U-value of new windows. We considered three scenarios of business as usual (BAU), intermediate and sustainability, considering different discount rates and energy price increase. The results of this analysis suggest that the sustainability scenario may offer, approximately, 100% increase in the optimum thickness of extra insulation compare to BAU scenario. However, the implication of different lifespans of 40, 50 or 60 years, on the optimum measure appears to be either negligible or very small, depending on the chosen scenario. We also calculated the corresponding U-value of the optimum measures in order to compare them with the current Swedish building code requirements and passive house criteria. The results indicate that all optimum measures meet the Swedish building code. None of the optimum measures, however, meet the passive house criteria in BAU scenario. This study suggests that the employed method of building renovation cost-optimum analyses can be also applied on new building construction to find the cost-optimum design from energy conservation point of view.

  • 3.
    Bonakdar, Farshid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Implications of energy efficiency renovation measures for a Swedish residential building on cost, primary energy use and carbon dioxide emission2013In: ECEEE Summer Study proceedings: rethink, renew, restart, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2013, p. 1287-1296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building sector accounts for 40% of total primary energy use in the EU. Measures to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings may reduce primary energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. In this study, we analysed the potential final energy savings for space heating and cost-effectiveness of different energy efficiency measures for a Swedish multi-story residential building from building owner perspective. The implications of the measures on primary energy use and CO2 emission were also explored. Building envelope elements were considered as energy efficiency measures. Required investment for energy efficiency measures per saved energy price was used as indication for the cost-effectiveness of energy renovation. We analysed three scenarios of energy renovation where the building is in its initial state, once with and then without renovation need for repair and maintenance purpose and the scenario for the current state of building. The current state of the building has some modification compared to the initial state. We performed sensitivity analysis to study the influence of economic parameters on the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures. The results showed that the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the measures depend on building characteristics, energy efficiency measures and the assumed economic parameters. Modelling of final energy use, before and after energy renovation, and its cost analysis showed that the considered energy efficiency measures were not economically profitable with the initial economic assumption (6% discount rate and 1.9% annual energy price increase during 50-year lifespan). For the renovation package of all energy efficiency measures, energy renovation appeared to be profitable when discount rate and annual energy price increase were 3% and 2.5% (or larger), respectively. Primary energy use and CO2 emission were reduced by 45 to 50% for the same package for the building with cogeneration-based district heating.

  • 4. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Biomass transportation1996In: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and the environment: World Renewable Energy Congress, 15-21 June 1996, Denver, Colorado, USA, 1996, p. 1033-1036Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive utilisation of logging residues, straw, and energy crops will lead to short transportation distances and thus low transportation costs. The average distance of transportation of biomass to a large-scale conversion slant. suitable for electricitv or methanol uroduction using 300 000 drv tonne biomass vearlv, will be about 30 km in Sweden, if the conversion plant is located at the centre of ihe biomass production area. The estimated Swedish biomass potential of 430 PJ/yr is based on production conditions around 2015, assuming that 30% of the available arable land is used for energy crop production. With present production conditions, resulting in a biomass potential of 220 PJ/yr, the transportation distance is about 42 km. The cost of transporting biomass 30-42 km will be equivalent to 20-25% of the total biomass cost. The total energy efficiency of biomass production and transportation will be 9597%, where the energy losses from transportation are about 20%. Biomass transportation will contribute less than 10% to the total NO,, CO, and HC emissions from biomass production, transportation, and conversion

  • 5. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Greenhouse Gas Balances in Building Construction: Wood versus Concrete from Lifecycle and Forest Land-Use Perspectives2000In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 575-588Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Greenhouse Gas Emission from Building Construction in a Life-Cycle Perspective: Wood or Concrete?1998In: Proceedings of the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings ; 10 : 1998, Washington: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy , 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Reduction of CO2 emissions from changed land use and substitution of biomass for fossil fuels1997In: International Conference on Technologies for Activities Implemented Jointly 1997, Vancouver, British Columbia: Technologies for activities implemented jointly ; proceedings of the conference, 26th - 29th May 1997, Vancouver, Canada, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 1997, p. 777-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Regional Production and Utilization of Biomass in Sweden1996In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 747-764Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Christersson, L
    Linder, S
    Future Production and Utilisation of Biomass in Sweden: potentials and CO~2 mitigation1997In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Dale, Virginia H.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Kline, Keith L.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Parish, Esther S.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, USA.
    Cowie, Annette L.
    Univ New England, Australia.
    Emory, Robert
    Weyerhaeuser Co, USA.
    Malmsheimer, Robert W.
    SUNY Coll Environm Sci & Forestry, USA.
    Slade, Raphael
    Imperial Coll London, UK.
    Smith, Charles Tattersall (Tat), Jr.
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Wigley, Thomas Bently (Ben)
    NCASI, USA.
    Bentsen, Niclas S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Berndes, Goran
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bernier, Pierre
    Canadian Forest Serv, Canada.
    Brandao, Miguel
    Inst Soil Sci & Plant Cultivat, Poland.
    Chum, Helena L.
    NREL, USA.
    Diaz-Chavez, Rocio
    Imperial Coll London, UK.
    Egnell, Gustaf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Schweinle, Jorg
    Thunen Inst Int Forestry & Forest Econ, Germany.
    Stupak, Inge
    Univ Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Trianosky, Paul
    Sustainable Forestry Initiat Inc, USA.
    Walter, Arnaldo
    State Univ Campinas UNICAMP, Brazil.
    Whittaker, Carly
    Rothamsted Res, UK.
    Brown, Mark
    Univ Sunshine Coast, Australia.
    Chescheir, George
    NCSU, USA.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Donnison, Caspar
    Univ Southampton, UK.
    Eng, Alison Goss
    US Dept Energy DOE, USA.
    Hoyt, Kevin P.
    Univ Tennessee, USA.
    Jenkins, Jennifer C.
    Enviva LP, USA.
    Johnson, Kristen
    US Dept Energy DOE, USA.
    Levesque, Charles A.
    Innovat Nat Resource Solut LLC, USA.
    Lockhart, Victoria
    Resource Management Serv LLC, USA.
    Negri, Maria Cristina
    Argonne Natl Lab, USA.
    Nettles, Jami E.
    Weyerhaeuser Co, USA.
    Wellisch, Maria
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Canada.
    Status and prospects for renewable energy using wood pellets from the southeastern United States2017In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1296-1305Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ongoing debate about costs and benefits of wood-pellet based bioenergy production in the southeastern United States (SE USA) requires an understanding of the science and context influencing market decisions associated with its sustainability. Production of pellets has garnered much attention as US exports have grown from negligible amounts in the early 2000s to 4.6 million metric tonnes in 2015. Currently, 98% of these pellet exports are shipped to Europe to displace coal in power plants. We ask, 'How is the production of wood pellets in the SE USA affecting forest systems and the ecosystem services they provide?' To address this question, we review current forest conditions and the status of the wood products industry, how pellet production affects ecosystem services and biodiversity, and what methods are in place to monitor changes and protect vulnerable systems. Scientific studies provide evidence that wood pellets in the SE USA are a fraction of total forestry operations and can be produced while maintaining or improving forest ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are protected by the requirement to utilize loggers trained to apply scientifically based best management practices in planning and implementing harvest for the export market. Bioenergy markets supplement incomes to private rural landholders and provide an incentive for forest management practices that simultaneously benefit water quality and wildlife and reduce risk of fire and insect outbreaks. Bioenergy also increases the value of forest land to landowners, thereby decreasing likelihood of conversion to nonforest uses. Monitoring and evaluation are essential to verify that regulations and good practices are achieving goals and to enable timely responses if problems arise. Conducting rigorous research to understand how conditions change in response to management choices requires baseline data, monitoring, and appropriate reference scenarios. Long-term monitoring data on forest conditions should be publicly accessible and utilized to inform adaptive management.

  • 11.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Climate change impacts on overheating risk and primary energy use for space conditioning of a Swedish multi-story building2016In: CLIMA 2016: Proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress / [ed] Per Kvols Heiselberg, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the potential impacts of future climate change scenarios on overheating risk and primary energy use for space conditioning of a newly built multi-story apartment building in Växjö, Sweden. The building is district heated and potentially cooled by stand-alone air conditioners. We consider climate change scenarios for the period 2050-2059, historical climate of 1961-1990 and recent climate of 1996-2005. The climate change scenarios are based on the representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. We explore the risk of overheating of the building and analyse the impacts of different strategies for overheating control, including increased airing and solar shading besides mechanical cooling. We investigate the implications of different renewable based electricity supply options for space cooling and ventilation of the building. The results show that the space heating demand is significantly reduced and cooling demand is strongly increased for the building with the future climate scenarios. Furthermore the risk of overheating increases under the climate change scenarios. Among the overheating control strategies analysed, solar shading is the single most effective measure, giving the lowest primary energy use for space conditioning. Complementing the electricity from biomass-fired condensing power plants with solar-based electricity reduced the space conditioning primary energy use by 4-9%. Adding increased airing to the control strategies increased the primary energy use.

  • 12.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Comparative life cycle and carbon footprint analyses of wood building systems designed as conventional or passive house standard2014In: World Sustainable Building 2014 Barcelona Conference: Sustainable Buildings:Results Are We Moving as quickly as we should? It's up to us! Conference Proceedings Volume 2, GBCe , 2014, p. 284-290Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Economic analyses of energy efficiency renovation measures and packages for a district heated multi-family residential building2016In: 11th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems: Book of Abstracts : September 4-9, 2016, Lisbon, Portugal / [ed] Marko Ban, Neven Duić, Mario Costa, Daniel Rolph Schneider, Zvonimir Guzović, Stanislav Boldyryev, Valerie Eveloy, Şiir Kilkiş, Jiří Jaromír Klemeš, Tomislav Pukšec, Leonid Ulyev, Petar Varbanov, Milan Vujanović, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb , 2016, p. 321-321, article id 0521Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in buildings is a major part of the overall strategy to reduce fossil fuels use and thereby mitigate climate change. In this study, we present and demonstrate an approach for economic analysis of building energy efficiency measures, and investigate the profitability of energy efficiency renovation measures for a Swedish multi-family building. The energy renovation measures include additional insulation to basement, exterior walls, and roof and improved windows. They are analysed when applied either singly or in packages. We find that the cost-effectiveness of the building envelope retrofit measures is very sensitive to the economic-related parameters applied including, real discount rates and energy price increase over time. Cost optimal final energy savings for the energy renovation package varies between 29% and 38%, depending on the choice of real discount rate and energy price increase. This study shows the significance of different building envelope measures and economic-related parameters in achieving large energy savings from building envelope renovation cost-efficiently.

  • 14.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Effect of energy efficiency requirements for residential buildings in Sweden on lifecycle primary energy use2014In: Energy Procedia: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY, ICAE2014 / [ed] Yan, J; Lee, DJ; Chou, SK; Desideri, U; Li, H, Elsevier, 2014, p. 1183-1186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the lifecycle primary energy use of a wood-frame apartment building designed to meet the current Swedish building code or passive house criteria, and heated with district heat or bedrock heat pump. We employ a lifecycle perspective methodology and determine the production, operation and end-of-life primary energy use of the buildings. We find that the passive house requirement strongly reduces the final energy use for heating compared to the current Swedish building code. However, the primary energy use is largely determined by the energy supply system, which is generally outside the mandate of the building standards. Overall, buildings with district heating have lower life-cycle primary energy use than alternatives heated with heat pump. The primary energy for production is small relative to that for operation, but it is more significant as the energy-efficiency standard of building improves and when efficient energy supply is used. Our results show the importance of a system-wide lifecycle perspective in reducing primary energy use in the built environment. A life cycle primary energy perspective is needed to minimize overall primary energy use, and future building energy-efficiency standards may reflect the full energy use during a building's life cycle. This could include primary energy implications for production, operation and end-of-life of buildings.

  • 15.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy use and overheating risk of Swedish multi-storey residential buildings under different climate scenarios2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 97, p. 534-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the extent to which different climate scenarios influence overheating risk, energy use and peak loads for space conditioning of district heated multi-storey buildings in Sweden are explored. Furthermore, the effectiveness of different overheating control measures and the implications of different electricity supply options for space cooling and ventilation are investigated. The analysis is based on buildings with different architectural and energy efficiency configurations including a prefab concrete-frame, a massive timber-frame and a light timber-frame building. Thermal performance of the buildings under low and high Representative Concentration Pathway climate scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 are analysed and compared to that under historical climate of 1961–1990 and recent climate of 1996–2005. The study is based on a bottom-up methodology and includes detailed hour-by-hour energy balance and systems analyses. The results show significant changes in the buildings’ thermal performance under the future climate scenarios, relative to the historical and recent climates. Heating demand decreased significantly while cooling demand and overheating risk increased considerably with the future climate scenarios, for all buildings. In contrast to the cooling demand, the relative changes in heating demand of the buildings under the future climate scenarios are somewhat similar. The changes in the space conditioning demands and overheating risk vary for the buildings. Overheating risk was found to be slightly higher for the massive-frame building and slightly lower for the light-frame building.

  • 16.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Impact of thermal mass on lifecycle primary energy use of concrete- and timber-frame versions of a building2012In: Presentation at COBEE 12, International Conference on Building Energy and Environment. Boulder, Colorado, USA, August 1-4, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon footprint of wood-frame conventional and passive houses with biomass-based energy supply2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 834-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the primary energy use and carbon footprint over the life cycle of a wood-frame apartmentbuilding designed either conventionally or to the passive house standard are analyzed. Scenarioswhere the building is heated with electric resistance heaters, bedrock heat pump or cogeneration-baseddistrict heat, all with biomass-based energy supply, are compared. The analysis covers all life cyclephases of the buildings, including extraction of raw materials, processing of raw materials into buildingmaterials, fabrication and assembly of materials into a ready building, operation and use of the buildings,and the demolition of the buildings and the post-use management of the building materials. Theprimary energy analysis encompasses the entire energy chains from the extraction of natural resourcesto the delivered energy services. The carbon footprint accounting includes fossil fuel emissions, cementprocess reaction emissions, potential avoided fossil fuel emissions due to biomass residues substitutionand end-of-life benefit of post-use materials. The results show that the operation of the buildingaccounts for the largest share of life cycle primary energy use. The passive house design reduces theprimary energy use and CO2 emission for heating, and the significance of this reduction depends onthe type of heating and energy supply systems. The choice of end-use heating system strongly influencesthe life cycle impacts. A biomass-based system with cogeneration of district heat and electricitygives low primary energy use and low carbon footprint, even with a conventional design. The amountof biomass residues from the wood products chain is large and can be used to substitute fossil fuels.This significantly reduces the net carbon footprint for both the conventional and passive house designs.This study shows the importance of adopting a life cycle perspective involving production, construction,operation, end-of-life, and energy supply when evaluating the primary energy use and climaticimpacts of both passive and conventional buildings.

  • 18.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Bonakdar, Farshid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Effects of future climate change scenarios on overheating risk and primary energy use for Swedish residential buildings2014In: Energy Procedia: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY, ICAE2014 / [ed] Yan, J; Lee, DJ; Chou, SK; Desideri, U; Li, H, Elsevier, 2014, p. 1179-1182Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we use dynamic computer simulation modelling to investigate the potential impact of future climate change scenarios on the risk of overheating and annual primary energy requirements for space heating and cooling of residential buildings in Växjö, Sweden. The buildings are designed to the energy efficiency level of conventional or passive house, and are assumed to be heated with district heating and cooled with mechanical cooling system. We compare different climate change scenarios to a baseline which represents the climate data of Växjö for 1996-2005. The climate change scenarios are based on projected temperature changes under the representative concentration pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The result shows that the risk of overheating increases under the climate change scenarios. Furthermore space heating demand is reduced and cooling demand is increased for the analyzed buildings, and the changes are proportionally more significant for the passive compared to the conventional building.

  • 19.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    SP.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Case studies: Wälluden as case study for three wooden structure systems, Chapter 8.22013In: Wood in carbon efficient construction: Tools, methods and applications / [ed] Kuittinen M., Ludvig, A. and Weiss, G, Finland: Hämeen Kirjapaino Oy , 2013, p. 114-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Background: What is life cycle assessment and carbon footprint analysis? Chapter 2.22013In: Wood in carbon efficient construction: Tools, methods and applications / [ed] Kuittinen M., Ludvig, A. and Weiss, G., Finland: Hämeen Kirjapaino Oy , 2013, p. 15-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Mid Sweden University.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University.
    Building energy-efficiency standards in a life cycle primary energy perspective2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1589-1597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the life cycle primary energy use of a wood-frame apartment building designed to meet the current Swedish building code, the Swedish building code of 1994 or the passive house standard, and heated with district heat or electric resistance heating. The analysis includes the primary energy use during the production, operation and end-of-life phases. We find that an electric heated building built to the current building code has greater life cycle primary energy use relative to a district heated building, although the standard for electric heating is more stringent. Also, the primary energy use for an electric heated building constructed to meet the passive house standard is substantially higher than for a district heated building built to the Swedish building code of 1994. The primary energy for material production constitutes 5% of the primary energy for production and space heating and ventilation of an electric heated building built to meet the 1994 code. The share of production energy increases as the energy-efficiency standard of the building improves and when efficient energy supply is used, and reaches 30% for a district heated passive house. This study shows the significance of a life cycle primary energy perspective and the choice of heating system in reducing energy use in the built environment.

  • 22.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Carbon implications of end-of-life management of building materials2009In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 53, no 5, p. 276-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate the effects of post-use material management on the life cycle carbon balance of buildings, and compare the carbon balance of a concrete-frame building to that of a wood-frame building. The demolished concrete is either landfilled, or is crushed into aggregate followed by exposure to air for periods ranging from 4 months to 30 years to increase carbonation uptake of CO2. The demolished wood is assumed to be used for energy to replace fossil fuels. We calculate the carbon flows associated with fossil fuel used for material production, calcination emission from cement manufacture, carbonation of concrete during and after its service life, substitution of fossil fuels by recovered wood residues, recycling of steel, and fossil fuel used for post-use material management. We find that carbonation of crushed concrete results in significant uptake of CO2. However, the CO2 emission from fossil fuel used to crush the concrete significantly reduces the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Stockpiling crushed concrete for a longer time will increase the carbonation uptake, but may not be practical due to space constraints. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both give higher carbon benefit than the post-use carbonation. We conclude that carbonation of concrete in the post-use phase does not affect the validity of earlier studies reporting that wood-frame buildings have substantially lower carbon emission than concrete-frame buildings.

  • 23.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Climate impacts of wood vs. non-wood buildings2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents the findings of a project commissioned by the SwedishAssociation of Local Authorities and Regions on energy and climateimplications of building structural-frame materials from a life cycle perspective.The report is compiled by researchers within the Sustainable Built EnvironmentGroup (SBER) at Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden, and it addresses theterms of reference of the project agreement, including review of existingliterature and reports on energy and climate implications of wood-frame andnon-wood-frame building systems.The report’s primarily focus is: the effect of material choice on different lifecycle stages of a building; the significance of building frame material in relationto the total primary energy use and climate impact of a building; keymethodological issues linked to life cycle analysis of buildings; and theimportance of system perspective in analysis of a building’s climate impacts.

  • 24.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Effect of thermal mass on life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyze the effect of thermal mass on space heating energy use and life cycle primary energy balances of a concrete- and a wood-frame building. The analysis includes primary energy use during the production, operation, and end-of-life phases. Based on hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of heat flows in building mass configurations we calculate the energy saving benefits of thermal mass during the operation phase of the buildings. Our results indicate that the energy savings due to thermal mass is small and varies with the climatic location and energy efficiency levels of the buildings. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, due to the higher thermal mass of concrete-based materials. Still, a wood-frame building has a lower life cycle primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This is due primarily to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of the wood-frame buildings. These advantages outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass. We conclude that the influence of thermal mass on space heating energy use for buildings located in Nordic climate is small and that wood-frame buildings with cogeneration based district heating would be an effective means of reducing primary energy use in the built environment.

  • 25.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy implications of end-of-life options for building materials2008In: First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, Proceedings Vols 1-3, Dalian, China: Dalian University Technology Press , 2008, p. 2025-2032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy flows associated with the materials comprising a building can be a significant part of the total energy used in a building's life cycle. Buildings have finite life spans, and the materials from demolished buildings can be either a burden that must be disposed, or a resource that can be used. In this paper we analyse the end-of-life energy impacts of concrete, steel and wood. End-of-life options considered include reuse; recycling; downcycling; energy recovery; and disposal in landfill. We follow the life cycles of the building materials from the acquisition of natural resources through to the end of the product's life cycle. We identify possibilities and constraints for integrating more effective end-of-life material processing options into existing industrial systems.

  • 26.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Impacts of end-use energy efficiency measures on life cycle primary energy use in an existing Swedish multi-story apartment building2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Life cycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive house buildings2011In: Proceeding SB11, World Sustainable Building Conference, Helsinki, Finland, October 18-21, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a wood-framed apartment building to passive house standard2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1152-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyze the life cycle primary energy implication of retrofitting a four-storey wood-frame apartment building to the energy use of a passive house. The initial building has an annual final energy use of 110 kWh/m(2) for space and tap water heating. We model improved thermal envelope insulation, ventilation heat recovery, and efficient hot water taps. We follow the building life cycle to analyze the primary energy reduction achieved by the retrofitting, considering different energy supply systems. Significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. The primary energy use for material production increases when the operating energy is reduced but this increase is more than offset by greater primary energy reduction during the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant life cycle primary energy savings. Still, the type of heat supply system has greater impact on primary energy use than the final heat reduction measures.

  • 29.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy perspective on retrofitting an existing building to passive house standard2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy use of an apartment building designed to the current Swedish building code or passive house standard2010In: Passivhus Norden. Aalborg, Denmark, October 7- 8, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Lifecycle carbon implications of conventional and low-energy multi-storey timber building systems2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, p. 194-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A consequential-based lifecycle approach is used here to explore the carbon implications of conventional and low-energy versions of three timber multi-storey building systems. The building systems are made of massive wood using cross laminated timber (CLT) elements; beam-and-column using glulam and laminated veneer lumber (LVL) elements; and prefabricated modules using light-frame volume elements. The analysis encompasses the entire resource chains during the lifecycle of the buildings, and tracks the flows of carbon from fossil energy, industrial process reactions, changes in carbon stocks in materials, and potential avoided fossil emissions from substitution of fossil energy by woody residues. The results show that the low-energy version of the CLT building gives the lowest lifecycle carbon emission while the conventional version of the beam-and-column building gives the highest lifecycle emission. Compared to the conventional designs, the low-energy designs reduce the total carbon emissions (excluding from tap water heating and household and facility electricity) by 9%, 8% and 9% for the CLT, beam-and-column and modular systems, respectively, for a 50-year lifespan located in Växjö. The relative significance of the construction materials to the fossil carbon emission varies for the different energy-efficiency levels of the buildings, with insulation dominating for the low-energy houses and plasterboard dominating for the conventional houses.

  • 32.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Lifecycle primary energy analysis of conventional and passive houses2012In: International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, ISSN 2093-761X, E-ISSN 2093-7628, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 105-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse the primary energy implications of thermal envelope designs and construction systems, for a 4-storey apartment building, including the full lifecycle phases and the entire energy chains. We maintain the architectural design of the reference building, and alter the thermal properties of the envelope components and include heat recovery of ventilation air to achieve buildings with thermal properties similar to three existing passive houses in Sweden. We also vary the building frame material from the reference wood case to reinforced concrete, and vary the heat supply system between district heating and electric resistance heating. We follow the lifecycle of the buildings and analyse and compare their lifecycle primary energy use, considering the production, operation and end-of-life energy uses. The results show that the lifecycle primary energy use of a passive house building is substantially lower when it is heated with district heating instead of electricity. A passive house with district heating uses 42–45% less lifecycle primary energy than the same house with electric heating. Lifecycle primary energy use is 2–4% less when a passive house is constructed with a wood frame instead of a concrete frame. This study shows that material choice becomes increasingly important as buildings are made to the passive house standard and as efficient heat supply systems are used.

  • 33.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Lifecycle primary energy analysis of low-energy timber building systems for multi-story residential buildings2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 81, p. 84-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system-wide lifecycle approach is used here to explore the primary energy implications of three timber building systems for a multi-storey building designed to a high energy-efficiency level. The three building systems are: cross laminated timber, beam -and-column, and modular prefabricated systems. The analysis considers the energy and material flows in the production, use and post-use lifecycle stages of the buildings. The effects of insulation material options and the contribution of different building elements to the production energy for the buildings are explored. The results show that external and internal walls account for the biggest share of the production energy for all building systems and its contribution is comparable for the different systems. In contrast, there is significant variation in the production primary energy for the roof-ceilings and intermediate floor-ceilings for the different building systems. Overall, the cross laminated timber building system gives the lowest lifecycle primary energy balance, as this building is insulated with stone wool and has better airtightness in contrast to the other building systems which are insulated with glass wool and have lower airtightness performance. With improved airtightness and insulation substitution, the total primary energy use for the beam-and-column and modular building systems can be reduced by 7% and 9%, respectively.

  • 34.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Modeling Carbon Footprint of Wood-Based Products and Buildings2015In: The Carbon Footprint Handbook / [ed] Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, London: CRC Press, 2015, p. 143-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Potential for reducing primary energy use in an existing Swedish apartment building: Passivhus Norden. Göteborg, Sweden, April 27-292009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Primary energy implication of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in residential buildings.2010In: ACEEE Summer study on energy efficiency in buildings. Pacific Grove, California, USA, August 15-20, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Primary energy implications of ventilation heat recovery in residential buildings2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 1566-1572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we analyze the impact of ventilation heat recovery (VHR) on the operation primary energy use in residential buildings. We calculate the operation primary energy use of a case-study apartment building built to conventional and passive house standard, both with and without VHR, and using different end-use heating systems including electric resistance heating, bedrock heat pump and district heating based on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR increases the electrical energy used for ventilation and reduces the heat energy used for space heating. Significantly greater primary energy savings is achieved when VHR is used in resistance heated buildings than in district heated buildings. For district heated buildings the primary energy savings are small. VHR systems can give substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit depends strongly on the type of heat supply system, and also on the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings. This study shows the importance of considering the interactions between heat supply systems and VHR systems to reduce primary energy use in buildings.

  • 38.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Recycling of lumber2014In: Handbook of recycling: state-of-the-art for practitioners, analysts, and scientists / [ed] Ernst Worrell and Markus A. Reuter, Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 2014, 1, p. 151-163Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood from sustainably managed forests can play important roles both as material and as fuel in a transition to a low-carbon society. Wood is widely used as an energy source and as a physical and structural material in diverse applications, including furniture and joinery, pulp and paper, and construction material. There is large potential to improve resource efficiency and thereby reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through efficient management of post-use wood materials. This chapter explores post-use management of wood products from resource efficiency and climate perspectives. Primary energy and GHG balances are important metrics to understand the resource efficiency of climate change mitigation strategies involving post-use wood products. Primary energy use largely determines natural resource efficiency and steers the environmental impacts of material recovery and production. This chapter describes the mechanisms through which post-use management of recovered wood materials can affect primary energy use and GHG impacts of wood products. To further understand the implications of different post-use management options for wood products, we then explore several quantitative case-studies.

  • 39.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    The role of wood in carbon efficient construction. Primary energy and greenhouse gas balances over the life cycle of different wood building systems: Swedish case-study building. €CO2 Work Package 12013Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Final energy savings and cost-effectiveness of deep energy renovation of a multi-storey residential building2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 135, p. 563-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we present a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of end-use energy efficiency measures and demonstrate its application for modelling a wide range of energy renovation measures for a typical 1970s multi-family building in Sweden. The method integrates energy balance and bottom-up economic calculations considering total and marginal investment costs of energy efficiency measures as well as net present value of total and marginal savings of the measures. The energy renovation measures explored include additional insulation to basement walls, exterior walls, and attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electric appliances and lighting, efficient water taps, glazed enclosed balcony systems, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. The measures are analysed first individually and then designed to form economic packages. Our results show that improved windows give the biggest single final energy savings while resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure for the building. We find that the cost-effectiveness of the energy renovation measures is sensitive to real discount rates and energy price increases. Cost-optimal final heat savings varies between 34% and 51%, depending on the choice of real discount rate and energy price increase. The corresponding electricity savings varies between 35% and 43%. This study shows a method and the significance of various technical and economic-related parameters in achieving deep energy savings cost-efficiently.

  • 41.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Life cycle primary energy use of nearly-zero energy building and low-energy building2017In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1075-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy legislations are increasingly driving towards buildings with very low operation final energy use as part of efforts to reduce energy use and climate impact of the built environment. In this study we analyse the life cycle primary energy use of a recently constructed Swedish conventional 6-storey apartment building and compare it to variants designed as nearly-zero energy building or as low-energy building with a combination of improved thermal envelope and passive design strategies. We maintain the architectural design of the constructed building and improve the thermal properties of the envelope to achieve a low-energy building and also nearly-zero energy building including solar thermal collectors. We consider scenarios where the building variants are heated with renewable energy using cogenerated district heating, also complemented with solar heating system. We follow the life cycle of the building versions and analyse their total primary energy use, considering the production, operation and end-of-life phases. The results show that the relative significance of the production phase increases as buildings are made to achieve very low operational energy use. The production phase accounts for 17 % of the total primary energy use for production, operation and demolition of the constructed building for a 50-year lifespan. The corresponding values for the nearly-zero energy and low-energy building variants ranges between 30 to 31 %. Overall, the life cycle primary energy use for the nearly-zero energy and low-energy building variants are about 30–35 % lower compared to the constructed building.

  • 42.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy and carbon dioxide implications of low-energy renovation of a Swedish apartment building2013In: Passivhus Norden 2013, 2013, p. 270-282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures to improve energy efficiency in existing buildings offer a significant opportunity to reduce primary energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The construction of new low energy buildings is important in the long term, but has small effect on the building sector’s overall energy use in the short term, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. In this study we analyse the potential for reducing primary energy use and CO2 emissions in an existing Swedish apartment building with energy efficiency renovation measures. We model changes to a case-study building with an annual final heat energy demand of 94 kWh/m2 to achieve a low-energy building. The modelled changes include improved water taps, windows and doors, increased insulation in attic and exterior walls, electric efficient appliances and installation of a plate heat exchanger in the ventilation system. We analyse the life cycle primary energy and CO2 implications of improving the buildings to a low-energy building. We consider different energy supply systems, including scenarios where the end-use heating technology is resistance heating, electric heat pump or district heating. We find that greater lifecycle primary energy and CO2 reduction are achieved when an electric resistance heated building is renovated than when a district heated building is renovated. Material production primary energy use and CO2 emission become relatively more significant when the operation energy is reduced. However, the increases in material production impacts are strongly offset by greater primary energy and CO2 reductions from the operation phase of the building, resulting in significant lifecycle benefits. Additional roof insulation gives the biggest primary energy efficiency when the building is heated with resistance heating. For electric heat pump or district heating, more electric efficient appliances give the biggest primary energy efficiency. Still the heat supply choice has greater impact on primary energy use and CO2 emissions.

  • 43.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Primary energy benefits of cost-effective energy renovation of a district heated multi-family building under different energy supply systems2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 143, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union's Directive on energy performance of buildings emphasizes the need to take cost-effectiveness into account when measures are implemented for improved building energy efficiency. In this study, we investigate cost-effective energy renovation measures for a district heated building under different contexts, including varied locations, energy supply systems and economic scenarios. We determine the final and primary energy savings of cost-effective energy renovation packages for the building in the different contexts. The measures analysed include: improved insulation for attic floor, basement walls, and exterior walls; improved windows and doors; resource-efficient taps; heat recovery of exhaust ventilation air; energy-efficient household appliances and lighting. We consider three existing Swedish energy supply systems of varying district heat production scale and tariffs, and also plausible renewable-based energy supply systems. Our analysis calculates the final energy savings of the measures including the cost-effective renovation packages on hourly basis and links these to the different energy supply systems. The cost-effectiveness analysis is based on a double-stage optimization method, considering total and marginal investment costs of renovation measures as well as associated net present values of total and marginal cost savings. The results show that significant final and primary energy savings can be achieved when energy renovation measures are implemented for the building in the different contexts. This study shows that heat demand in existing Swedish building could be about halved while electricity use may be reduced considerably with cost-effective energy renovation measures. The economic viability of the renovation measures is sensitive to the economic regimes especially discount rates and energy price increase.

  • 44.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Implications of households building and car preferences for primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions2012In: ICAE 2012, 2012, p. 249-257Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy Simulation of Existing Swedish Multi-Storey Apartment Building in Växjö: Work Package 2, Task 2.1, carried out by UNI-SE in the Ready Project2016Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 718-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9-14 kWh/m(2) depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    On input parameters, methods and assumptions for energy balance and retrofit analyses for residential buildings2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 137, p. 76-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore key parameter values, methods and assumptions used for energy balance modelling of residential buildings in the Swedish context and analyse their effects on calculated energy balance of a typical multi-storey building from 1970s and on energy savings of energy efficiency retrofit measures. The parameters studied are related to microclimate, building envelope, occupancy behaviour, ventilation, and heat gains from electric appliances and persons. Our study shows that assumed indoor air temperature, internal heat gains and efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units have significant effect on the simulated energy performance of the studied building and energy efficiency measures. Of the considered microclimate parameter values and assumptions, the outdoor temperature, ground solar reflection and window shading have significant impact on the simulated space heating and cooling demands. On the contrary, the simulated energy performances are less affected by the variations in air pressure outside and the percentage of wind load that hits the building. We found that input data and assumptions used for energy balance calculations and energy saving analyses vary significantly in the Swedish context. These result in significantly different calculated final energy performance of buildings and energy efficiency measures. To inform accurate analysis of energy performance of building and energy saving measures, input parameters used in simulation models need to be appropriate.

  • 48.
    Dornburg, Veronika
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Eggers, Thies
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Integrated carbon analysis of biomass production on fallow agricultural land and product substitution in Sweden - preliminary results2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important option in the Swedish context to reduce its net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the increased use of biomass for energy and material substitution. On fallow agricultural land additional production of biomass would be possible. We analyse biomass production systems based on Norway spruce, hybrid poplar and willow hybrids and the use of this biomass to replace fossil energy and energy intensive material systems. The highest biomass production potential is for willow in southern Sweden. Fertilisation management of spruce could shorten the rotation lengths by about 17%. The fertilised production of Norway spruce with use of harvested timber for construction and use of remaining woody biomass for heat and power production gives the largest reductions of carbon emissions per hectare under the assumptions made. The use of willow for heat and power and of fertilised spruce for a wood product mix lead to the highest fossil primary energy savings in our scenarios. Spruce cultivations can achieve considerable carbon emission reductions in the long term, but willow and poplar might be a good option when fossil energy savings and carbon emission reductions should be achieved in the short term.

  • 49.
    Eggers, Thies
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Dornburg, Veronika
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Integrated carbon analysis of biomass production on fallow agricultural land and biomass utilisation2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important option in the Swedish context to reduce its net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the increased use of biomass for energy and material substitution. On fallow agricultural land additional production of biomass would be possible. We analyse biomass production systems based on Norway spruce, hybrid poplar and willow hybrids and the use of this biomass to replace fossil energy and energy intensive material systems. The highest biomass production potential is for willow in southern Sweden. Fertilisation management of spruce could shorten the rotation lengths by about 17%. The fertilised production of Norway spruce in southern Sweden with use of harvested timber for material or construction gives the largest reductions of carbon emissions per hectare in the long term. The use of willow and poplar for heat and power and of fertilised spruce for construction lead to the highest fossil primary energy savings in southern and central Sweden. Short-rotation willow and poplar are a good option when fossil energy savings and carbon emission reductions should be achieved in the short term.

  • 50. Eriksson, Erik
    et al.
    Gillespie, Andrew
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Langvall, Ola
    Olsson, Mats
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Stendahl, Johan
    Integrated carbon analysis of forest management practices and wood substitution2007In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 671-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complex fluxes between standing and harvested carbon stocks, and the linkage between harvested biomassand fossil fuel substitution, call for a holistic, system-wide analysis in a life-cycle perspective to evaluate the impacts offorest management and forest product use on carbon balances. We have analysed the net carbon emission under alternativeforest management strategies and product uses, considering the carbon fluxes and stocks associated with tree biomass,soils, and forest products. Simulations were made using three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest managementregimes (traditional, intensive management, and intensive fertilization), three slash management practices (no removal, removal,and removal with stumps), two forest product uses (construction material and biofuel), and two reference fossilfuels (coal and natural gas). The greatest reduction of net carbon emission occurred when the forest was fertilized, slashand stumps were harvested, wood was used as construction material, and the reference fossil fuel was coal. The lowest reductionoccurred with a traditional forest management, forest residues retained on site, and harvested biomass was used asbiofuel to replace natural gas. Product use had the greatest impact on net carbon emission, whereas forest management regime,reference fossil fuel, and forest residue usage as biofuel were less significant.

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