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  • 1.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Larsson, LenaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    I takt med tiden?: Perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Idrottslärarutbildning för framtiden2013In: I takt med tiden?: Perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Backman Erik & Larsson Lena, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 243-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Philpot, Rod Allan
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Mordal Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Westlie, Knut
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Legge, Maureen
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Researching social justice and health (in)equality across different school health and physical education contexts in Sweden, Norway and New Zealand2019In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 273-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way school Health and Physical Education (HPE) is conceptualized and taught will impact on its ability to provide equitable outcomes across gender, sexuality, ethnicity, religion and social class. A focus on social justice in HPE is pertinent in times when these ideals are currently under threat from neoliberal globalization. This paper draws on data from the initial year of an international collaboration project called ‘Education for Equitable Health Outcomes – The Promise of School Health and Physical Education’ involving HPE and Physical Education Teacher Education researchers from Sweden, Norway and New Zealand. The data in this paper record the researchers’ presentations and discussions about issues of social justice and health as informed by school visits and interviews with HPE teachers in the three different countries. The analysis of the data is focused on what is addressed in the name of social justice in each of the three countries and how cross-cultural researchers of social justice in HPE interpret different contexts. In order to analyse the data, we draw on Michael Uljens’s concepts of non-affirmative and non-hierarchical education. The findings suggest that researching social justice and health (in)equality across different countries offers both opportunities and challenges when it comes to understanding the enactment of social justice in school and HPE practices. We conclude by drawing on Uljens to assert that the quest for social justice in HPE should focus on further problematizing affirmative and hierarchical educational practices since social justice teaching strategies are enabled and constrained by the contexts in which they are practised.

  • 4.
    Gerdin, Göran
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Mordal Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Westlie, Knut
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Chambers, Fiona
    University College Cork, Ireland.
    Philpot, Rod
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Legge, Maureen
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Researching social justice and health (in)equality across different school health and physical education contexts2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although school Health and Physical Education (HPE) has the potential to contribute to lifelong health and well-being, the way HPE isconceptualized and taught will impact on its ability to provide equitable outcomes across gender, sexuality, ethnicity, religion and socialclass. The genesis of this symposium comes from the ongoing international collaboration project - Education for Equitable HealthOutcomes - The Promise of School Health and Physical Education (EDUHEALTH) consisting of Physical Education Teacher Education(PETE) teachers and researchers from Sweden, Norway and New Zealand. The aim of the EDUHEALTH project is to contribute to theunderstanding of how teachers of HPE teach for social justice by examining the teaching practices of teachers. A focus on equity,democracy and social justice in HPE can be seen as particularly pertinent in times when these ideals are currently under threat fromneoliberal globalisation (Azzarito, Macdonald, Dagkas & Fisette, 2017). The research question guiding this project are: (i) How do HPE teachers’ practices address democracy and social justice? (ii) How may HPE practice contribute to greater inclusion and equitable health outcomes for all students? The session will begin with an introduction to the symposium followed by the first part of paper one which will provide a brief overview ofthe background and implementation of the EDUHEALTH project to date.The second paper will then explicate our conceptualisation of the term social justice as concerned with equity, taking account of many variables including gender, sexuality, socioeconomic, and ethnicity, and within the context of HPE, physicality. The discussion on this paper will draw on Bell’s (1997) concept of social justice as both a process and a goal along with Wright’s (2004) claim that a pedagogy focused on social justice embraces emancipatory practices or processes that have the goal of helping students identify, challenge and transform existing unequal power relations relating to physical activity and health. In this paper we will also discuss the different theoretical perspectives that we are considering in relation to understanding and subsequently analysing social justice in HPE as informed by the works of, for instance, Habermas, Bourdieu, Foucault and Uljens. The third paper will then discuss our methodology and methods for generating data involving HPE class observations and teacher interview in the three different countries and employing a critical incident technique (Tripp, 2012) along with stimulated-recall interviews toexplore HPE teaching practices that enact socially-critical perspective of physical activity and health. At the conclusion of the third paper we will return to the first paper and draw on some initial findings of this project to date in terms of the potential, and difficulties, of researching social justice and health (in)equality across different school health and physical education contexts. The potential comes from having outsiders critically examining the societal, educational, and HPE context and offering new insights. The difficulties are in reaching a shared understanding of what it means to be socially critical and applying this understanding in each of the three different contexts. At the end we tentatively suggest that in our ongoing work with this project and by drawing on Freire (2000) and Tinning (2010) that there is no ‘holy grail’ in terms of a social justice teaching method for HPE practice since teaching strategies are enabled and constrained by the contexts in which they are practiced. Finally, a discussant will reflect on the work presented and the nature of the project before opening the floor to the audience for the final 20 minutes of the symposium.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    Den svenska lärarstudenten i idrott och hälsa2013In: SVEBI konferens: Idrottsforskning i tiden, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har en stark expansion av studenter till högre utbildning skett under de senaste två decennierna. Flera orsaker finns till detta: många utbildningar har förlängts, dvs studenter stannar kvar längre inom systemet, nya lärosäten har tillkommit och utbildningsutbudet har expanderat. Socialt sett har expansionen inneburit en stark tillströmning från grupper som inte tidigare har studerat på universitetsnivå – ur ett meritokratiskt perspektiv har förändringen lett till en ökad andel studenter med svaga skolmeriter (Broady, Börjesson & Bertilsson 2009:12). Vad som drastiskt förändrats är dock söktrycket till lärarutbildningarna. Det kan vara av intresse att studera rekryteringen till idrottslärarutbildningen - då många förändringar skett under senare år.

    Syftet är att beskriva idrottslärarstudenterna med fokus på deras dispositioner i termer av erfarenhet, resurser och smaker. Vi tar utgångspunkt i den franska kultursociologen Bourdieus teorier och begrepp. I Bourdieus tankar om hur den sociala världen är konstruerad har gruppers sociala bakgrund, erfarenheter och levnadsvanor betydelse för deras val och handlingar. Bourdieu (1977, 1990, 2000) förundrades över att vi trots att vi i praktiken kan välja fritt och upplever att vi gör det, ändå i så hög grad väljer i linje med det sociala sammanhang vi är uppväxta i och har erfarenheter ifrån. En enkätstudie har genomförts där samtliga sju lärosäten med examensrätt ht 2011 deltog och de nyrekryterade studenterna besvarade enkäten (208 studenter). data har analyserats med hjälp av SPSS 20.0.

    Resultat visar att de studenter som ht-11 påbörjade sina studier i idrott och hälsa kan beskrivas som en ganska homogen grupp som dock skiljer sig på en del punkter från den genomsnittliga lärarstudenten. I den undersökta gruppen är exempelvis drygt 60 % män jämfört med ca 20 % för den totala gruppen lärarstudenter. I ett åldersperspektiv är hälften av gruppen mellan 21-25 år, ca 40 %är mellan 18-20 år och knappt 10 % är äldre än 25 år. Majoriteten av studenterna har genomgått ett studieförberedande gymnasieprogram och av dessa har drygt 40 % gått ett program med idrottsinriktning. Cirka 60 % av studenterna har en eller två föräldrar med universitets-/högskoleutbildning.

    Innan studenterna började sin utbildning i idrott och hälsa hade drygt 10 % skaffat sig erfarenhet av arbete inom förskola eller skola. En betydligt större andel, knappt 60 %, hade erfarenhet av annan yrkesverksamhet. När det gäller idrottserfarenhet uppger drygt tre fjärdedelar att de har sådan och knappt tre fjärdedelar att de även har erfarenhet av att vara ledare inom idrottsrörelsen. På fritiden ägnar sig studenterna huvudsakligen åt eget idrottande/motionerande, umgås med vänner, Internet i olika former, se på video/teve samt umgås med familjen. Däremot är intresset för exempelvis politik och kultur lågt.

    Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Bourdieu, P. (1990). The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, P. (2000). Pascalian Meditations. USA: Stanford University Press.Broady, D., Börjesson, M. & Bertilsson, E. (2009). Lärarutbildningens hierarkier, Nordisk tidskrift för kultur- og samfundsvidenskab (4), 5–17.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    The Swedish PE student of today: a cultural sociological analysis2013In: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network:18. Research in Sports Pedagogy, 2013, p. 93-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past two decades have seen a huge increase in the number of students enrolling in higher education in Sweden. There are several reasons for this: many of the degree programmes have been extended, resulting in students remaining in the system longer than previously; the number of degree programmes to choose from has increased; and there are new higher education institutions (HEIs). Socially speaking, the expansion has led to a huge influx of groups that had not previously studied at university—from a meritocratic perspective, this change has resulted in a growing number of students with poor qualifications (Broady, Börjesson & Bertilsson 2009: 12). The teacher training programme has, however, seen a very modest increase in the number of students. The 1971/72 academic year saw 9,500 student teachers accepted, which constituted 40 per cent of the intake. Today’s 11,000 student teachers only make up 17 per cent of the higher education intake (Bertilsson 2009). What has dramatically changed is the oversubscription to teacher training programmes. At the beginning of the 1980s, there were approximately ten applicants per place compared with at present just over one per place. The percentage of male applicants to teacher training programmes has for the past decade remained around the 20 per cent mark (Swedish National Agency for Higher Education [HSV] 2012). One possible explanation for the teacher training programme being less oversubscribed is that it has faced ever-greater competition from other higher education programmes. Another might be the mass media’s portrayal and the constant criticism of schools and that nowadays teaching is classed as a low-status profession. This might explain why, compared with other university programmes, the teacher training programme has the largest percentage of students whose parents have no higher education experience (Börjesson & Broady 2004; Börjesson 2004; Statistics Sweden [SCB] HSV 2009, 2010; Larsson 2009). The question of interest here is what has happened to the recruiting within the Swedish teacher training programme in recent decades (Bertilsson 2009).

     In this context, the recruiting to the Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programme is also of interest. For more than 150 years, there was only one PETE programme in Sweden, namely the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics founded by Per Henrik Ling. In 1966, a sister organization was founded, this time in the city of Örebro, both came under the same organizational unit and were known collectively as the Stockholm University College of Physical Education and Sports (GIH). From the latter half of the 1980s until 2001, the number of HEIs offering a PETE programme increased to sixteen as a result of various teacher training reforms (Meckbach & Wedman 2007). This number has now decreased and as of 2011 there are only seven HEIs entitled to award the degree of Bachelor of Education in Physical Education.

    The aim of this study is to describe the student PE teachers in Sweden, with focus on their dispositions in terms of experiences, resources and tastes.

    Methodology  

    To be able to study student PE teachers’ dispositions, resources and tastes, we take Bourdieu’s theories and concepts as our starting point. In Bourdieu’s thoughts on how the social world is constructed, groups’ social background, experiences and ways of living influence their choices and actions. Bourdieu (1984) was surprised that even though we are able to freely choose and feel that we do so, we, nevertheless, to such a great extent, make choices according to the social context we have grown up in and have experiences of. Using Bourdieu’s theoretical concepts makes it possible to examine the students’ tastes, practices and lifestyles.

    The data has been collected as follows: the student PE teachers in Sweden that run a PETE programme answered a questionnaire with thirty-five questions. Apart from the background information, the questionnaire contained questions about the studies and the students’ leisure habits. The vast majority were closed questions, where the respondents were asked to give one answer. For a small number of questions, it was possible to give more than one answer. The data has been analysed using statistical methods chosen based on the study’s questions. In total, 208 students participated in the study.

    Results

    Those students who began studying PETE in the autumn of 2011 can be described as a pretty homogeneous group that, nevertheless, differentiates itself from the average student teacher in a number of respects. For example, in the group studied a little over 60% are men compared with approximately 20% for the whole group of student teachers. In terms of age, half of the group are between 21 and 25 years old. The majority of the students have completed a preparatory upper secondary programme, of which just over 40% have completed a programme specializing in sport. Approximately 60% of the students have one or two parents with a university or higher education.

    Before starting their PETE programme, just over 10% of the students had experience of working at a school. As for having experience of sport, just over three-quarters say that they have such experience and almost three-quarters also have experience of being a coach within the Swedish sports movement.   

    In their free time, the students mainly do sports, see their friends, use the Internet for various things, watch videos and TV, and see their family. However, there is little interest in, for example, politics and culture.

    References 

    Bertilsson, Emil (2009). Lärarstudenterna: Förändring i rekrytering under perioden 1977-2007, (4), 19–41.

    Bourdieu, Pierre (1984). Distinction. A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul).

    Broady, Donald, Börjesson, Mikael & Bertilsson, Emil (2009). Lärarutbildningens hierarkier, Nordisk tidskrift för kultur- og samfundsvidenskab (4), 5–17.

    Börjesson, Mikael (2004). Det svenska högskolefältet och lärarutbildningarna. (Uppsala:  Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings- och kultursociologi (SEC) Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Uppsala universitet).

    Börjesson, Mikael & Broady, Donald (2004). Vad har studenter vid Uppsala universitet i bagaget? Om social och meritokratisk snedrekrytering.  (Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings- och kultursociologi (SEC) Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Uppsala universitet).

    Larsson, Lena (2009). Idrott–och helst lite mer idrott. Idrottslärarstudenters möte med utbildningen. Diss. (Stockholm: Stockholms universitet).

    Meckbach, Jane & Wedman, Ingemar (2007). Idrottslärarstudenten vid GIH. www.idrottsforum.org

    HSV (2009).Uppföljning av lärosätenas arbete med breddad rekrytering 2006–2008. Rapport 2009:18 R.

    HSV (2010). Higher education. Level of parental education among university entrants 2009/10 and first time students at third circle studies 2008/09. UF 20 SM 1003

    HSV (2012) http://www.hsv.se/download/18.4149f55713bbd917563800045/statistisk-analys-larautbildning-2012-15.pdf

    Statistiska centralbyrån 2006, Universitet och högskolor. Social bakgrund bland högskolenybörjare 2005/06 och doktorand­nybörjare 2004/05.

  • 7.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    A taste for sports2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    These are issues which PE teacher education programme wrestles with both in Swedena nd abroad. One such, is the PE teacher education programme’s inability to challenge the students' conceptions about the education and PE in school, that the students' experiences of their own sporting activities are more important than the education programme for what knowledge is considered valuable. Research shows that content of the PE teacher education programme is strongly linked to competitive sports, and it seems that a background as an active sportsman or sportswoman is a must for a PE teacher. Although the PE teacher education programme has become successively more academic, and what a teacher should know has changed, the PE teacher education programme has not been able to challenge the students' conceptions to a sufficiently high degree and in this way has been conserving and reproducing (MacDonald et al., 2002; Matanin & Collier, 2003; Brown, 2005; Tsangaridou, 2008). The aim of the study is to investigate what happens when the experiences and conceptions of physical education (PE) student teachers encounter the value structures of a PE teacher education programme. The research questions are i) what do the students bring to the programme in the form of conceptions, values and experiences? ii) What happens in the students' encounter with the programme and what is the result in respect to their opinion of the education and their future profession? Data has been collected using essays written by 31 PE student teachers during the first week in their physical education specialisation, and at the end of the third term of this specialisation. The study has a cultural-sociological and gender theoretical perspective. The analysis has been done with the help of Pierre Bourdieu's concepts as the tools of analysis. Bourdieu’s work remains an important springboard in investigating how knowledge, norms and values are originated and reproduced in a social context, where having the interpretative prerogative means having the power to define knowledge (Bourdieu, 1990). Analyses from such a perspective make it possible to understand reproduction and change within education in relation to those who are involved in it. The analysis shows that these students have had a great interest in sport since their childhood. It is an interest which the whole family has shared, and the students have formed a sports habitus while they were growing up which has meant that they will continue to participate in sports, and they see that both the education and the job will give them the opportunity to do this. The students take for granted that “sport is good”; they have been successful themselves, both as active participants and as pupils in physical education at school. The students have formed a sports habitus while they were growing up and it was a deeper knowledge of sport which they expected from the programme, and that is what they feel that it has been about. However, they would have liked even more. It can be said that being interested in sport and having a background as an active sportsman or sportswoman seem to be part of the ”rules of the game”; it is taken for granted that it is a prerequisite for choosing the PE teacher education programme. It is sporting prowess, above all, that is assigned value, and even if the course is a specialisation within the teacher education programme and takes place at an institute of higher education, there is still an emphasis on belonging to the world of competitive sport. The symbolic capital for a PE teacher is to be good at many different sports and have in-depth knowledge of human biology. The PE teacher education is in harmony with the students' habitus which make it difficult to challenge the ”order of things” and the education programme's underlying doxa.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Lena
    Stockholm university, Department of Education in Arts and Professions.
    Idrott - och helst lite mer idrott. Idrottslärarstudenters möte med utbildningen2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Larsson, Lena
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Idrott och hälsa är ingenting för mig2003In: Aktuell beteendevetenskaplig forskning / [ed] Patriksson, G., Lund: SVEBI , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    PE teacher education - an arena for reproducing traditions, values and norms2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PE teacher education programme has been criticized for having inadequate links to science, that it finds it difficult to challenge traditional gender patterns, and that the students' experiences of their own sporting activities are more important than the education programme for what knowledge is considered valuable(MacDonald et. al 2002; Brown, 2005; Tsangaridou 2008). The aim of the study is to investigate what happens when the experiences and conceptions of physical education (PE) student teachers encounter the value structures of a PE teacher education programme. Special interest is also paid to what conceptions of masculinity and femininity are expressed. The study has a cultural-sociological and gender theoretical perspective. Bourdieu was not particularly interested in what knowledge is as such, but rather how it originates and is reproduced in a social context, where having the interpretative prerogative means having the power to define knowledge (Bourdieu, 1990) Data has been collected using essays written by 52 PE student teachers during their physical education specialisation and in-depth interviews with 8 teacher educators. The data were analysed using Bourdieu's conceptual tools of habitus, taste, capital and doxa. Today's education is characterised by many of the traditions, norms and values which historically have been its distinguishing features. The “rules of the game” are generally taken for granted and the need for physical activity in the form of sport is the education programme's underlying doxa. The students have formed a sports habitus while they were growing up and it was a deeper knowledge of sport which they expected from the programme, and that is what they feel that it has been about. However, they would have liked even more. They are less interested in pedagogical issues and they would have preferred the whole course to provided a guide which would result in lessons which worked well and were problem-free. Even if gender and social issues have been part of the education (a much too great a part, according to some students), the gender habitus which students have incorporated and embodied while they were growing up has changed very little during the programme. The findings paint a picture of a PE teacher education programme where the orthodox is seldom challenged. The PE teacher education seem to be in harmony with the students' habitus which make it difficult to challenge the ”order of things” and  that changes will take time. There seems to be a lack of pedagogical tools for how these issues should be dealt with ”in practice”. Both students and teacher educators have problems to put into words what a PE teacher must know and be able to do, and until this can be articulated it is not possible to reflect about, challenge, argue for, or fight over what this knowledge is, and its place in the education programme. The paradox is that practical aspects of the course which are seen as central by both the students and the educators are the losers within the framework of a college of higher education.

    References

    Bourdieu, P. (1990) The Logic of Practise. (Cambridge: Polity Press).

    Brown, D. (2005) An economy of gendered practices? Learning to teach physical education from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu’s embodied sociology, Sport, Education and Society, 10 (1) p. 3-23

    MacDonald et.al (2002) Teacher Knowledge and the Disjunction between School Curricula and Teacher Education, Asia-Pasific Journal of Teacher Education, 30(3) 2002 kola s

    Tsangaridou, N. 2008, Trainee Primary Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices about Physical Education during Student Teaching, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy,13(2)  April 2008 p. 131-152.

     

  • 11.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    PE teacher education- a programme in harmony with the students' habitus.2011In: BERA Annual Conference 2011 Program 6-8 September 2011 / [ed] Institute of Education London, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The starting point for the study are a number of issues concerning PE teacher education programme which have been of interest in recent years. Research shows that the PE teacher education programme has inadequate links to science, that it finds it difficult to challenge traditional gender patterns, and that the students' experiences of their own sporting activities are more important than the education programme for what knowledge is considered valuable.

    The aim of the study is to investigate what happens when the experiences and conceptions of physical education (PE) student teachers encounter the value structures of a PE teacher education programme. Special interest is also paid to what conceptions of masculinity and femininity are expressed. The study is inspired of Pierre Bourdieu's theories and has a cultural-sociological and gender theoretical perspective. Bourdieu was not particularly interested in what knowledge is as such, but rather how it originates and is reproduced in a social context, where having the interpretative prerogative means having the power to define knowledge. Analyses from such a perspective make it possible to understand reproduction and change within education in relation to those who are involved in it. Data has been collected using essays written by PE student teachers and interviews with PE teacher educators.

     The findings paint a picture of a PE teacher education programme where the orthodox is seldom challenged. Today's education is characterised by many of the traditions and values which historically have been its distinguishing features. The symbolic capital for a PE teacher is to be good at many different sports and have in-depth knowledge of human biology and a background as an active sportsman/sportswoman is a must. The PE teacher education is in harmony with the students' habitus which make it difficult to challenge the ”order of things” and the education programme's underlying doxa. The students have formed a sports habitus while they were growing up and it was a deeper knowledge of sport which they expected from the programme, and that is what they feel that it has been about. However, they would have liked even more. They are less interested in pedagogical issues. Even if gender and social issues have been part of the education (a much too great a part, according to some students), the gender habitus which students have incorporated and embodied while they were growing up has changed very little during the programme.

  • 12.
    Larsson, Lena
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Personal development or learning how to teach. A study of values in the physical education teacher program2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Larsson, Lena
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    PE-students expectations of their education and future profession.2006In: NFPF/NERA:s årliga konferens, Physical Education, Sport and Leisure Studies, 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Reproduktion och förändring2013In: I takt med tiden?: Perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Backman Erik & Larsson Lena, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 49-61Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Smak för idrott2010In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Något som ofta har uppmärksammats i forskning om lärarutbildning, är den egna

    skolgångens betydelse för föreställningar om utbildningen och för hur man blir som färdig

    lärare. Detta gäller även idrottslärarutbildning där inte enbart erfarenheter av undervisningen i

    skolan utan också erfarenheter från idrottsutövande på fritiden har visat sig ha större betydelse

    än utbildningen för deras kommande undervisning. Vad innebär det att en given förutsättning

    för att välja utbildningen tycks vara att man är idrottsintresserad

    och har en bakgrund som

    aktiv idrottsutövare? Vad innebär dessa erfarenheter för vilka föreställningar studenterna har

    om utbildningen och yrket?

  • 16.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Sport – and preferably a little more sport: PE student teachers' encounter with their education2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a study within PE teacher program inSweden. The starting point and the motive for the study are a number of issues concerning PE teacher education programme. Research shows that the PE teacher education programme has inadequate links to science, that it finds it difficult to challenge traditional gender patterns, and that the students' experiences of their own sporting activities are more important than the education programme for what knowledge is considered valuable (MacDonald et. al 2002; Brown, 2005; Tsangaridou 2008). The aim of the study is to investigate what happens when the experiences and conceptions of physical education (PE) student teachers encounter the value structures of a PE teacher education programme. Special interest is also paid to what conceptions of masculinity and femininity are expressed. The study has a cultural-sociological and gender theoretical perspective. I have found inspiration in Pierre Bourdieu's theories. Bourdieu was not particularly interested in what knowledge is as such, but rather how it originates and is reproduced in a social context, where having the interpretative prerogative means having the power to define knowledge. Bourdieu’s work remains an important springboard in investigating how knowledge, norms and values are originated and reproduced in a social context, where having the interpretative prerogative means having the power to define knowledge (Bourdieu, 1990). Analyses from such a perspective make it possible to understand reproduction and change within education in relation to those who are involved in it. Data has been collected using essays written by 52 PE student teachers during their physical education specialisation and in-depth interviews with 8 teacher educators. The data were analysed using Bourdieu's conceptual tools of habitus, taste, capital and doxa. The findings paint a picture of a PE teacher education programme where the orthodox is seldom challenged. PE teacher education is characterised by many of the traditions, norms and values which historically have been its distinguishing features. The ”rules of the game” are generally taken for granted and this is based on a shared belief in the value of the education. The structural conditions for the PE teacher education programme seem to be in harmony with the students' habitus. The students expected it to be about sport and although they feel their expectations were fulfilled, they would have liked even more. They are less interested in pedagogical issues and they would have preferred the whole course to provided a guide which they could follow and would result in lessons which worked well and were problem-free. The way they see the subject is largely the same as it was before the course, but what appeared to them to be a ”pure” sports subject before the course started has afterwards become more a way of “attaining health through sport”. Even if gender and social issues have been part of the education (a much too great a part, according to some students), the gender habitus which students have incorporated and embodied while they were growing up has changed very little during the programme. There seems to be a lack of pedagogical tools for how these issues should be dealt with ”in practice”. In the eyes of the students, the symbolic capital of PE teacher is to be good at many different sports and have in-depth knowledge of human biology. Both students and teacher educators have problems to put into words what a PE teacher must know and be able to do, and until this can be articulated it is not possible to reflect about, challenge, argue for, or fight over what this knowledge is, and its place in the education programme. The paradox is that practical aspects of the course which are seen as central by both the students and the educators are the losers within the framework of a college of higher education.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Lena
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Ämnet Idrott och hälsa ur ett idrottslärarperspektiv2004Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Backman, Erik
    Gymnastil- och idrottshögskolan.
    Idrottslärarutbildning: en kontextualisering2013In: I takt med tiden?: Perspektiv på idrottslärarutbildning i Skandinavien / [ed] Backman Erik & Larsson Lena, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Att utmana föreställningar om idrott2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 13-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen och samhällsdebatten pekar på att innehåll och form kanvariera inom både barn- och ungdomsidrotten och skolämnet idrottoch hälsa. Vad som står i policy- och styrdokument vägleder inte alltidpraktiken. Kan utbildning utmana de olika spänningsfält och värderingarsom sätter ramar för verksamheten?

  • 20.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    The doxa of physical education teacher education – set in stone?2018In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 114-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we critically examine the potential of assessment components in physical education teacher education (PETE) to either reinforce or challenge PETE students’ conceptions of what a physical education (PE) teacher needs to know to teach this school subject. To understand the mechanisms that may contribute to the difficulty of challenging these taken-for-granted beliefs (doxa) within PETE, we draw on the theories and concepts of Pierre Bourdieu. Two different kinds of empirical material are analysed: one consists of 62 essays, written by PETE students before starting their degree programme, dealing with their conceptions of PE teachers’ competencies, while the second consists of course booklets and assessment components used within one PETE programme. The study shows that implicit prerequisites and conditions in assessment components are very similar to the conceptions of competencies in PETE students’ statements. The study also shows that taken-for-granted beliefs may be challenged, but at the same time, we argue, the use of socially critical perspectives in PE practice may also (in the name of the doxa) stigmatise those who are not physically active in their leisure time as well as those who do not look fit and sporty, and thus does not challenge the way power and social superiority or inferiority appear in PE.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    Att utveckla rekryteringsmetoder och stödjande miljöer för unga ledare2015In: Idéer för idrottsutveckling / [ed] Josef Fahlén, Staffan Karp, Stockholm: SISU idrottsböcker , 2015, p. 60-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    To be – or not to be invited?2013In: ECER 2013, Creativity and Innovation in Educational Research: Network: 08. Research on Health Education, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Official reports and policy documents state that the sport will give young people the power and influence. A considerable number of initiatives have been taken to increase their means of influence (RF 2005, 2011). Though this initiatives  have research about young people's influence within the sport been scarce. A lot of attention has been given to youth participating in the sports movement (Rowe & Champion 2000; Butcher et al. 2002; Sarrazin et al. 2002; Franzén & Peterson 2004) and youths rights and opportunities to participate (MacPhail et al. 2003; Svender et al., 2012) while questions regarding young people’s opportunity to make their voices heard have been ignored.

    The aim of the study is to explore young coaches’ possibilities and experiences of influence in the Swedish sports movement with a focus on young people's own voices to influence and have power.

    The specific questions are as follows: (i) which young coaches are believed to be capable of having an influence? ii) what means of influence experience young coaches that they have.

    Previous research show that young people’s voices have received less attention and young people have no influence in many of the context in which they find themselves (Evans 2007, p 693). This is also valid in a Swedish context. For example research show that the annual general meeting is regarded as an important arena for exerting influence, as is being a club committee member; however, it has been hard attracting young coaches to these arenas (Redelius 2005; Trondman 2005).

    The sports movement can be seen as a cultural and social practice where certain values, norms, and actions are more evident than others. In order to understand actions and strategies based on the individual–group relationship and the social context they find themselves in, we are supported by the theories and concepts of Bourdieu.

    Bourdieu (1990) describes how the social world consists, on the one hand, of objective structures that also exist outside symbolic systems, such as languages and myths, which depend on the agents’ consciousness and desires, and, on the other hand, symbolic structures, the origin of which forms a function of perceptions, ideas, and actions that the individuals construct. The socially constructed symbol systems act as classification schemes for the social world, which means that the structures are perceived as natural.

    Based on Bourdieu’s theories, certain social contexts can be regarded as social fields, among them, sport, which is characterized by having its own logic and defining its own rules, rules that everyone within the field must abide by and that often are obvious and taken for granted (Bourdieu 1988, 1997; Munk & Lind 2004).

    Using Bourdieu’s theories makes it possible to penetrate the value structures and patterns of behavior in a social practice that the agents are partly unaware of. The starting point is, therefore, that the sports movement is a social field in which the experiences the agents have incorporated, together with the objective structures, determine who is allowed to enter and influence the field. 

    Methodology

    The data in this study consists of focus group interviews with young coaches. Ten focus group interviews were conducted with thirty-seven participants, of which twenty were women and seventeen were men. When selecting respondents, a geographical spread, a variety of sports, and both male and female participants were sought.

    Focus group interviews have been chosen with the aim of acquiring a deeper understanding of what the encounter between the young coach’s experiences and ideas and the social conditions that regulate the sports movement (Denzin & Lincoln 1998). The interviews were semi-structured and based on four areas: their personal narratives, their leadership experience, the leadership position, and influence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed afterwards. By means of qualitative text analysis, the statements have been examined based on the aims of the study and have subsequently been interpreted with the theoretical reference framework as the starting point.

    Discussion

    The results show that if young coaches are to have influence, it is required that both their habitus and capital ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. Bourdieu believes that power breeds power. One way of maintaining power, which appears successful for those who have a position within a field, is not to change the accepted way of working and, with that, exclude the young coaches from challenging in the battle for positions. Holding a committee post becomes a self-generating system, which means that symbolic capital is assigned to those who are on the committee and already have capital.

    The results show that the means of influence increases if one goes on a course, has the support of a club member, or has a position of responsibility within the club. Without the support of important people or going on a course, the room for action is limited. Another strategy that appears favorable in order to increase one’s capital and improve one’s position is to be a member of the youth section or the like. The environment is conducive to the young coaches being molded, the club’s culture being inscribed in the body, and certain actions becoming self-evident.  

  • 23.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    To Be or Not to Be Invited: Youth Sport: Young People’s Influence in Voluntary Sport2013In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 187-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence and the opportunity to have one’s voice heard are fundamental rights valid for all people, including also children and youths. Despite this, research shows that young people’s voices have received less attention and young people have no influence in many contexts in which they find themselves (Evans, 2007; Fundberg, 2009; Redelius, 2005). In Sweden, the emphasis on influence can be linked to the fact that the sport club activities of the Swedish state are seen as an important arena for the civic education of young people (The Swedish Sports Confederation, 2005, 2011). The aim of this study is to explore young coaches and their opportunities to influence in the Swedish sport clubs with focus on what the youths themselves say about influence and power. We use Bourdieus’ theories on social fields to bring to light which youths are chosen to be leaders and their possibilities to influence. The results show that for young coaches to have influence, both their habitus and capital are required to ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. One way of maintaining power is not to change the accepted way of working, which excludes the young coaches from challenging in the battle for positions.

  • 24.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    Unga ledare behöver stöd2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 22-26Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarbrist är ett problem för föreningar. Stödjande miljöer kan vara en framgångsfaktor för att rekrytera unga ledare. Att skapa miljöer som får ungdomar att trivas och utvecklas är en utmaning. Frågan är vad en miljö som är stödjande är och vem den förväntas stödja.

  • 25.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    Unga ledarprojekt inom Idrottslyftet2010In: Aktuell Beteende- och samhällsvetenskaplig Idrottsforskning, ISSN 0284-4672, p. 81-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Sport is a very popular activity for young people in Sweden. Without the many leaders it would be impossible to run an organization of this size. To support sporting activities for children and young people, the Swedish Parliament decided to invest SEK 2 billion over a four-year period and one of its goals was to recruit and retain young leaders. The aim of the study is to examine this investment made in young leaders. The data consists of development plans and project descriptions and the method used is qualitative text analysis. The study has a cultural-sociological perspective based on Bourdieu’s theories and concepts. The analysis shows that investments have consisted mainly of training programmes, in which the belief in the sports movement as an educational environment has functioned as the underlying value structure. The supportive environments are a priority, but are viewed primarily as the responsibility of each individual club. The master–pupil relationship appears to be a given model. In conclusion, the findings indicate there is a belief that a re-examination of the traditionally prominent values is required if young people are to be recruited as leaders.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    GIH.
    Young People´s Influence within the Swedish Sports Movement2012In: ECER 2012, The Need for Educational Research to Champion Freedom, Education and Development for All: Network: 18. Research in Sports Pedagogy, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most children and young people are involved in the Swedish sports movement, and without all the voluntary coaches, it would not be possible to run this organization. Many of the recruited coaches are young people (RF 2007) and a considerable number of initiatives have been taken to recruit them. The aim of many of these initiatives has been to increase their means of influence. The emphasis on influence can be linked to the fact that the club activities of the Swedish state are seen as an important arena for the civic education of young people (RF 2005, 2011).

    The aim of this study is to examine how an initiative to recruit young coaches can help increase young people’s means of influence within the Swedish sports movement. The specific questions are as follows: (i) which young coaches are believed to be capable of having an influence? (ii) what means of influence do the young coaches recruited have?

    Previous research shows that it is difficult to increase the influence of young people and the Swedish sports movement has not been particularly successful in this task. The annual general meeting is regarded as an important arena for exerting influence, as is being a club committee member; however, it has been hard attracting young coaches to these arenas. When it comes to being on the committee, it is important to have the right contacts since most people are recruited via a network that is characterized by like-minded people rewarding each other (Fundberg 2009). Therefore, not just anyone is allowed to enter the field, and to attain a position that generates influence, it is necessary for one to have the right symbolic capital. The conclusion drawn by Redelius (2005) is that young people often lack valid capital, i.e. they still do not have the necessary experiences and assets.

    The sports movement can be seen as a cultural and social practice where certain values, norms, and actions are more evident than others. In order to understand actions and strategies based on the individual–group relationship and the social context they find themselves in, we are supported by the theories and concepts of Bourdieu.

    Bourdieu (1990) describes how the social world consists, on the one hand, of objective structures that also exist outside symbolic systems, such as languages and myths, which depend on the agents’ consciousness and desires, and, on the other hand, symbolic structures, the origin of which forms a function of perceptions, ideas, and actions that the individuals construct. The socially constructed symbol systems act as classification schemes for the social world, which means that the structures are perceived as natural. Based on Bourdieu’s theories, certain social contexts can be regarded as social fields, among them, sport, which is characterized by having its own logic and defining its own rules, rules that everyone within the field must abide by and that often are obvious and taken for granted (Bourdieu 1988, 1997; Munk 1999; Munk & Lind 2004).

    Using Bourdieu’s theories makes it possible to penetrate and illustrate the value structures and patterns of behavior in a social practice that the agents are partly unaware of. The starting point is, therefore, that the sports movement is a social arena in which the experiences the agents have incorporated, together with the objective structures, determine who is allowed to enter and influence the field. 

    Methodology

    The data in this study consists of focus group interviews with young coaches. Ten focus group interviews were conducted with thirty-seven participants, of which twenty were women and seventeen were men. When selecting respondents, a geographical spread, a variety of sports, and both male and female participants were sought.

    Focus group interviews have been chosen with the aim of acquiring a deeper understanding of what the encounter between the young coach’s experiences and ideas and the social conditions that regulate the sports movement (Denzin & Lincoln 1998). The interviews were semi-structured and based on four areas: their personal narratives, their leadership experience, the leadership position, and influence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed afterwards. By means of qualitative text analysis, the statements have been examined based on the aims of the study and have subsequently been interpreted with the theoretical reference framework as the starting point.

    Results

    The results show that if young coaches are to have influence, it is required that both their habitus and capital ‘match’ the social context into which they are entering. Bourdieu believes that power breeds power. One way of maintaining power, which appears successful for those who have a position within a field, is not to change the accepted way of working and, with that, exclude the young coaches from challenging in the battle for positions. Holding a committee post becomes a sort of self-generating system, which means that symbolic capital is assigned to those who are on the committee and already have capital.

    The results show that the means of influence increases if one goes on a course, has the support of a club member, or has a position of responsibility within the club. Without the support of important people or going on a course, the room for action is limited. Another strategy that appears favorable in order to increase one’s capital and improve one’s position is to be a member of the youth section or the like. The environment is conducive to the young coaches being molded, the club’s culture being inscribed in the body, and certain actions becoming self-evident.  

  • 27.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Challenging PETE. Steering mechanisms and teaching logics preserving old traditions2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary physical education in Sweden is characterized by a strong tradition of sport and ball games which school curriculumreforms in the last few decades seem to have had no significant impact on. Despite new curricula in Sweden, HPE teachers’ practicesremain unchanged. HPE teachers still have problems catering to the needs of all their pupils (Annerstedt & Larsson, 2010; Ekberg, 2016;Redelius et al. 2009). Success in PE in the form of high grades is related to active participation in sport clubs (Jakobsson et al., 2012).One of the government’s instruments for regulating teaching in PE in schools in Sweden is teacher education. The latest reforms ofSwedish teacher education including physical education teacher education (PETE) place higher scientific/academic demands on teachereducation programmes. One of the goals is to develop PETE students’ ability to adopt socially critical approaches and the studentsshould, for instance, be provided opportunities to identify, analyse and question the different beliefs, norms and values that pervade PEand that may act to exclude some pupils (SOU, 2008). However, research indicates that despite these reforms, Swedish PETE does notchallenge students’ conceptions about how the subject should be taught to any great extent (Schenker, 2016). The PETE students’ stillwant to pursue their passion for sport through teaching practices designed to lead to their pupils (even the uninterested ones) developingthe same sport interests (Larsson, 2009). Larsson et al. (2016) found that although socially critical perspectives exists in PETE today,reforming the PETE curriculum per se does not necessarily challenge the doxa of PETE. As a matter of fact, the use of socially criticalperspectives in PETE may (in the name of the doxa) not challenge how power and social superiority or inferiority appear in the subject.Doxa might not be set in stone, but there seems to be a need to thoroughly reconstruct PETE if future PE teachers are going to developsocially critical approaches that truly challenge the prevailing assumptions about what competencies a PE teacher should have. In thispaper the key members from Sweden involved in the EDUHEALTH project will share some of their research findings to date. We willdiscuss mechanisms that may contribute to the difficulty of challenging taken for granted beliefs within Swedish PETE and how and whyteachers’ presumptions and teaching logics, like the one of competitive sport, continue to exclude some children and youth.

  • 28.
    Larsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Transition within PETE - is challenging the doxa possible?2015In: ECER 2015, Education and Transtition. Network:18. Research in Sports Pedagogy, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time after time Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) and Health and Physical Education (HPE) are identified as learning areas where the ‘power of tradition’ remain strong. The history of and transition within PETE and HPE has neither been struggle- nor problem-free. Neither the reformation of PETE nor the shift in the HPE curriculum appears to be able to challenge the teacher student’ understandings [1]. Instead, certain beliefs, norms and values continue to be reproduced in PETE regardless of the criticisms offered. By everyone accepting ‘the rules of the game’ [2], they cannot reflect on, challenge, argue in favour of, or fight over the logic of the dominant practice or what types of knowledge that are seen as important and therefore have its legitimate place in the PETE programme. Within PETE there exists taken for granted assumptions that reflect its history, content, structure, the type of student who enrolls and the outcome for the students at the end of the programme [3].

    Although one of the goals of most contemporary PETE programmes is to develop the students’ ability to adopt critical approaches and perspectives, several scholars argue that a completely new university programme is needed if future HPE teachers are going to develop socially-critical approaches [4].

    Aim & Research Questions

    Based on the discussion above it is of research significance to examine the beliefs about what kind of competencies future HPE teachers need to develop throughout their degree. The purpose of this study was to explore what kind of beliefs about HPE teachers’ competencies that are expressed, assessed, reinforced or challenged throughout the degree. The focus of analysis is particularly on what beliefs about the structure and content of PETE are in tension with each other.

    Research questions:

    • What teacher competencies are seen as important to develop throughout the degree by the teacher students?
    • What competencies are being assessed in PETE assessments?
    • What beliefs about HPE teachers’ competencies are reinforced or challenged in and through these assessments?

    Theoretical frame

    To understand what the possibilities/constraints are for a challenging and critically reflective learning to occur within HPETE we draw on the theories and concepts of Pierre Bourdieu [4]. Bourdieu uses the concept of social fields to explain how, within a specific social context, there is a logic and rules about the practice [5]. These rules are the result of the historical struggles within the field and have shaped prevailing beliefs, or the ‘doxa’, that everyone in the field are aware of. Doxa represents the collective beliefs, norms and attitudes about the ideal or ‘right’ practice and if these are not questioned and challenged continues both to guide and limit what is possible and not possible.

    Our point of departure is that PETE can be seen as an encounter between individuals from different backgrounds and with various experiences and the objective structures of an education programme. An education programme’s objective structures contain notions, values, norms and practices that constitute what is deemed relevant and valuable knowledge [6] Participants are individuals, but at the same time they find themselves in a context involving a number of socially constructed rules and notions about what is possible and right, as well as the opposite, i.e. what is inconceivable. Although PETE is not a social field, strictly speaking, in accordance with Bourdieu's definition, the taken for granted assumptions about what constitute a ‘competent’ teacher of HPE still represent a form of doxa. What is considered to be the ‘right’ practice, and valued forms of knowledge is also reflected in what is being assessed.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources UsedIn order to address our research questions we have drawn on three different sources of empirical data. The first source of data consists of open-ended, qualitative questionnaires completed by recently enrolled teacher students at two different PETE programmes. At one university the questionnaires were conducted during a lecture, with a total of 35 students completing them on that occasion and another 3 students at a later date. At the other university the students were given the questionnaires by one of the teacher educators and all of them were subsequently submitted electronically. The total number of questionnaires analyzed were 62. The second source of data involves course booklets from one university, where the focus particularly was on the different forms of assessment. The booklets from all the courses within the PETE programme except the individual research projects, in total 90 credits were included. The course booklets contain detailed information and descriptions of all forms of assessment within the degree. In total the courses contains 82 assessments. The third source of data comprises different types of assessment tasks and a selection of the students’ responses.   By conducting a qualitative text analysis the empirical data were examined in relation to the research questions and subsequently interpreted with the Bourdieuan theoretical framework described above as the starting point [6]. The number of assessments throughout the PETE programme was in a first step divided into type of assessment, subject area and verbs used to describe the assessments to identify the patterns of meaning and the scheme of classification. In the analysis of the assessment tasks and the students’ responses recurring patterns and themes were first identified before these patterns/themes were deconstructed and explored in more detail. Throughout this data analysis process we continually used our theoretical framework to sort through and categorize the data. The focus in the analysis of the data was on picking up both implicit and explicit expressions which reflected collective conceptions and taken for granted assumptions in relation to the PETE programme and HPE. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsOur study demonstrates how those who enter PETE seem to be strongly influenced by their previous experience and knowledge of sport and physical activity. Underlying doxa and taken for granted ideas about sport and scientific assumptions seem impregnable The teacher students’ statements highlight collective beliefs, norms and attitudes about the ideal or ’right’  practice, what Bourdieu describes as “the rules of the game”. The image portrayed of the ‘competent’ teacher in HPE is of someone possessing all the knowledge, being the role model and the perfect example and also having the power to select what knowledge that should be taught. In addition, they see teaching/pedagogical skills as crucial. The analysis of the assessments highlights an existing, prevailing doxa that both teacher students and teacher educators seem to agree upon. The results draw attention to how it is the different subject areas’ traditions, underlying principles of classification, which determine the type and number of assessments. The preliminary findings on the one hand indicate, much similar to previous studies, that there are a number of assessments that reinforce traditional notions of the ‘right’ practice in HPE. But on the other hand, there are also other forms of assessment, in particular in the social sciences, which have the potential to challenge the students’ understandings and to develop the students’ ability to adopt critical approaches. However, it is uncertain to what extent the students’ understandings are actually challenged particularly given their view of the teaching role, view of what competencies a HPE teachers need and beliefs about the content and structure of HPE. ReferencesBourdieu, Pierre (1990). The Logic of Practice. Cambridge: Polity Press Bourdieu, Pierre (1992). Texter om de intellektuella, Stockholm: Brutus Östlings bokförlag Brown, David (2005). An economy of gendered practices? Learning to teach physical education from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu’s embodied sociology. Sport, Education and Society 10. Denzin, Norman K. & Lincoln, Yvonna S. (1998). Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials. London: Sage Publ.. Dowling, Fiona (2008). Getting in touch with our feelings: the emotional geographies of gender relations in Physical Education Teacher, Education.  Sport, Education & Society 3. Dowling, Fiona & Kårhus, Svein (2011). An analysis of the ideological work of the discourse of ‘fair play’ and moral education in perpetuating inequitable gender practices in PETE. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy 2. Kirk, David, MacDonald, Doune & O’Sullivan, Mary (eds.) (2006). The Handbook of Physical Education. London: Sage Publications. Kirk, David (2010). Physical Education Futures. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Larsson, Lena (2009). Idrott- och helst lite mer idrott. Idrottslärarsudenters möte med  utbildningen.  Diss. Stockholm university. [Sport – and preferably a little more sport. P. E.  students' encounter with the education.] MacDonald, Doune, Hunter, Lisa, Carlson, Teresa & Penney, Dawn (2002). Teacher Knowledge and the Disjunction between School Curricula and Teacher Education. Asia- Pasific Journal of Teacher Education 30. Matanin, Marcia & Collier, Connie (2003). Longitudinal Analysis of Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs About Teaching Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 22. Moen, Kjersti, M. (2011). “Shaking or stirring?” A case-study of physical education teacher education in Norway. Diss. Oslo: Norges idrettshøgskole. Rossi, Tony, Sirna, Karen & Tinning, Richard (2008). Becoming a health and physical education (HPE) teacher: Student teacher ‘Performances’ in the physical education subject department office. Teacher and Teaching Education 24. Tinning, Richard (2004). Rethinking the preparation of HPE teachers: ruminations on knowledge,  identity, and ways of thinking, Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 32, nr. 3. Tinning, Richard (2012). A socially critical HPE (aka physical education) and the challenge for teacher education. In: Barry Down and John Smyth (eds.) Critical voices in teacher education: teaching for social justice in conservative times. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

  • 29.
    Linnér, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Challenging the rules of PETE and sport caches program2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Linnér, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Challenging the doxa of PETE - mission impossible?2014In: International Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) and New Zealand Association for Research in Education (NZARE), AARE/NZARE, Brisbane 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Linnér, Susanne
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Några nedslag på AARE-NZARE 20142015In: Idrottsforskaren, no 1, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    GIH.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Education: one way to recruit and retain young coaches2011In: BERA Annual Conference 2011 Program 6-8 September 2011 / [ed] Institute of Education London, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sport is a very popular recreational activity for young people in Sweden and more than 80 per cent have at some time been a member of a sports club. Without the many coaches and leaders (> 600,000), it would be impossible to run the Swedish sports movement. Despite many people being involved in leadership roles, the sports movement in Sweden continually wrestles with the issues of a shortage of leaders and how to encourage more people to become involved (Eriksson 2006). To support sporting activities for children and young people, the Swedish Parliament decided in 2007 to invest SEK 2 billion over a four-year period. This initiative was given the name Idrottslyftet and one of its goals was to recruit and retain young leaders.   Research questions, methods, and theoretical framework The aim of the study is to examine the investment made in young leaders, and the following questions are thus posed: How have the various projects been structured and what were the desired objectives? Which young leaders is the project aimed at and who is the ‘right’ kind of leader? The data consists of focus group interviews, development plans, and project descriptions for the initiatives taken to recruit leaders. Using qualitative text analysis, the texts were examined with the aim of contextualizing the actual descriptions and interview statements. The study has a cultural-sociological perspective based on Bourdieu’s theories and concepts in order to understand which types of leaders initiatives are feasible in the social context, which here constitutes the Swedish sports movement (Bourdieu 1977, 1990).   Research findings The analysis shows that investments have consisted mainly of training programmes to recruit new leaders, in which the belief in the sports movement as an educational environment has functioned as the underlying value structure of the content of the training programmes. The master–pupil relationship appears to be a given model. Young leaders and older adults are described as opposites. Males are interested in sport-specific knowledge, while females want to learn about diet and health. In conclusion, the findings indicate that within the Swedish sports movement, there is a belief that a re-examination of the traditionally prominent values is required if young people are to be recruited as leaders.

  • 33.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    GIH.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Education: One way to recruit and retain young coaches2012In: The Journal of Youth Sports, ISSN 1559-2383, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    GIH.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Ledarutbildning för redan invigda2014In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarutbildningar för unga har svårt att nå nya grupper. Många har föräldrar som idrottat och mer än 70 procent har syskon som är eller har varit tävlingsidrottare. De som går utbildingen är nöjda och har stora förväntningar på vad de ska lära sig.

  • 35.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    GIH.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Stödjande miljöer för unga ledare - vilka är de och för vem?: En studie av satsningar på rekrytering av unga ledare inom Idrottslyftets ram2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är satsningen unga ledare med målet att både rekrytera nya och att behålla unga ledare inom idrottsrörelsen som är fokus i denna studie. Det mer specifika syftet är att undersöka vilka stödjande miljöer som skapats och för vem de har skapats. Ett särskilt intresse riktas också mot ungdomars möjligheter till delaktighet och inflytande. Första delen av studien är deskriptiv och beskriver de satsningar som gjorts för unga ledare. Andra delen består av en analys utifrån några av de satsningar som inbegriper stödjande miljöer samt unga ledares villkor för inflytande och delaktighet. De mer preciserade frågeställningarna är:

    − Hur har de olika projekten utformats och vad har man velat uppnå?

    − Vilken betydelse läggs i begreppet stödjande miljö?

    − Vilka unga ledare vänder sig projekten till och vem är den "rätta" ledaren?

    − Vilka är villkoren för unga ledares möjligheter till inflytande och delaktighet?

  • 36.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    GIH.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Supportitive environments for young leaders2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENTS FOR YOUNG LEADERS

    Jane Meckbach, Lena Larsson

    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm1 , Linnaeus University2

     Introduction: Sport is a very popular recreational activity for young people in Sweden and more than 80 % have at some time been a member of a sports club. Without the many leaders (over 600,000), it would be impossible to run an organization of this size. Despite many people being involved in leadership roles, the sports movement in Sweden continually wrestles with the issues of a shortage of leaders and how to encourage more people to become involved (Eriksson, 2006). To support sporting activities for children and young people, the Swedish Parliament decided in 2007 to invest SEK 2 billion over a four-year period. This initiative was given the name Idrottslyftet and one of its goals was to recruit and retain young leaders. 

    Method: The aim of the study is to examine the investment made in young leaders, the questions are: i) How have the various projects been structured and what were the desired objectives? ii) What is meant by the term ‘a supportive environment’? iii) Which young leaders is the project aimed at and who is the ‘right’ kind of leader? The data consists of development plans and project descriptions for the initiatives taken to recruit leaders. Using qualitative text analysis, the texts were subjected to various questions with the aim of contextualizing the actual descriptions. The study has a cultural-sociological perspective based on Bourdieu’s theories and concepts for understanding which types of leaders and leadership initiatives are feasible in the social context which constitutes the Swedish sports movement. (Bourdieu, 1977, 1990). 

    Discussion: The analysis shows that investments have consisted mainly of training programmes to recruit new leaders, in which the belief in the sports movement as an educational environment has functioned as the underlying value structure of the content of the training programmes. The supportive environments are a priority, but are viewed primarily as the responsibility of each individual club. The master–pupil relationship appears to be a given model. Young leaders and older adult leaders are described as opposites. Male leaders are interested in sport-specific knowledge, while female leaders want to learn about diet and health. In conclusion, the findings indicate that within the Swedish sports movement there is a belief that a re-examination of the traditionally prominent values is required if young people are to be recruited as leaders.

    References

    Bourdieu, Pierre (1977), Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

    —— (1990), The Logic of Practise (Cambridge: Polity Press).

    Eriksson, Sten (2006), Idrottsrörelsens ideella kraft [The Voluntary Power of the Sports Movement], The National Sports Confederation.

  • 37.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    GIH.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Young Coaches and Supportive Environments2011In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, Vol. 20, no 5-6, p. 145-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport is a very popular recreational activity for young people in Sweden and more than 80 percent is member of a sports club with many leaders. To support sporting activities for children and young people, the Swedish Parliament has invest EURO 200 000 over a four-year period. This initiative was given the name Idrottslyftet and one of its goals was to recruit and retain young coaches.

     

    The aim of the study is to examine the investment made in young coaches with focus on supportive environments, the questions are: i) How have the various projects been structured and what were the desired objectives? ii) What is meant by the term ‘a supportive environment’? The data consists of development plans and project descriptions with using qualitative text analysis. The study has a cultural-sociological perspective based on Bourdieu’s theories and concepts.

     

    The analysis shows that investments have consisted mainly of training programmes to recruit new leaders. The supportive environments are a priority. The master–pupil relationship appears to be a given model. The findings indicate that there is a belief that a re-examination of the traditionally prominent values is required if young people are to be recruited as coaches.

  • 38.
    Meckbach, Jane
    et al.
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Young Coaches: Indispensable to the Swedish Sports Movement but Are They on Equal Terms?2011In: 19 th I.C.P.E.S.S, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport is a very popular activity for young people in Sweden, and without recourse to a large number of coaches (> 600,000), it would be more or less untenable. Despite many people being involved in coaching roles, the sports movement continually wrestles with the issues of a shortage of coaches and how to encourage more people to become involved. In 2007, the Swedish Parliament decided to support sporting activities for young people by investing SEK 2 billion over a four-year period. This initiative was given the name Idrottslyftet and one of its goals was to recruit and retain young coaches. The aim of the study was to investigate young coaches’ influence, participation, and conditions in the Swedish sports movement. The research questions were: (i) which young coaches have been recruited? (ii) how do they view sport and the coaching role? and (iii) what means do the young coaches have to influence and participate? The data consisted of ten focus-group interviews with a total of thirty-seven young coaches (twenty women and seventeen men). The study had a cultural-sociological perspective based on Bourdieu’s theories and concepts. The analysis shows that the young coaches have a sport habitus, which means that they have incorporated the values and norms of the sport, are familiar with the sports movement’s ‘rules’, and have sufficient sporting competence. The majority of those who have been asked to become coaches are, for some reason, no longer active sportspeople. The recruitment of young coaches is often a short-term investment. On the one hand, the coaching role appears to be an investment for the individual him- or herself and a way to give back to sport. On the other hand, the coaching role entails huge sacrifices. It is obvious that maintaining the prevailing power structure prevents the young coaches from being able to exert an influence. Without the ‘right’ symbolic capital, it is impossible for them to participate. As a young coach, you are not invited; you have to fight your way in. In conclusion, the findings indicate that within the Swedish sports movement there is a belief that a re-examination of the traditionally prominent values is required if young people are to be recruited as coaches and offered influence and participation.

  • 39.
    Redelius, Karin
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Standal, Øyvind
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Schenker, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Mordal Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Westlie, Knut
    Inland Norway University of applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Philpot, Rod
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Legge, Maureen
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    EDUHEALTH - Educating for equitable health outcomes in physical education.: Sweden, Norway and New Zealand in a Horizon 2020 project. (Symposium)2017In: Presented at ECER 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Schenker, Katarina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Linnér, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Smith, Wayne
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Mordal Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Philpot, Rod
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Legge, Maureen
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Westlie, Knut
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Conceptualising social justice – what constitutespedagogies for social justice in HPE acrossdifferent contexts?2019In: Curriculum Studies in Health and Physical Education, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 126-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the concept of social justice in Health andPhysical Education (HPE) as constituted and addressed acrossthree different countries – Sweden, Norway and New Zealand –and how HPE teaching practices for social justice may beunderstood from regulative, normative and cultural/cognitiveperspectives. Although much has been written about social justicein the field of HPE over the last three decades, there is littleresearch that has examined how teachers operationalise teachingfor social justice. Drawing on the experiences and insights gainedfrom an international collaboration project, that sought to addressthis knowledge gap, this paper examines what constitutespedagogies for social justice in HPE across different contexts. Theaim of this paper is to discuss: (i) our conceptualisation of socialjustice; and (ii) how this can be understood in relation to HPEpractice across different contexts. We conclude that what isregarded as important content for the teaching of social justicevaries from one context to another although there are also similarapproaches. Additionally, there is much to learn by seeing ‘it’, thatis, the nature of social justice and how this is played out in schoolHPE – from the ‘others’ perspectives’.

  • 41.
    Smith, Wayne
    et al.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Larsson, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Mordal-Moen, Kjersti
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Gerdin, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    EDUHEALTH - Educating for equitable health outcomes in physical education2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School HPE makes a unique contribution to the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of young people (Morgan & Burke,2008). The world summit on HPE in 1999 (Doll-Tepper & Scoretz, 2001) stated that this school subject provides the most effective meansof providing all young people, regardless of their ability, disability, sex, age, culture, race, ethnicity, religion, or social background, with theskills, attitudes, knowledge, and understanding for lifelong health and well-being. One point of departure in this EDUHEALTH project isthat the attainment of health equity goals can be accelerated when social justice and socially-critical perspectives underpin HPE teachingpractices to assist ‘students to examine and challenge the status quo, the dominant constructions of reality and the power relations thatproduce inequities, in ways that can lead to advocacy and community action’ (Wright, 2004, p. 7). New Zealand, Sweden and Norway areunique in that contemporary social justice issues foreground each countries’ HPE curricula – as introduced in the late 1990s. Calls fortertiary teacher education institutions to ensure that their graduating HPE teachers have an understanding of how socially-critical HPEmay be enacted, have led to a growing, if scattered, research base that articulates relevant practices in HPE teacher education. Yet thereis a paucity of research that documents how HPE teachers are imparting socially-critical perspectives in their schools: this paper willdiscuss how the EDUHEALTH project focuses on this critical research gap. EDUHEALTH will study HPE teachers’ practices in schoolsusing a Critical Incident Technique (CIT) inspired methodology (Tripp, 2012) to identify HPE teaching practices that clearly enact sociallycriticalperspective of physical activity and health. Data will be collected through multiple observations and interviews of HPE teachers inall three countries. This data will be analysed through a multi-phase process of inductive thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2013) withfindings validated through triangulation of multiple observer reports and by a shared analysis of data by all 15 researchers affiliated withEDUHEALTH. This paper will report on some initial findings generated as part of the pilot studies. Ultimately, the findings of thiscollaborative research project will inform the creation of teaching strategies designed to assist HPE teachers in their own contexts todevelop more inclusive teaching practices, thus, contributing to more active, healthier citizens.

1 - 41 of 41
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