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  • 1.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Voxberg, Elin
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Historical exposure to heavy metals in air2017In: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Voxberg, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Temporal risk assessment – 20th century Pb emissions to air and exposure via inhalation in the Swedish glass district2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 858, no 1, article id 159843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to assess historical emissions of Pb to air around a number of glassworks sites in southeastern Sweden, and the possible implications for human exposure. To do so, a four-step method was applied. First, emissions of Pb to air around 10 glassworks were modelled for the 20th century. Second, an assessment of the resulting exposure was made for a number of scenarios. Third, the number of people potentially exposed at different times was estimated, and fourth, measurements of “current” Pb concentrations in PM10 material from four sites were conducted in 2019. The results show that the highest emissions, and exposures, occurred from 1970 to1980. It coincides with the time period when the highest number of people resided in the villages. At this time, the average Pb concentration in air around the six largest factories was about 2.4 μg Pb/m3, i.e. 16 times the present US national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) of 0.15 μg Pb/m3. By year 2000 the modelled average concentration had dropped to 0.05 μg Pb/m3, a level that is normal for urban regions today. The PM10 measurements from 2019 indicate a further decline, now with a mean value of about 0.02 μg Pb/m3. Over the entire study period, inhalation hazard quotients (HQs) exceeded the dietary HQ by many orders of magnitude, indicating that inhalation has been the most prevalent exposure pathway in the past. At present, both pathways are judged to be associated with low exposures. Even if only roughly approximated, a picture of the historical exposure can increase our understanding of the connection between exposure and disease, and can be valuable when risks are to be communicated to residents near contaminated areas.

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  • 3.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden, Stockholm.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth and Silver in Cosmetic Products: A Source of Environmental and Resource Concern?2016In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) are used in increasing amounts and are consequently being emitted from various sources and showing high accumulation rates in soils when sewage sludge is applied on arable land. This study aimed to analyze the amounts of Bi and Ag in three cosmetic products (foundation, powder, and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. Analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (7,000 to 360,000 milligrams per kilogram) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, whereas Ag concentrations all were below the detection limit. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24% of the measured total Bi amounts per year reaching the WWTP (wastewater treatment plant), making cosmetics a major Bi source, whereas for Ag the corresponding contribution was <0.1% of the measured annual Ag amounts. The results were roughly adapted for Europe and the United States, estimating the Bi flows from cosmetics to WWTPs. On a global scale, these flows correspond to a non-negligible part of the world Bi production that, every year, ends up in sewage sludge, limiting the reuse of a valuable metal resource. From an environmental and resource perspective, foundations and powder products should be considered as significant sources of measured Bi amounts in sludge. This large Bi flow must be considered as unsustainable. For Ag, however, the three analyzed cosmetic products are not a significant source of the total Ag load to WWTPs.

  • 4.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Monitoring urban copper flows in Stockholm, Sweden: implications of changes over time2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for copper (Cu) was conducted, in which theinflow, stock, and outflow (in the form of diffuse emissions to soil and water) for Stockholmwere estimated for 2013 and compared with a previous study from 1995, hence allowing adiscussion on changes over time. A large number of applications containing Cu were analyzed(including power cables, copper alloys, heavy electrical equipment, tap water systems, roofs,cars, various consumer electronics, wood preservatives, and contact cables for the railroad).The results show that the inflow of Cu to Stockholm has increased between 1995 and 2013,both in total and per person, mainly as the result of an increase in heavy electrical equipment,power cables, and cars. The stock remains relatively unchanged, whereas the outflow hasincreased. For the outflow, the emission increase from brake linings is of greatest quantitativeimportance, with an estimated 5.8 tonnes annual emission of Cu to the environment ofStockholm in 2013 compared to 3.9 tonnes in 1995. Given that increasing inflows of limitedresources drive the global demand, continuous monitoring of flows through society andmanagement of outflow routes are crucial, including improvement of national legislationand regional environmental plans as well as efforts to increase resource-use efficiency andrecycling

  • 5.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Kotsch, Maria
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Silver och vismut är två metaller som på sikt kan anrikas i mark i samband med slamspridning och som därför är prioriterade enligt REVAQ, ett certifieringssystem för svenska reningsverk.

    I Naturvårdsverkets förslag till ny författning (slamförordning) föreslås gränsvärden för bland annat silver. Silver är en toxisk tungmetall med antibakteriella egenskaper som ger skadliga effekter på båda människors hälsa och miljö redan vid låga koncentrationer. Vismut är en tungmetall som anses vara ”ogiftig” men som också kan ge skadliga effekter vid högre koncentrationer.

     

    En substansflödesanalys utfördes för båda metallerna för att kartlägga inflödet till, stocken (upplagrad mängd i teknosfären) och utflödet från Stockholm under 2012. Avgränsning har gjorts till utflöden som hamnar i avloppsvattnet och på det sättet påverkar Henriksdals reningsverk. Utflödet i substansflödesanalysen blir därmed lika med ett inflöde till reningsverket. Fokus ligger på diffusa utsläpp av silver och vismut, men identifierade punktkällor räknas in i det slutliga resultatet med målet att förklara så mycket som möjligt av de uppmätta halterna av silver och vismut i Henriksdals reningsverk. Källor som har ett utflöde till avfall eller återvinning har inte inkluderats i denna rapport.

     

    För år 2102 uppmättes en tillförsel av 61 kg silver och 116 kg vismut för Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm. Källor har identifierats för ca 56 % av uppmätt silver och 49 % av uppmätt vismut i denna studie. De källor med störst bidrag silver bedöms vara textilier (19 %), urin och fekalier (från bland annat amalgamfyllningar och föda) (15 %) samt städprodukter (7 %). För vismut är det kosmetika (23 %), plast (13 %) samt fordonstvättar (9 %) som bedöms vara källor med störst bidrag.

     

    Utifrån erhållna resultat föreslår vi några åtgärder/strategier för reduktion av silver respektive vismut i urbant avloppsvatten. Vi diskuterar även aktörer som har möjlighet/rådighet att genomföra åtgärderna (Svenskt Vatten, avloppsreningsverk, myndigheter, producenter, verksamhetsutövare samt individer/konsumenter). En strategi som föreslås är att myndigheter ska informera och påverka producenter och verksamhetsutövare när det gäller silver och vismut i olika produkter samt verka för ändrad lagstiftning. Producenter kan ta ett eget ansvar att minska silver- och vismutinnehåll i produkter. Två identifierade kunskapsluckor och potentiella källor är silver i städprodukter samt vismut i plast.

     

  • 6.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth in cosmetic products and its implications for sewage sludge management2015In: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 3-7 May, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) is a heavy metal that over recent years has shown increasing concentrations in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), indicating an increasing Bi use in the society. The high accumulation rate of Bi in soil when sewage sludge is used as fertilizer on arable land is of environmental concern. Bismuth is used in various consumer products to replace lead, but which sources in the society that explain the increasing amount of Bi in sewage sludge in the municipal WWTPs is however unknown. This study aimed to analyze one product group suspected to contain Bi, cosmetics, and three different products were chosen (foundation, powder and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. The chemical analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, while mainly low concentrations were found in eye shadow. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24 % of the measured total Bi amounts reaching the WWTP in 2012, making cosmetics a major Bi source. It is therefore recommended to monitor the Bi concentrations in sewage sludge regularly. Efforts should be made to further examine the sources of Bi to WWTPs and to decrease the emission from Bi in cosmetics to the WWTPs.

  • 7.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

  • 8.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Climate change and metal mobility in an environmental risk perspective2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metal speciation in soil at a contaminated glassworks site in southeastern Sweden2014In: Linnaeus Eco-tech 2014, Kalmar, 26th November 2014 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Trace metals in recharge and discharge ground waters at two sites at the Baltic coast of Sweden2009In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1640-1652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution and controls of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and U) in shallow groundwater in discharge and recharge zones were analysed at two sites on the Baltic coast of Sweden; one granite-dominated and one with a significant addition of calcite. Although the study sites differ in overburden geochemistry and groundwater trace metal concentrations, which were well reflected in the general groundwater composition, the relative hydrochemical differences between recharge and discharge ground waters were similar at both sites, and temporally stable. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and U were higher in soil tubes in recharge areas, but Cr was higher in discharge zones. Also concentrations of HS, Fe, Mn and NH4 were higher in discharge samples, which in combination with increased 34S values provide strong evidence of a transition from oxidizing to more reducing conditions along the groundwater flow gradient. In terms of trace metals, this might mean either mobilisation due to dissolution of trace-metal carrying Fe(III) and Mn(IV) phases, or immobilisation caused by precipitation of discrete trace-metal sulfides or co-precipitation with Fe sulfides. The results from this study show that the latter is dominant in both the carbonate and granite environments for the metals Cd, Cu and Ni. Chromium concentrations were likely coupled to organic complexation and were higher in discharge groundwater, where DOC was also more abundant. As the concentration of several potentially toxic trace metals were found to differ between recharge and discharge areas, a climate driven change in hydrology might have a substantial impact on the distribution of these metals.

  • 11.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    A probabilistic view of risks associated with consumption of drinking water in an area with natural fluoride enrichments2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells: Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach2014In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 68, p. 192-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways.

  • 13.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Probabilistic exposure assessment challenges the safety margin in drinking water criteria – the example of fluoride2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The aspect of climate change in risk assessment of contaminated land2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Climate change - an uncertainty factor in risk analysis of contaminated land2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 22, p. 4693-4700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals frequently occur at contaminated sites, where their potential toxicity and persistence require risk assessments that consider possible long-term changes. Changes in climate are likely to affect the speciation, mobility, and risks associated with metals. This paper provides an example of how the climate effect can be inserted in a commonly used exposure model, and how the exposure then changes compared to present conditions. The comparison was made for cadmium (Cd) exposure to 4-year-old children at a highly contaminated iron and steel works site in southeastern Sweden. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches (through probability bounds analysis, PBA) were used in the exposure assessment. Potential climate-sensitive variables were determined by a literature review. Although only six of the total 39 model variables were assumed to be sensitive to a change in climate (groundwater infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, soil:water distribution, and two bioconcentration factors), the total exposure was clearly affected. For example, by altering the climate-sensitive variables in the order of 15% to 20%, the deterministic estimate of exposure increased by 27%. Similarly, the PBA estimate of the reasonable maximum exposure (RME, defined as the upper bound of the 95th percentile) increased by almost 20%. This means that sites where the exposure in present conditions is determined to be slightly below guideline values may in the future exceed these guidelines, and risk management decisions could thus be affected. The PBA, however, showed that there is also a possibility of lower exposure levels, which means that the changes assumed for the climate-sensitive variables increase the total uncertainty in the probabilistic calculations. This highlights the importance of considering climate as a factor in the characterization of input data to exposure assessments at contaminated sites. The variable with the strongest influence on the result was the soil:water distribution coefficient (Kd).

  • 16.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Saarinen, Timo
    Effects of land use and climate change on erosion intensity and sediment geochemistry at Lake Lehmilampi, Finland2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1247-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate the possible relationships between erosion intensity and changes in climate and land use during the past 5.5 cal. k years at Lake Lehmilampi, eastern Finland. In this study we compare a detailed geochemical sediment record with (1) forest and land use history inferred from the first pollen and charcoal records from Lake Lehmilampi, and (2) existing archaeological surveys and independent proxy-records of climate change in the study region. The physical and geochemical sediment parameters examined include grain size analysis data and 23 chemical elements, determined with four selective extractions and ICP-MS. There are indications of possible human impact in the lake catchment as early as the Neolithic period, c. 3000-2550 bc, but the first undisputable signs are dated to 1800-100 bc. Cereal pollen reappears at c. ad 1700 and increases rapidly until c. ad 1950. The Holocene Thermal Maximum, its end c. 2000 bc, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly' were major climate events that had a prominent effect on erosion intensity, while human impact was a more significant factor during the period 3000 bc-ad 800 and from ad 1500 onwards. Although signs of changes in erosion intensity found in the sediment were small in this small catchment, they were significant enough to have a clear impact on the fraction of potentially mobile element species. This fraction increases with decreasing erosion intensity, which is probably related to a higher degree of chemical weathering and leaching during periods of decreased erosion.

  • 17.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Lennqvist, Torbjörn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Osbeck, Christofer M. G.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Glynn, A.
    Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Nguyen, M. A.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Westberg, E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Vestergren, R.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Consumption of freshwater fish: A variable but significant risk factor for PFOS exposure2021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 192, p. 1-9, article id 110284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS are the PFAS substances that currently contribute most to human exposure, and in 2020 the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) presented a draft opinion on a tolerable intake of 8 ng/kg/week for the sum of these four substances (equaling 0.42 mu g/kg if expressed as an annual dose). Diet is usually the dominating exposure pathway, and in particular the intake of PFOS has been shown to be strongly related to the consumption of fish and seafood. Those who eat freshwater fish may be especially at risk since freshwater and its biota typically display higher PFOS concentrations than marine systems. In this study, we estimated the range in PFOS intake among average Swedish "normal" and "high" consumers of freshwater fish. By average we mean persons of average weight who eat average-sized portions. The "normal consumers" were assumed to eat freshwater fish 3 times per year, and the "high consumers" once a week. Under these assumptions, the yearly tolerable intake for "normal" and "high" consumers is reached when the PFOS concentrations in fish equals 59 and 3.4 mu g per kg fish meat. For this study, PFOS concentrations in the muscle tissue of edible-sized perch, pike and pikeperch were retrieved from three different Swedish datasets, covering both rural and urban regions and a total of 78 different inland waters. Mean PFOS concentrations in fish from these sites varied from 0.3 to 750 mu g/kg. From the available data, the annual min-max dietary PFOS intake for male "normal consumers" was found to be in the range 0.0021-5.4 mu g/kg/yr for the evaluated scenarios, with median values of 0.02-0.16 mu g/kg/yr. For male "high consumers", the total intake range was estimated to be 0.04-93 mu g/kg/yr, with median values being 0.27-1.6 mu g/kg/yr. For women, the exposure estimates were slightly lower, about 79% of the exposure in men. Despite highly variable PFOS concentrations in fish from different sites, we conclude that the three most commonly consumed freshwater species in Sweden constitute an important source for the total annual intake even for people who eat this kind of fish only a few times per year. The analyses of PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS showed values which were all below detection limit, and their contribution to the total PFAS intake via freshwater fish consumption is negligible in comparison to PFOS.

  • 18.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Qvarforth, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Laboratory Group, Sweden.
    Paulukat, Cora
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Laboratory Group, Sweden.
    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo
    Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain.
    Beesley, Luke
    University of Salford, UK;Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Trakal, Lukas
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Hough, Rupert
    The James Hutton Institute, UK.
    Urban vegetable contamination - The role of adhering particles and their significance for human exposure2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 900, article id 165633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While urban-grown vegetables could help combat future food insecurity, the elevated levels of toxic metals in urban soils need to be met with measures that minimise transfer to crops. This study firstly examines soil/dust particle inclusion in leafy vegetables and its contribution to vegetable metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn), using vegetable, soil and dust data from an open-field urban farm in southeastern Sweden. Titanium concentrations were used to assess soil/dust adherence. Results showed that vegetables contained 0.05–1.3 wt% of adhering particles (AP) even after washing. With 0.5 % AP, an adult with an average intake of vegetables could ingest approximately 100 mg of particles per day, highlighting leafy vegetables as a major route for soil/dust ingestion. The presence of adhering particles also significantly contributed to the vegetable concentrations of As (9–20 %), Co (17–20 %), Pb (25–29 %), and Cr (33–34 %). Secondly, data from an indoor experiment was used to characterise root metal uptake from 20 urban soils from Sweden, Denmark, Spain, the UK, and the Czech Republic. Combining particle adherence and root uptake data, vegetable metal concentrations were calculated for the 20 urban soils to represent hypothetical field scenarios for these. Subsequently, average daily doses were assessed for vegetable consumers (adults and 3–6 year old children), distinguishing between doses from adhering particles and root uptake. Risks were evaluated from hazard quotients (HQs; average daily doses/tolerable intakes). Lead was found to pose the greatest risk, where particle ingestion often resulted in HQs > 1 across all assessed scenarios. In summary, since washing was shown to remove only a portion of adhering metal-laden soil/dust particles from leafy vegetation, farmers and urban planners need to consider that measures to limit particle deposition are equally important as cultivating in uncontaminated soil.

  • 19.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Qvarforth, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hough, Rupert
    James Hutton Inst, UK.
    Engstrom, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Paulukat, Cora
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Managing health risks in urban agriculture: The effect of vegetable washing for reducing exposure to metal contaminants2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 863, article id 160996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common, yet poorly evaluated, advice to remove contaminants from urban vegetables is to wash the produce before consumption. This study is based on 63 samples of chard, kale, lettuce and parsley that have grown near a heavily traf-ficked road in the third largest city in Sweden, with one portion of each sample being analysed without first being washed, and the other portion being subjected to common household washing. Concentrations of 71 elements were analysed by ICP-SFMS after a sample digestion that dissolves both the plant tissues and all potentially adhering parti-cles. The results show that the washing effect, or the fraction removed upon washing, varies significantly between el-ements: from approximately 0 % for K to 68 % for the n-ary sumation REEs. Considering traditional metal contaminants, the efficiency decreased from Pb (on average 56 % lost) to Co (56 %) > Cr (55 %) > As (45 %) > Sb (35 %) > Ni (33 %) > Cu (13 %) > Zn (7 %) > Cd (7 %), and Ba (5 %). A clear negative correlation between the washing effect and the different elements' bioconcentration factors shows that the elements' accessibility for plant uptake is a key control-ling factor for the degree to which they are removed upon washing. Based on the average washing efficiencies seen in this study, the average daily intake of Pb would increase by 130 % if vegetables are not washed prior to consumption. For the other contaminant metals this increase corresponds to 126 % (Co), 121 % (Cr), 82 % (As), 55 % (Sb), 50 % (Ni), 16 % (Cu), 8 % (Zn), 7 % (Cd) and 5 % (Ba). The advice to wash vegetables is therefore, for many elements, highly motivated for reducing exposure and health risks. For elements which are only slightly reduced when the vegetables are washed, however, advising should rather focus on reducing levels of contamination in the soil itself.

  • 20.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Saarinen, Timo
    Turku University.
    Haltia-Hovi, Eeva
    Turku University.
    Trace metal and geochemical variability during 5,500 years in the sediment of Lake Lehmilampi, Finland2010In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 1025-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-resolution geochemical profilefrom a 5,500-year-old sediment core of Lake Lehmilampiin eastern Finland was analyzed to study longtermtrends and variability in element concentrationsand accumulation rates. The accumulation rates of allstudied elements followed the same trend, respondingto changes in the total sedimentation rate. Concentrationprofiles differed among elements and showedconsiderable variation over time. Principal componentsanalysis (PCA) was used on the concentrationdata to identify groups of elements that have similargeochemical controls. The first principal componentwas influenced by changes in mineral matter accumulation,and it incorporated elements that areassociated with stable allochthonous minerals (suchas Mg, K, Cs, Rb, Li, Ti and Ga), as well as elementsin forms that become diluted when mineral matterincreases (e.g., S, Fe and Mn). The second and thirdprincipal components showed that a large proportionof the variance was accounted for by elements withcontinuously increasing or decreasing concentrationsrelated to pedogenetical development of the catchmentsoil. In the case of Hg, Pb and Cd, however,accumulation rates increased faster at the surface thanis simply accounted for by changes in total sedimentationrates. For Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn, concentrationsincreased over the past 150 years, but there were noindications of a significant addition due to atmosphericdeposition. These elements had more variableconcentrations before the mid nineteenth century thanafter, as did elements that are often used fornormalization. These findings suggest that lakesediments may not properly reflect the history of atmospheric metal deposition in remote areas.

  • 21.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Qvarforth, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Engström, E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Laboratory Group, Sweden.
    Paulukat, C.
    ALS Laboratory Group, Sweden.
    Rodushkin, I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Laboratory Group, Sweden.
    Trace and major elements in food supplements of different origin: Implications for daily intake levels and health risks2021In: Toxicology reports, E-ISSN 2214-7500, Vol. 8, p. 1067-1080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of food supplements increases, voices are being raised questioning the safety of these products. As acontribution to understanding the trace and major elemental composition of food supplements and their potential health risks, this study presents concentrations of 71 elements in 138 supplements, categorised intosynthetic products and three groups of products with natural ingredients. Concentrations were converted intoaverage daily doses (ADDs) and compared to tolerable daily intakes (TDIs). For elements where we found significant ADDs relative to the TDI a comparison was also made to the normal dietary intake. Our main findings arethat: 1) Most elements display highly variable concentrations in food supplements; more so than in normalfoodstuff; 2) For ten of the analysed elements some products rendered ADDs > 50 % of the TDI. Half of theelements were essential (Fe, Mn, Se, Mo, Zn), and as such motivated in food supplements. The other half (As, Pb,Cd, Al, Ni) represent non-essential and highly toxic elements, where the occurrence in food supplements ought tobe viewed as contamination. Although none of these toxic metals were declared on any product’s table ofcontent, several products gave high ADDs - in several cases even exceeding the TDIs; 3) The risk of reaching highADDs for the toxic elements is strongly associated with products that contain marine ingredients (e.g. algae,mussels etc), and to some degree products of terrestrial plant-based origin. The health of consumers wouldbenefit if food regulatory frameworks were updated to better address the risks of food supplements occasionallybeing contaminated with different toxic metals, for example by setting maximum permissible concentrations fora longer list of elements. 

  • 22.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Vattenfall Heat.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Persistent hazardous waste and the quest towards a circular economy: the example of arsenic in Chromated Copper Arsenate-treated wood2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 689-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a circular economy is today widely accepted and advocated, but among the challenges in achieving this, we find difficulties in the implementation of legislation and policies designed to control various waste streams from society. The example used in this article is wood that has been treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which, in Sweden, has been covered by the rules for hazardous waste since 2002. One year later, in 2003, a survey showed that only 42% to 50% of the expected amount of CCA waste could be traced to the public waste management system. An updated material flow analysis for 2010 revealed that the figure had increased to 73%, whereas the fraction of correctly treated CCA wood waste had increased from 11% to 35%. However, almost one third of the expected volume was still not tracable, and half of the amount that was correctly submitted was incinerated together with nontoxic waste fractions. This results in, for example, arsenic contamination of slag and fly ashes that prevents the further use of these residue products. So, despite legislative instruments, there is still an urgent need for an improved collection of hazardous wood waste, as well as better routines for identifying hazardous flows and separating them from nonhazardous ones. For a circular economy to be achievable, a key priority should be to reduce the gap between intended directions and legislation, on one hand, and activities in practice on the other.

  • 23.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Health risks from drinking water around contaminated glassworks sites2014In: ABSTRACTS OF SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS 2014 NGL ANNUAL SCIENCE MEETING: Oskarshamn, Sweden 3-4 of November 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kalmar and Kronoberg Counties, there are numerous glassworks areas with high levels of arsenic, lead and cadmium in soil and groundwater. To investigate whether metals are leached into drinking water to such an extent that it may constitute a health risk for local inhabitants, 57 water samples were collected from private wells within a radius of 500 m from eight glassworks sites. The results show that concentrations are well below drinking-water criteria in most samples; only three Pb- and one Asanalysis were above these limits. What these results indicate, is that metals that leach from glass waste and can be detected in groundwater around landfill areas, are effectively immobilized as the groundwater flows towards areas where the pollution level of the surrounding solid phase decreases. There is thus reason to focus further efforts toward understanding these sorption mechanisms, in order to take them into account in future risk assessments.

  • 24.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The risk with overestimating the risk – the example of metal exposure via drinking water around contaminated glassworks sites2015In: The Future of Risk Analysis in the Nordic Contries: 1st Nordic Chapter Risk Conference, Lund, Sweden, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of waste material with high concentrations of various metal(loid)s are common features at old glassworks sites in southeastern Sweden. As epidemiological data indicates increased health risks for local residents around these sites, questions about how exposure occurs have been raised. One important step in assessing site-specific total exposure is to quantify exposure via intake of drinking water, and the critical variable to determine here is the metal concentration in the water to be consumed. In many routine risk assessments this is, despite well-known uncertainties, done by applying conservative and simplified transport models that simulate concentrations in water abstraction wells at certain distances from the source of contamination. To assess the accuracy of such an approch, we used a probabilistic method to simulate metal concentrations in drinking water within 500 m distance from 10 heavily contaminated glassworks sites, by applying the transport equations of the Swedish EPA generic risk assessment model. Exposure was then calculated. When concentrations in drinking water were calculated using this modelling approach, the resulting exposure estimates indicated that as much as 100% of the local residents with private wells may reach a daily intake above applicable toxicological reference values. However, when assessing the risk from measured concentrations in household drinking water instead, not even the 95th percentile of the population reached the toxicological limit. It hence appears as if metals are efficiently sorbed to the solid matrix of the soil at these sites, leaving the drinking water with concentrations well below drinking water criteria. For the average risk assessor working with contaminated sites, who often lacks training in hydrogeochemistry, the contradictory results highlight the need of more realistic generic models to be used in routine assessments of water contamination and exposure via consumption of drinking water.

  • 25.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Berglund, Marika
    Karlsson, Helen
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Challenges in assessing metal exposure around contaminated sites: the example of local vegetable consumption in the Swedish glassworks district2017In: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Challenges in assessing the health risks of consuming vegetables in metal-contaminated environments2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, p. 269-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of research has been devoted to the characterization of metal exposure due to the consumption of vegetables from urban or industrialized areas. It may seem comforting that concentrations in crops, as well as estimated exposure levels, are often found to be below permissible limits. However, we show that even a moderate increase in metal accumulation in crops may result in a significant increase in exposure. We also highlight the importance of assessing exposure levels in relation to a regional baseline. We have analyzed metal (Pb, Cd, As) concentrations in nearly 700 samples from 23 different vegetables, fruits, berries and mushrooms, collected near 21 highly contaminated industrial sites and from reference sites. Metal concentrations generally complied with permissible levels in commercial food and only Pb showed overall higher concentrations around the contaminated sites. Nevertheless, probabilistic exposure assessments revealed that the exposure to all three metals was significantly higher in the population residing around the contaminated sites, for both low-, medianand high consumers. The exposure was about twice as high for Pb and Cd, and four to six times as high for As. Since vegetable consumption alone did not result in exposure above tolerable intakes, it would have been easy to conclude that there is no risk associated with consuming vegetables grown near the contaminated sites. However, when the increase in exposure is quantified, its potential significance is harder to dismiss - especially when considering that exposure via other routes may be elevated in a similar way.

  • 27.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fröberg, Mats
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden.
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Sweden;Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Svensson, P. Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Failure of generic risk assessment model framework to predict groundwater pollution risk at hundreds of metal contaminated sites: Implications for research needs2020In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 185, p. 1-9, article id 109252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil pollution constitutes one of the major threats to public health, where spreading to groundwater is one of several critical aspects. In most internationally adopted frameworks for routine risk assessments of contaminated land, generic models and soil guideline values are cornerstones. In order to protect the groundwater at contaminated sites, a common practice worldwide today is to depart from health risk-based limit concentrations for groundwater, and use generic soil-to-groundwater spreading models to back-calculate corresponding equilibrium levels (concentration limits) in soil, which must not be exceeded at the site. This study presents an extensive survey of how actual soil and groundwater concentrations, compiled for all high-priority contaminated sites in Sweden, relate to the national model for risk management of contaminated sites, with focus on As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Results show that soil metal concentrations, as well as total amounts, constitute a poor basis for assessing groundwater contamination status. The evaluated model was essentially incapable of predicting groundwater contamination (i.e. concentrations above limit values) based on soil data, and erred on the "unsafe side" in a significant number of cases, with modelled correlations not being conservative enough. Further, the risk of groundwater contamination was almost entirely independent of industry type. In essence, since neither soil contaminant loads nor industry type is conclusive, there is a need for a supportive framework for assessing metal spreading to groundwater accounting for site-specific, geochemical conditions.

  • 28.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogmalm, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables: the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites2015In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 138, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs),which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil,in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed toquantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure as-sessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 con-taminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soiland vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted toestimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that con-centrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and mostsamples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) wasassessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about afifth of the study population. Bioconcentrationfactors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasingmetal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected bythe choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be un-acceptable.

  • 29.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Uddh Söderberg, Terese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jarsjo, J.
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Olofsson, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Balfors, B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Stockholm University.
    The risk of overestimating the risk-metal leaching to groundwater near contaminated glass waste deposits and exposure via drinking water2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 566, p. 1420-1431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates metal contamination patterns and exposure to Sb, As, Ba, Cd and Pb via intake of drinking water in a region in southeastern Sweden where the production of artistic glass has resulted in a large number of contaminated sites. Despite high total concentrations of metals in soil and groundwater at the glassworks sites properties, all drinking water samples from households with private wells, located at a 30-640 m distance from a glassworks site, were below drinking water criteria from the WHO for Sb, As, Ba and Cd. A few drinking water samples showed concentrations of Pb above the WHO guideline, but As was the only element found in concentrations that could result in human exposure near toxicological reference values. An efficient retention of metals in the natural soil close to the source areas, which results in a moderate impact on local drinking water, is implied. Firstly, by the lack of significant difference in metal concentrations when comparing households located upstream and downstream of the main waste deposits, and secondly, by the lack of correlation between the metal concentration in drinking water and distance to the nearest glassworks site. However, elevated Pb and Cd concentrations in drinking water around glassworks sites when compared to regional groundwater indicate that diffuse contamination of the soils found outside the glassworks properties, and not only the glass waste landfills, may have a significant impact on groundwater quality. We further demonstrate that different mobilization patterns apply to different metals. Regarding the need to use reliable data to assess drinking water contamination and human exposure, we finally show that the conservative modelling approaches that are frequently used in routine risk assessments may result in exposure estimates many times higher than those based on measured concentrations in the drinking water that is actually being used for consumption. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elert, M.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Höglund, L. O.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute;Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 154, p. 434-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  • 31.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing the risk of an excessive fluoride intake in a region of southeastern Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Asokan, Shilpa
    Stockholm University.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University.
    Johansson, Emma
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.
    Juston, John
    Stockholm University.
    Levi, Lea
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University.
    Quin, Andrew
    Stockholm University.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Biogeochemical Transformation Pathways through the Land-water Geosphere2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water on land undergoes and participates in many biogeochemical exchanges and changes. A bits-and-pieces approach to these may miss essential aspects of change propagation and transformation by land-water through different segments of the Earth system. This paper proposes a conceptualization of the entire land-water geosphere as a scale-free catchment-wise organised system (Figure 1), emphasizing four key new system aspects compared to traditional hydrosphere/water cycle view: i) distinction of coastal divergent in addition to traditional convergent catchments; ii) physical and social-ecological system coupling through four main nodal zones/interfaces (surface, subsurface, coastal, observation); iii) flow-transport pathways as system coupling agents; iv) multiple interactions with the anthroposphere as integral system parts. Utilizing this conceptualization, we identify distinct patterns of direct anthropogenic change in large-scale water and waterborne nutrient fluxes, emerging across different parts of the world. In general, its embedment directly in the anthroposphere/technosphere makes land-water a key geosphere for understanding and monitoring human-driven biogeochemical changes. Further progress in system-level understanding of such changes requires studies of land-water as a continuous yet structured geosphere following the proposed spatiotemporal pathways of change propagation-transformation.

  • 33.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Asokan, Shilpa M.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Balfors, Berit
    The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Juston, John
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Levi, Lea
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden ; University of Split, Croatia.
    Olofsson, Bo
    The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Quin, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Needs and means to advance science, policy and management understanding of the freshwater system: A synthesis report2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmented and inconsistent understanding of the freshwater system limits our ability to achieve water security and sustainability under the human-driven changes occurring in the Anthropocene. To advance system-level understanding of freshwater, gaps and inconsistencies in knowledge, data, representations and links of processes and subsystems need to be identified and bridged under consideration of the freshwater system as a continuous whole. 

    Based on such identification, a freshwater system conceptualization is developed in this report, which emphasizes four essential, yet often neglected system aspects:

    i) Distinction of coastal divergent catchments.

    ii) Four main zones (surface, subsurface, coastal, observation) of different types of freshwater change.

    iii) Water pathways as system-coupling agents that link and partition water change among the four change zones.

    iv) Direct interactions with the anthroposphere as integral system pathways across the change zones.

    We explain and exemplify some key implications of these aspects, identifying in the process also distinct patterns of human-driven changes in large-scale water fluxes and nutrient loads.

    The present conceptualization provides a basis for common inter- and trans-disciplinary understanding and systematic characterization of the freshwater system function and its changes, and of approaches to their modeling and monitoring. This can be viewed and used as a unifying checklist that can advance science, policy and management of freshwater and related environmental changes across various scales and world regions.

  • 34.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fagergren, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Perception of uncertainties and quality in risk assessments by people working with risk assessments2013In: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, p. Abstract Number : 3978-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 80,000 possible contaminated sites have been identified in Sweden. Assessing the risk posed by these sites and, if necessary, remediating the soil is associated with high costs. It is thus important that these assessments are reliable. A problem with current methods is that uncertainty and variability are often not accounted for. Different individuals have different physiology and behaviour and soil composition differs at various sites which can be considered in probabilistic methods. This requires tools that are user-friendly and cost and time-efficient. Information about the perception of risk assessments, uncertainty and tools wanted by people working with risk assessments is therefore needed.

    Aims The aim of this study is to investigate whether people working with risk assessments in practice find that these assessments are of sufficient quality, whether it is important to consider uncertainty and variability and which tools they may need to be able to consider these questions.

    Methods A questionnaire was sent to people working with the risk assessment of contaminated sites at government authorities and consultancies in Sweden. Results The data collected suggest that the majority of respondents find that risk assessment quality in general would need to be improved. Important factors to achieve this include a greater knowledge of the individuals involved in risk assessments, more financial resources, greater knowledge in form of new research and more time. The respondents also find it very important to characterize both uncertainty and variability, and to do this several respondents want more tools such as literature and databases with information about critical exposure factors and manuals.

    Conclusions

    According to personnel involved in the risk assessment of contaminated sites, the quality of the assessment should be enhanced and different tools would be useful to facilitate the characterization of uncertainty and variability.

  • 35.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Consumption of vegetables and risk perception at contaminated glass works sites in Sweden2013In: Abstracts of the 2013 Conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), the International Society of Exposure Science (ISES), and the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ)., 2013, p. Abstract Number: 3980-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Glass has been produced since the 18th century in Kalmar and Kronoberg counties in an area called the Kingdom of Crystal. The production of glass has been associated with high levels of heavy metals in the soil. The most critical exposure pathways for metals are oral intake of soil, consumption of water and home-produced vegetables. The consumption of home-produced vegetables in particular is a highly site-specific exposure pathway and is therefore of interest to investigate in this geographic area.

    Aims The study aims to investigate to what extent home-produced vegetables are consumed by people living near glass work industries as well as their perception of environmental and health risks and the authorities’ risk communication.

    Methods A questionnaire including questions about personal factors, consumption of vegetables and fruit as well as the perception of risks and risk communication was sent to 300 randomly selected individuals living in areas close to glass works. Results A majority of those questioned, 87%, consume vegetables or fruit from their own garden sometime during the year and more than half of the respondents eat these food items on a regular basis or several times a year. Just over 40% are concerned about that the fruit or vegetables from their own garden may be contaminated with pollutants from the glass works, but an even greater number are concerned that pollution from glass works will affect their health or the environment in general. More than half of the respondents would like to have more information about environmental and health risks.

    Conclusions

    Home-produced vegetables are frequently consumed in areas around glass work industries. Many residents are at the same time concerned and request more information about possible risks. Site-specific studies including quantities and types of vegetables ingested as well as contamination levels are needed to investigate if the exposure is actually of concern.

  • 36.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nyholm, Sofia
    Public Perception of Risks Associated with Contaminated Glassworks sites in South-Eastern Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Karlsson, Alexandra
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Consumption of home-produced foods in south eastern Sweden: new data for use in exposure assessments2017In: 26th SRA-E annual conference (SRA-E Lisbon 2017): Lisbon, Portugal, June 19-21, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Forss, Jörgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Larsson, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Witthöft, Cornelia M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Water.
    Förstudie kring hållbar vattenförsörjning i södra Sverige2021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dricksvatten är vårt viktigaste livsmedel men detta rena vatten används även för bevattningsändamål, i vårt avloppssystem och inom industrin. Våra samlade vattenresurser ger dessutom ekosystemtjänster i form av fiske, rekreationsvärde m.m. (Bergek m. fl., 2017). Trots att Sverige är ett mycket vattenrikt land sett ur ett internationellt perspektiv har vattenbrist uppstått i flera delar av landet under senare år. Vidare förväntas pågående och kommande klimatförändringar, befolkningstillväxt och urbanisering påverka vattenkvaliteten negativt samt öka konkurrensen om vatten ytterligare (IPCC, 2014; SMHI, 2020a). Med ökad konkurrens uppstår dessutom målkonflikter mellan olika viktiga samhällsfunktioner. Det finns således ett stort behov av tvärsektoriell forskning samt policyutveckling för att säkerställa en hållbar framtida vattenförsörjning.

    Denna rapport syftar till att sammanställa kunskapsläget vad gäller förutsättningarna för en hållbar vattenförsörjning i Kronobergs län. Först beskrivs tillgång och uttag av dricksvatten i Kronoberg i jämförelse med Kalmar och Skåne län samt förutsättningarna för god framtida vattenkvalitet med Bolmen som exempel. Därefter fokuserar vi på de målkonflikter som kan förväntas uppstå kring dricksvattnet och diskuterar slutligen de kunskapsluckor samt det behov av tvärsektoriell forskning och samhällsutveckling som behövs för en hållbar vattenförsörjning.

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    Förstudie kring hållbar vattenförsörjning i södra Sverige
  • 39.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Finland;Nat Resources Inst Finland Luke, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    Univ Helsinki, Finland;Kazan Fed Univ, Russia.
    Penttinen, O. -P
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Egfors, Angelica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Assessing toxicity of metal contaminated soil from glassworks sites with a battery of biotests2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-easternl Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox(TM) test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks-and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 40.
    Hagner, Marleena
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Romantschuk, Martin
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Penttinen, Olli-Pekka
    Egfors, Angelica
    Marchand, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Environmental toxicity of glassworks landfill soils2016In: Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2016: Book of Abstracts : The 10th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World. / [ed] Stina Alriksson, Jelena Lundström, William Hogland, Linnaeus University Press, 2016, p. 241-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following over 200 years of industrialization, soil contamination is a widespread problem in many countries. Contaminants, especially heavy metals and persistent organic compounds, can still be found at high concentrations decades after the emissions have ceased. One important part of this industrial heritage is the heavy metal contamination of soil and landfills around glass factories, with complex relationships between contaminants, the natural hydrogeochemical environment and biota. In southeastern Sweden lies the so called “Kingdom of Crystal”, with a long tradition of artistic glass production and elevated concentrations of a range of metals found in soil and landfills of the glassworks sites. Because high total concentrations may not always translate into a high mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity, research on biological effects has been deemed necessary to delineate the severity of contamination.

    For the present study, soil samples from landfills and control areas were collected at five glassworks in the Kingdom of Crystal (Bergdala, Målerås, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors). Each landfill site was heavily contaminated with various metals. As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were the major contaminants, exceeding the guideline values of Swedish legislation. Total concentrations were found in the range 64-7800 mg As kg-1, 30- 600 mg Ba kg-1, 0.16- 3 mg Cd kg-1, 160-38000 mg Pb kg-1, 0.40-56 mg Sb kg-1, and 45-1100 mg Zn kg-1. To test for biotoxicity, a battery of tests with species of varying sensitivities and exposure pathways were applied. Evaluation of plant toxicity to Lepidium sativum demonstrated the lack of difference between biomass production between the soils from contaminated landfill sites and control areas. Similarly, elutriates from both metal contaminated and reference soils implied low toxicity to the photobacterium Vibrio fisheri. However, significant reduction in the numbers and biomass of enchytraeids was observed in the landfill sites of Bergdala, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors. Also the numbers of nematodes tended to be reduced in landfill sites. Altogether, the obtained results provide a better understanding of the complex historical contamination by evaluating biological responses at different levels.

  • 41.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nosratabadi, Reza
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Exposure of metals and PAH through local foods and risk of cancer in a historically contaminated glassworks area2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, p. 1-10, article id 104985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Production of crystal glass and colored art glassware have been going on in the south-eastern part of Sweden since the 1700s, at over 100 glassworks and smaller glass blowing facilities, resulting in environmental contamination with mainly arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH). High levels of metals have been found in soil, and moderately elevated levels in vegetables, mushrooms and berries collected around the glassworks sites compared with reference areas. Food in general, is the major exposure source to metals, such as Cd and Pb, and PAHs. Exposure to these toxic metals and PAH has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects in humans including cancer.

    Objective

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of cancer in a cohort from the contaminated glasswork area in relation to long-term dietary intake of locally produced foods, while taking into account residential, occupational and life styles factors.

    Methods

    The study population was extracted from a population cohort of 34,266 individuals who, at some time between the years 1979–2004, lived within a 2 km radius of a glassworks or glass landfill. Register information on cancer incidence and questionnaire information on consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), life-time residence in the area, life style factors and occupational exposure was collected. Furthermore, blood (n = 660) and urine (n = 400) samples were collected in a subsample of the population to explore associations between local food consumption frequencies, biomarker concentrations in blood (Cd, Pb, As) and urine (PAH metabolite 1-OHPy) as well as environmental and lifestyle factors. The concurrent exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from food was also considered. A case-control study was performed for evaluation of associations between intakes of local food and risk of cancer.

    Results

    Despite high environmental levels of Cd, Pb and As at glasswork sites and landfills, current metal exposure in the population living in the surrounding areas was similar or only moderately higher in our study population compared to the general population. Reported high consumption of certain local foods was associated with higher Cd and Pb, but not As, concentrations in blood, and 1-OHPy in urine. An increased risk of cancer was associated with smoking, family history of cancer, obesity, and residence in glasswork area before age 5 years. Also, a long-term high consumption of local foods (reflecting 30 years general eating habits), i.e. fish and meat (game, chicken, lamb), was associated with increased risk of various cancer forms.

    Conclusions

    The associations between consumption of local food and different types of cancer may reflect a higher contaminant exposure in the past, and thus, if consumption of local food contributes to the risk of acquiring cancer, that contribution is probably lower today than before. Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that other contaminants in the food contribute to the increased cancer risks observed.

  • 42.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization and toxicity of hazardous wastes from an old Swedish glasswork dumpManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 34 old glasswork sites in the southeastern part of Sweden pose a permanent threat to human and environmental health due to the presence of toxic metals in open dumps with glass waste. The possibility of leaching of metals from different fractions of the disposed waste needed to be assessed. In the present investigation, leachate from fine fraction (soil plus glass particles < 2 mm) was characterized as following: pH (7.3), TOC (< 2%), organic content (4.4%), moisture content (9.7), COD (163 mg/kg) and trace elements content, being the values in accordance to the Swedish guidelines for landfilling of inert materials. However, very high metals content was found in the fine fraction as well as in all colors of the glass fraction (≥ 2 mm), whose values were compatible to hazardous waste landfill class. Tests with Lepidium sativum growing in the fine fraction as substrate revealed chronic toxicity expressed as inhibition of root biomass growth in 11 out of 15 samples. Additionally, leachate from fine fractions posed acute toxicity to genetically modified E. coli (Toxi-Chromotest). This study highlights the importance of combining physicochemical characterization with toxicity tests for both solid waste and leachate obtained from different waste fractions for proper hazardousness assessment supporting decision making on remediation demands.

  • 43.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Physicochemical and toxicological characterization of hazardous wastes from an old glasswork dump at southeastern part of Sweden2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 237, p. 1-8, article id 124568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 34 old glasswork sites in the southeastern part of Sweden pose a permanent threat to human and environmental health due to the presence of toxic trace elements in open dumps with glass waste. The possibility of leaching of trace elements from different fractions of the disposed waste needed to be assessed. In the present investigation, leachate from a mixture of soil and waste glass of particle sizes of less than 2mm (given the name fine fraction) was characterized by analyzing the pH (7.3), total organic content (TOC<2%), organic matter content (4.4%), moisture content (9.7%), chemical oxygen demand (COD, 163mg/kg) and trace elements content, being the values in accordance to the Swedish guidelines for landfilling of inert materials. However, very high trace elements content was found in the fine fraction as well as in all colors of waste glass, whose values were compatible to hazardous waste landfill class. Tests with Lepidium sativum growing in the fine fraction as substrate revealed chronic toxicity expressed as inhibition of root biomass growth in 11 out of 15 samples. Additionally, leachate from fine fractions posed acute toxicity to genetically modified E. coli (Toxi-Chromotest). This study highlights the importance of combining physicochemical characterization with toxicity tests for both solid waste and leachate obtained from different waste fractions for proper hazardousness assessment supporting decision making on remediation demands.

  • 44.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (< 10 mm) of waste excavated from a municipal landfill2017In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (<10 mm) of excavated waste from an Estonian landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  • 45.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Speciation of Metals in the Fine Fraction of Solid Waste From an Excavated Landfill2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Lundgren, Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Troldborg, Mads
    The James Hutton Institute, UK.
    Stubberfield, Jon
    Environment Agency, UK.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lloyd Hough, Rupert
    The James Hutton Institute, UK.
    Predictive modeling of plant uptake of Pb and Cd: Implications of aerial deposition and the origin of parameterisation data2023In: Environmental Challenges, E-ISSN 2667-0100, Vol. 12, article id 100734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed ordinary least squares regression models to predict uptake of cadmium and lead, two metals that are of public health significance because of their toxicity, in the edible tissues of lettuce. Models were parameterised using data on soil metal concentration, pH, and organic carbon. To assess the impact of physical contamination in form of aerial deposition and soil-splash on the metal concentration in lettuce, separate linear regression models were parameterised for indoor- and outdoor-grown lettuce, assuming the physical contamination to be negligible for indoor conditions. Both Cd models showed high model fit and strong predictive performance, when tested on an independent dataset, suggesting uptake via roots to be dominant. For Pb, the indoor model performed better than the outdoor model, indicating that physical contamination, contributes significantly to metal concentration in lettuce leaves. Our results highlight the importance of the parameterisation data when developing uptake models for predictions and risk assessment. Regression models for predicting Pb concentration in lettuce based on indoor data should not be used for predicting lettuce concentrations cultivated in outdoor conditions unless the contribution of physical contamination is explicitly accounted for.

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  • 47.
    Marchand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marchand, Lilian
    INRA, France.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hijri, Mohamed
    Université de Montréal, Canada.
    Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests2016In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several Gentle Remediation Options (GRO), e.g. plant-based options (phytoremediation), singly and combined with soil amendments, can be simultaneously efficient for degrading organic pollutants and either stabilizing or extracting trace elements (TE). Here, a 5-month greenhouse trial was performed to test the efficiency of Medicago sativa L., singly and combined with a compost addition (30% w/w), to treat soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), Co and Pb collected at an auto scrap yard. After five months, total soil Pb significantly decreased in the compost-amended soil planted with M. sativa, but not total soil Co. Compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and shoot Pb concentrations (3.8 mg/kg DW). Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. The O2 uptake by soil microorganisms was lower in the compost-amended soil, suggesting a decrease in microbial activity. This study underlined the benefits of the phytoremediation option based on M. sativa cultivation and compost amendment for remediating PHC and Pb contaminated soils.

  • 48. Nyqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wingren, Gun
    Increased cancer incidence in the local population around metal-contaminated glassworks sites2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Nyqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Helmfrid, Ingela
    Linköping University.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Wingren, Gun
    Linköping University.
    Increased Cancer Incidence in the Local Population Around Metal-Contaminated Glassworks Sites2017In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 5, p. E84-E90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine mortality causes and cancer incidence in a population cohort that have resided in close proximity to highly metal-contaminated sources, characterized by contamination of, in particular, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). Methods: Data from Swedish registers were used to calculate standardized mortality and cancer incidence ratios. An attempt to relate cancer incidence to metal contamination levels was made. Results: Significantly elevated cancer incidences were observed for overall malignant cancers in both genders, cancer in the digestive system, including colon, rectum, and pancreas, and cancers in prostate among men. Dose-response relationships between Cd and Pb levels in soil and cancer risks were found. Conclusions: Cancer observations made, together with previous studies of metal uptake in local vegetables, may imply that exposure to local residents have occurred primarily via oral intake of locally produced foodstuffs.

  • 50.
    Qvarforth, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lundgren, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Engström, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden;ALS Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Paulukat, Cora
    ALS Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Hough, Rupert
    The James Hutton Institute, UK.
    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain;Freie Universität Berlin, Germany;Berlin‐Brandenburg Institute of Advanced Biodiversity Research, Germany;Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Beesley, Luke
    The James Hutton Institute, UK; Czech University of Life Sciences, Czech Republic.
    Trakal, Lukas
    Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Future food contaminants: an assessment of the plant uptake of Technology-critical elements versus traditional metal contaminants2022In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 169, article id 107504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-critical elements (TCEs) include most rare earth elements (REEs), the platinum group elements (PGEs), and Ga, Ge, In, Nb, Ta, Te, and Tl. Despite increasing recognition of their prolific release into the environment, their soil to plant transfer remains largely unknown. This paper provides an approximation of the potential for plant uptake by calculating bioconcentration factors (BCFs), defined as the concentration in edible vegetable tissues relative to that in cultivation soil. Here data were obtained from an indoor cultivation experiment growing lettuce, chard, and carrot on 22 different European urban soils. Values of BCFs were determined from concentrations of TCEs in vegetable samples after digestion with concentrated HNO3, and from concentrations in soil determined after 1) Aqua Regia digestion and, 2) diluted (0.1 M) HNO3 leaching. For comparison, BCFs were also determined for 5 traditional metal contaminants (TMCs; As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn). The main conclusions of the study were that: 1) BCF values for the REEs were consistently low in the studied vegetables; 2) the BCFs for Ga and Nb were low as well; 3) the BCFs for Tl were high relative to the other measured TCEs and the traditional metal contaminants; and 4) mean BCF values for the investigated TCEs were generally highest in chard and lowest in carrot. These findings provide initial evidence that there are likely to be real and present soil-plant transfer of TCEs, especially in the case of Tl. Improvements in analytical methods and detection limits will allow this to be further investigated in a wider variety of edible plants so that a risk profile may be developed.

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