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  • 1.
    Bruhn, Jørgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Lutas, LiviuLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ekphrasis. Images, Cinema, Theory, Media: Vol. 24, Issue 2/2020, The Anthropocene and Intermedial Ecocriticism2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of the journal Ekphrasis contains selected and rewritten versions of papers presented at the international conference ”Intermedial Ecocriticism: The Anthropocene: Ecological Crisis across Media and the Arts” that took place in Cluj, Romania, in August 2019. The issue covers a wide range of theoretical and methodological approaches to the intersections of intermedial studies and ecocriticism. The articles deal with a wide variety of different media types, from scientific articles and social media articulations and to blockbuster cinema, narrative literature, TV-series, Japanese manga and documentary film.

  • 2.
    Bruhn, Jørgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Intermedialitet och litteraturanalys: [ ingår i Lärportalens modul Språk-, läs- och skrivutveckling (Läslyftet), Perspektiv på litteraturundervisning, Del 4: Intermedialitet och litteraturanalys, gymnasiet ]2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna text är att presentera en metod för analys ac skönlitterära texter i gymnasieskolan, inom Skolverkets satsning på Läslyftet. Denna metod, kallad intermedial analys, tar sin utgångspunkt i hur olika medier blir synliga i skönlitteraturen. Intermediala analyser har en hel del gemensamt med intertextuella analyser, det vill säga relationer mellan olika texter, men den intermediala kan vara enklare för eleverna att ta till sig.

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  • 3.
    Bruhn, Jørgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Salmose, Niklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Schirrmacher, Beate
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Media Representation: Film, Music and Painting in Literature2022In: Intermedial Studies: An Introduction to Meaning Across Media / [ed] Jørgen Bruhn;Beate Schirrmacher, Routledge, 2022, p. 162-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Nick Hornby’s novel High Fidelity (1995), the life of the protagonist Rob revolves around records and popular music. Throughout Virginia Woolf’s novel To the Lighthouse (1927), the painter Lily Briscoe works on a portrait of her friend Mrs Ramsay. In James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922), Leopold Bloom’s thoughts, memories and associations are informed by newspaper headlines, snatches of songs, advertising slogans and poster headlines as he walks through the streets of Dublin.

    In media types such as novels, paintings, films, computer games and news articles, we encounter characters, avatars or persons that interact with pictures, musical instruments, photos, computers, record players, newspapers or television sets or go to football games. Still, how do we know that the representation of media products or mediatypes means something? Or that references to familiar media types have a symbolic value? In this chapter, we will demonstrate how the representation of media can be analysed. We will focus on narrative literature, but the analytical method is applicable to film, computer games, photography and visual art as well. In the first part of the chapter, we will explore media that are represented inside the diegetic universe.  In the second part of the chapter, we will turn to novels whose narrative structure and style remind readers of other medial experiences, such as watching a movie, looking at an image or listening to music. The effect of structural media representation is to give the impression that the literary text imitates film, music or images. It changes the experience ofreading and draws attention to aspects of literature and language that we usuallypay less attention to.

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  • 4.
    Bruhn, Jørgen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Löwe, CorinaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.Lutas, LiviuLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.Rossholm, Anna SofiaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.Salmose, NiklasLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.Tornborg, EmmaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.Almgren White, Anette
    Ekfrase: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Visuell Kultur2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Cariboni Killander, Carla
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Cinematic Ekphrasis and its Narrative Implications2013In: Emerging Vectors of Narratology: Toward Consolidation or Diversification?,Paris, 29-30 mars 2013 / [ed] John Pier, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the classical figure of ekphrasishas proved to be a very fruitful concept especially in the field of intermedialstudies. Theorists such as J. A. W. Heffernan, W. J. T. Mitchell, M. Kriegerand C. Clüver have contributed to the definition of ekphrasis, progressivelyenlarging its borders beyond the image-word relation. However, in Clüver’sdefinition of ekphrasis as the “verbalization of a real or fictitious textcomposed in a non-verbal sign system”, the focus remains on the verbal natureof the target medium. Following S. Bruhn, L. Sager Eidt and A. Pethö, we aim atquestioning this limitation by showing that the concept of ekphrasis iscritically viable even when the target is not verbal. Our examples will becases of cinematic ekphrasis, where energeiaand repurposing, two crucial aspectsof ekphrasis, both with narrative implications, are achieved by other meansthan only language. By doing this we join the post-classical narratologicaldiscourse and its increased interest in the question of narrative in non-verbalforms.

  • 6.
    Cariboni Killander, Carla
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. Lund University.
    Questioning ekphrasis by using eye-tracking technique2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the classical figure of ekphrasis has proved to be a very productive concept especially in the field of intermedial studies. Theorists such as J. A. W. Heffernan, W. J. T. Mitchell and C. Clüver have contributed to the definition of ekphrasis, progressively enlarging its borders beyond the image-word relation. However, in Clüver‖s definition of ekphrasis as the “verbalization of a real or fictitious text composed in a non-verbal sign system”, the focus remains on the verbal nature of the target medium. Following S. Bruhn, L. Sager Eidt and A. Pethő, we aim at questioning this limitation. We propose to analyse ekphrasis as a case of intermedial relation (W. Wolf) between qualified media (L. Elleström), a relation in which enargeia (the vividness of the description, according to ancient rhetoric) and repurposing (a new purpose for the source medium in the target medium) play a distinctive role. On the basis of an empirical eye-tracking test (a technique for measuring the point of gaze of the viewer), which we have conducted on informants watching a film sequence, we intend to show that the notion of ekphrasis can be applied even outside the language medium.

  • 7.
    Cariboni Killander, Carla
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Strukelj, Alexander
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A New Look on Ekphrasis: an Eye-tracking Experiment on a Cinematic Example2014In: Ekphrasis: Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, ISSN 2067-631X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 10-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking the modern definition of ekphrasis as a verbal representation of a work of art as a starting point, we try tobroaden it in this contribution. We agree with intermediality theorist Lars Elleström that ekphrasis falls into the categoryof “media representation”, defined as the representation of a source medium in a target medium. We argue that thetarget medium does not need to be a verbal one and what matters is the energeia, the vividness of the description,leading in turn to enargeia, a vivid image in the mind of the receiver. The energeia-enargeia relation is an aspect thatis often neglected in modern theoretical debates about ekphrasis. We believe that there cannot be ekphrasis without adescription making the receiver “see” the object with his/her inner eye. At the same time, following Seymour Chatmanand Werner Wolf, we argue that description is not a prerogative of the verbal medium and that even the cinematicmedium can describe, using different strategies.In the second part of this contribution, these hypotheses are tested empirically with the help of the eye-trackingtechnique. A short sequence of Christian Petzold’s film Barbara (2012), which constitutes an example of cinematicekphrasis, is shown to thirty-three participants. The evidence gathered from the recording of their eye-movementsconfirms the relevance of the energeia-enargeia relation: the eyeactivity increases at some particular points of the sequence, pointscorresponding to the descriptive activity of the camera. Ekphrasisis thus a kind of embodied experience.

  • 8.
    Chinita, Fátima
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Lutas, LiviuLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Ekphrasis. Images, Cinema, Theory, Media. Vol. 22, Issue 2/2019: Crossing Narrative Boundaries between Cinema and Other Media2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From times immemorial people have been telling stories to one another; humanity at large as well as entire civilizations have been built upon the impetus of this storytelling. First orally, later through other media and art forms, stories have spread among cultures, eras, and generations stimulating an ever-growing dissemination. Technical and technological developments have helped in this enterprise across a vast array of long-lasting and canonical art forms as well as more popular and recent ones. Film sits precisely at that intersection, which makes it a privileged form for media confluences at the service of narrative spreading. But how does this dialogue between cinema and other media and/or art forms operate? How are stories conveyed from the former to the latter, and vice versa? What, if anything, changes in that transposition, and what remains the same? How does creativity work at this border-crossing and exactly what does it entail? Urged by these questions, the current issue of Ekphrasis aims at examining the narrative phenomenon across media borders, in the confluence of other media and art forms.

  • 9.
    Chinita, Fátima
    et al.
    Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Foreword2019In: Ekphrasis: Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, ISSN 2067-631X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From times immemorial people have been telling stories to one another; humanity at large as well as entire civilizations have been built upon the impetus of this storytelling. First orally, later through other media and art forms, stories have spread among cultures, eras, and generations stimulating an ever-growing dissemination. Technical and technological developments have helped in this enterprise across a vast array of long-lasting and canonical art forms as well as more popular and recent ones. Film sits precisely at that intersection, which makes it a privileged form for media confluences at the service of narrative spreading. But how does this dialogue between cinema and other media and/or art forms operate? How are stories conveyed from the former to the latter, and vice versa? What, if anything, changes in that transposition, and what remains the same? How does creativity work at this border-crossing and exactly what does it entail? Urged by these questions, the current issue of Ekphrasis aims at examining the narrative phenomenon across media borders, in the confluence of other media and art forms.

  • 10.
    Egerland, Verner
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Forsberg Lundell, Fanny
    Stockholm University.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Sundell, Lars-Göran
    Uppsala University.
    Romanska språk som akademisk disciplin2017In: Romanska språk i Sverige - tradition och förnyelse, 20-21 april 2017, Göteborgs universitet, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gobyn, Saartje
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Lutas, Liviu
    University of Lund.
    Metalepsis Out of Bounds2013In: Enthymema, E-ISSN 2037-2426, no 9, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a review of the panel “Metalepsis out of Bounds” presented at the 2013 ENN conference. The three convenors proposed complementary remarks to the extent that they either questioned the conceptualization, examined the functioning of metalepsis or applied theoretical models to textual material. Beside an in depth reflection upon the concept, broader questions concerning narrative and popular assumptions of narratology arose.

  • 12.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    A Three-Fold Adaptation: the Old Testament in Peter Greenaway’s Film Goltzius and the Pelican Company2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will try to analyze some of the implications of the adaptation of the stories of the Old Testament to two other media in Peter Greenaway’s latest film: Goltzius and the Pelican Company. Indeed, the film as a medium incorporates the dramatization of these stories made by the company of Hendrik Goltzius, a 16th century Dutch printer and engraver of erotic prints. The adaptation is thus achieved in two steps. The first step is from text – the Bible – to the stage adaptation, a process which can be compared to a form of remediation which is close to the figure of ekphrasis. But this form of ekphrasis would work in the opposite direction compared to what could be called “classical ekphra-sis”, defined for instance by Claus Clüver as “the verbalization of real or fictitious texts composed in non-verbal sign systems”. The second step is the filming of these dramatized scenes, a process which Greenaway uses in a self-reflexive way which raises many interesting questions as to the effects of each medium on the audience and on how the audience perceives the stories. A striking fact is that the original medium – i.e. the written text, both as basic and qualified medium according to Lars Elle-ström’s model – is not completely absent in the film.

  • 13.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Adaptation as a Means of Reflecting upon Immersivity and Self-Referentiality2013In: Ekphrasis: Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, ISSN 2067-631X, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 110-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I apply parts of the method introduced by Linda Hutcheon in her recently reedited book A Theory of Adaptation (2010) and try to answer the question “why” an adaptation is made. I particularly study three complex cases of adaptation, which might even put into question the canonical definition of adaptation itself, but I concentrate on aspects related to immersion and self-referentiality. All these examples, which are Jasper Fforde’s novel The Eyre Affair (2001), Abdellatif Kechiche’s film Black Venus (Vénus noire, 2010) and Peter Greenaway’s film Goltzius and the Pelican Company (2012), address the above mentioned aspects in interesting and ingenious manners. In Fforde’s novel, the shift of genres permits a narratively advanced game with the reader’s possible immersion in the world of fiction, challenging and broadening thus theories of reader’s involvement or immersivity. In Black Venus and Goltzius and the Pelican Company, the shift of media and the residual presence of the source medium in the adapting medium offers the possibility of accomplishing subtler, but quite as daring games with the immersivity and self-referentiality of the source text as in The Eyre Affair. In Kechiche’s film, the reaction of the audience is presented. In Goltzius and the Pelican Company there is one more level, which permits self-referential reflections on the adapted product itself and on the act of its reception. However, despite the differences between them, all these three examples illustrate the possibility to include theoretical reflections in artistic works, dissolving thus the difference between theory and practice (cf. Kamilla Elliot).

  • 14.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Animation and Live Action: an Intermedial Encounter and its Implications2015In: Narrative 2015, 5-8 March, Swissôtel Chicago, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will analyze the encounter between animated sequences and live action sequences in movies such as Ari Folman’s Waltz with Bashir (2008) and Jean-François Laguionie’s Le Tableau (2011). Such an intermedial encounter has important narrative implications. For example, by being presented in as a metalepsis in Le Tableau, it raises interesting questions about the creative process and about the relation between fiction and reality. In Waltz with Bashir, it is used as a way to represent a traumatic event from the past.

  • 15.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Aspects intermédiaux dans l'oeuvre de Patrick Chamoiseau2014In: Patrick Chamoiseau, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    L'intermédialité est un axe de recherche très dynamique aujourd'hui. Surtout le postulat de W.J.T. Mitchell (1994), selon lequel la notion d’un médium pur est une aberration puisque tous les médias sont des mélanges de différents médias et tous les arts sont composés, a ouvert la voie à la possibilité d'analyser les œuvres littéraires d’un nouveau point de vue. Un texte littéraire peut par exemple activer, de différentes manières, plusieurs modes cognitifs. Des théoriciens comme Hans Lund, Claus Clüver et Werner Wolf ont essayé de montrer comment cela peut se faire. Le modèle de Wolf (2002) est particulièrement intéressant, étant donnée sa prétention d'établir une typologie des relations intermédiales. L'imitation, la thématisation, la fusion et la combinaison sont les quatre relations possibles entre les médias d’un point de vue intracompositionnel, selon Wolf. Or, bien que le modèle de Wolf soit innovateur et extrêmement utile pour les analyses intermédiales, il n'arrive pas à totalement dépasser la perception essentialiste des médias comme des entités homogènes et pures. C'est peut-être en complétant le modèle de Wolf avec des études sur l'iconicité, comme celles de Winfried Nöth, (2001) ou de Lars Elleström (2010), que l'on peut arriver à comprendre comment les différents modes cognitifs peuvent contribuer à créer du sens dans un ouvrage littéraire.

    L’œuvre de Patrick Chamoiseau est illustrative d’un point de vue intermédial. En effet, déjà ses premières publications ont été acclamées pour l'oralité de leur style. Or l'oralité de l'écriture est justement un des détails qui peuvent être abordés sous l'angle de l'intermédialité, puisque l’écriture et la langue parlée renvoient justement á des modes cognitifs différents. Il y a cependant aussi des relations entre l’écriture chamoisienne et les arts visuels. Bien que moins étudiées que l’oralité, de telles relations sont omniprésentes dans l’œuvre chamoisienne. Non seulement a-t-il écrit des bandes dessinées et des scénarios de films, mais les romans eux-mêmes ont un style qui pourrait être considéré visuel. Nous analyserons, par conséquent, si la typologie de Werner Wolf peut être utilisée pour jeter une nouvelle lumière sur l'oralité et sur la visualité dans l'œuvre de Chamoiseau, surtout dans les cas des romans Solibo Magnifique, Texaco (1992), Biblique des derniers gestes (2002) et L’empreinte à Crusoé. Ceci dit, nous tâcherons de montrer comment les aspects intermédiaux contribuent à l'un des projets que se propose Chamoiseau dans son œuvre littéraire : celui de donner une vision intérieure de l’identité antillaise et de l'Histoire de la Martinique.

  • 16.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Biblique des derniers gestes de Patrick Chamoiseau: Fantastique et Histoire2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Patrick Chamoiseau is arguably the most prominent cultural personality from the French island of Martinique. His reputation is due to the worldwide success of his novels, especially Texaco, winner of the Prix Goncourt-award in 1992, but also to the fact that he is the leading theorist of the Créolité, an ideological movement whose aim is to preserve the character of Creole identity and culture against the threat of assimilation. Chamoiseau’s importance in an ideological context tends to overshadow his literary qualities, his novels being often seen as illustrations of his political ideas.Although Chamoiseau’s ideological views aren’t totally absent from his literary work, his novels strike the reader as extremely complex constructions, containing far more than a subversive aspect. An aspect that has been neglected by the critics is for example the supernatural. Probably because of the geographic vicinity to South America, Chamoiseau’s use of the supernatural has been, rather hastily, considered as typical of magical realism or marvellous realism. This dissertation aims at showing that the fantastic, as defined by Tzvetan Todorov (1970), is better suited to describe this aspect of Chamoiseau’s novels, especially Biblique des derniers gestes (2002).Our main objective is, however, not to decide whether the novel belongs to the fantastic as a genre, but to examine the reasons why it is used. A close analysis shows that it is often in relation to the past of Martinique that the supernatural appears. Thanks to the theory of the fantastic, we find three possible explanations of this fact. Firstly, the supernatural is juxtaposed to the real in order to reveal its limits and its “constructedness”. Martinican past thus appears as a French construction. Secondly, the fantastic can be used to reveal the absence of genuine Martinican history. Finally, the fantastic can be a reminder of a terrible event from the past. In conclusion it can be said that Chamoiseau uses the fantastic in order to write the history of an event that he sees as the origin of Martinique: slavery. By doing this he contributes to the fantastic as well, by showing that it is not necessarily gratuitous and by providing a good example of original and innovative use.

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    Liviu Lutas - Avhandling. Biblique des derniers gestes: fantastique et Histoire
  • 17.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Breaking the Bodily Limits of the Enunciator: Metalepsis in Jersild, Ndiaye and Ramuz2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Ceaușescu och litteraturen: Mellan antisovjetism och personkult2012In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 385-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this article is to examine what role literature played for Nicolae Ceaușescu, Romania's political leader between 1965 and 1989. I focus on the period between 1968 and 1974, when the basis was laid for a cultural policy which was to be applied until the end of Ceaușescu's reign in 1989. Such studies are easier to conduct today, when the archives of the Romanian Communist Party have been opened, and the protocols of Ceaușescu's meetings with Romanian writers after his so called "Little Cultural Revolution" in 1971 have been published. What is especially salient is that Ceaușescu saw literature, especially formalistically experimental literature, as a potential danger for his project of ideological repression of Romanian citizens. He also used literature and art in general in his struggle for independence from the Soviet Union and emancipation of Romanian identity. The results of Ceaușescu's ideological turn in cultural policy were not at all positive for Romanian literature

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    Ceausescu och litteraturen
  • 19.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Children’s Films as Transmediations of the Anthropocene2016In: Transmediatons! Communications across Media Borders: Abstracts. Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden, October 13-15, 2016, Linnaeus University , 2016, p. 72-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As has been stated (Gaard 2009 and 2011), children’s literature and films have “tremendous potential for communicating messages about ecosocial justice, community empowerment, and strategies for ecodefence” (Gaard 2011:47). But, Gaard claims, this potential is not really used as it could. The examples she chooses to illustrate this failure are, among other, two recent American children’s films where the Anthropocene has a major role: Happy Feet (2006) and Wall-E (2008). Gaard finds, in her criticism, that both these films typically follow a certain traditional narrative trajectory “of heterosexual romance” in order to tell stories about the consequences of global warming. Typically too, claims Gaard, there is a happy ending, and a naïve trust in technical progress and a naïve belief that “simply learning the facts about environmental devastation is sufficient to inspire action” (Gaard 2011:48). As in adult American (Hollywood) films, Gaard concludes, it is apparent that fiction does not keep the pace with the developments in science and politics about the Anthropocene. In this paper, I will have a second look at one of the films discussed by Gaard, namely Wall-E, in order to see how the discourse on the Anthropocene is transmediated and used. I will compare this to another children’s film, also animated, but from a totally different cultural context: Hayao Miyazaki’s Ponyo (2008), from Japanese Studio Ghibli. I will especially concentrate on the narrative structure to see if the happy ending, the naïve trust in technical progress and the traditional heterosexual romance are at work in the same ways. Finally, I will compare these films with a more scientific publication for children: the Geological Society’s resources pack on the Anthropocene.

  • 20.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Collaborating over the Frontiers: Reflections on a French Course Given in Collaboration between Schools in Sweden and France2016In: ICERI2016 Proceedings: 9th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. Seville, 14th, 15th and 16th of November, 2016, Seville: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2016, p. 6192-6200, article id 408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I describe a French course at the first level at a Swedish university, i.e. the level directly after at least one year of French studies in upper secondary school, which corresponds to level A 2.2 in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The course is given in collaboration between Linnaeus University in Sweden and a language school in Nice, France. The Swedish students study on campus in Nice, but follow the Swedish syllabus, and the teachers from Sweden are mainly involved in online teaching activities, but have the main responsibility for the assessment and the final grades. It is a situation which creates very specific pedagogical challenges which I here try to analyse on the basis of the didactic triangle (Kugel 1993, Hopman 1997).

    I thus analyse the three possible relationships between teacher, content and student, and in the process I try to identify those aspects which are especially important for this kind of course. Such aspects can for instance be the combination campus teaching/online teaching (“blended learning” according to Ellins et al 2007), informal learning, the students’ contact time with the foreign language, the collaboration between teachers coming from different teaching cultures, the different perspectives on education and general knowledge, the different views on  subject knowledge, etc.

    On the basis of these analyses, I eventually present some suggestions for constructive alignment between the course’s learning objectives, the teaching and learning activities and the feedback and assessment methods (Biggs 2012, Elmgren & Henriksson, 2010). 

    The main goal of this paper is not only to show an example of a successful collaboration between teachers from different countries, but also to reflect on possible improvements of this course, on the basis of recent research conducted in the fields of general didactics and language didactics.

  • 21.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Dos ejemplos de metalepsis narrativas: Niebla de Miguel de Unamuno y Biblique des derniers gestes de Patrick Chamoiseau2009In: Moderna Språk, E-ISSN 2000-3560, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 39-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a study of the metalepsis in two different contexts: Unamuno's novel "Fog", published in Spain at the beginning of the 20th century, and Chamoiseau's novel "Biblique des derniers gestes", published in France in the 21st century. The study shows how the use of narrative metalepsis has changed during the period of one hundred years that separates the novels, but also some surprising parallels.

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    Liviu Lutas - Dos ejemplos de metalepsis
  • 22.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Fantastique contemporain aux Antilles: L’exemple de Patrick Chamoiseau2004In: IRIS / Les cahiers du Gerf, ISSN 0769-0681, no 26, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a chapter in a volume whose aim is to study the fantastic in literature from different parts of the French speaking world. My contribution deals with the case of Patrick Chamoiseau as an example of the modern use of the fantastic in Carribean literature.

  • 23.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fantastique et Histoire chez Patrick Chamoiseau2005In: XVIe Congrès des Romanistes Scandinaves, Institut for Sprog og Kultur, Roskilde, augusti 2005 / [ed] M. Olsen and E.H. Swiatek, Roskilde: Institut for Sprog og Kultur, Roskilde , 2005, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I study how the fantastic can be used in novels that pretend to be historical. The case of the French Indies, as in the works of Patrick Chamoiseau, is a good example of how the fantastic can help when discovering a past that has been forgotten or repressed.

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    fulltext
  • 24.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Friends or Foes – Representations of the Relationship between Man and Nature in Three Different Media Types: Literature, Live Action Film and Animated Film2020In: Ekphrasis: Images, Cinema, Theory, Media, ISSN 2067-631X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 243-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of nature and its relationship to man is crucial in ecocriticism, and has been much debated during the whole existence of the field. In an overview of the short history of ecocriticism, Lawrence Buell (2011) shows how the view on nature has developed since the beginning of ecocriticism in the early 1990s. During this period, nature has been seen as both friend and foe to man, it has been considered as a place for retreat for the individual but also the subject of human reshaping. It has evolved from the wilderness of thinly populated remote areas that have to be preserved to urban and industrial landscapes which have to be adapted to man. It has been seen as a counterpart of man, but also as an integral part of man. In extreme views, it has even been suggested that nature as a concept is irrelevant. Timothy Morton argues for instance that the term “nature” is so polyvalent and baggage-ridden a term that it should be banished from the lexicon. In this paper, I will analyze three different views on the relationship between man and nature in three different media types. All the cases are dramatic representations of this complicated relationship. The first cases, representing the media type of literature, are also the earliest ones, and consist of two works by Swiss author Charles Ferdinand Ramuz: his novel La grande peur dans la montagne (Terror on the Mountain) from 1927 and his short story “Scène dans la forêt” from 1945. In these examples, nature appears as a God who punishes man for his attempts to tame it. The second example is much more recent, and comes from the media type of live action film. It is the Icelandic film Woman at War, directed by Benedikt Erlingsson in 2018, a film in which nature and man also have a conflictual relationship, but nature is not the vindictive God who punishes man. On the contrary, nature appears at beautiful, but fragile, and in need for help. Finally, the animated film Wall-E, by Andrew Stanton in 2008, shows nature as humanity’s last chance. Without nature, man goes inevitably towards extinction. At the same time, through a formal device, nature appears as indestructible despite its fragility. Formal devices, in particular concerning narration, will be at the center of my interest, so narratology will be the main analytical tool. Besides narratology, the field of intermediality will inform my analytical approach, not only because the three examples come from three different media types, but since narration itself will be addressed as an intermedial feature

  • 25.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Inbjuden talare i rundabordssamtal2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Intermediality in French Literature from the West Indies – The Example of Patrick Chamoiseau2015In: Concurrences in postcolonial research – perspectives, methodologies, engagements, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, August 20-23 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Intermediality in the Weird Wave in Greek Cinema2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greek cinema has appeared to be very innovative, especially from a formal point of view, these last five years. Directors like Yorgos Lanthimos (Dogtooth, 2009 and Alps, 2011), Athina Rachel Tsangari (Attenberg, 2010), Panos Koutras (Xenia, 2013), Yanis Economides (Knifer, 2010), Thanos Anastopoulos (The Daughter, 2012), Alexander Avranas (Miss Violence, 2014) and Penny Panayotopoulou (September, 2013) have defied the financial crisis in Greece and made a number of films that made critics from around the world talk about a new wave in Greek cinema. In August 2011, in the Guardian, Steve Rose baptized this phenomenon “the Greek Weird Wave”, and even a newspaper as The Economist acknowledged the originality of this generation of Greek filmmakers, who deal with “the link between the banal and the grotesque, and do so with shared trademarks: awkward dialogue, heightened background noise, sudden violence and emotional breakdown” (The Economist, December 6, 2011).

    Several critics feel that these movies have an allegorical dimension, but do not always succeed in showing how this dimension appears in these films which have a rather complex cinematic language. I argue that an innovative use of intermediality is one of the ways to allude to the financial and social crisis in an indirect, poetic manner. By representing other media in ambiguous situations, these directors add a different level, which can be interpreted in interesting ways, among which one is allegorical, as we shall see in the examples I choose to analyse: Dogtooth, Alps, Attenberg and Xenia. However, it must be pointed out that the allegorical dimension does not become dominant in these films. The films are not principally documents over the financial crisis that hit Greece in 2008 and still has the country in its grips, but rather interesting and innovative examples of the use of “media representation”, according to the concept used by intermediality theorist Lars Elleström.

  • 28.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    La actualidad del cuento "El café" cincuenta años después: Un punto de vista intermedial2015In: Homenaje a Juan García Ponce: Imagen primera y La noche cincuenta años después / [ed] Magda Díaz y Morales, Veracruz: Universidad de Veracruz , 2015, p. 61-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    El presente artículo constituye en primer lugar una perspectiva extranjera sobre los cuentos iniciales de Juan García Ponce, más exactamente una perspectiva escandinava debido a mi origen sueco. En segundo lugar hay aquí una perspectiva desde un campo teórico de importancia cada vez más grande en los estudios literarios actuales: la intermedialidad.

  • 29.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    La metalepsis narrativa – consideraciones alrededor de las clasificaciones2013In: Tercer congreso internacional de investigaciones literarias,19-21 juni 2013, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mexiko / [ed] Magda Díaz y Morales, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Según la primera definición propuesta en el año 1972 por el teórico literario francés Gérard Genette, la metalepsis es el traspaso de la frontera entre el nivel diegético del narrador y la diegesis, es decir el mundo narrado por el narrador. Ya en las primeras tres páginas dedicadas a esta figura narrativa, Genette habla de la posibilidad que existan varios tipos de metalepsis.  Menciona por ejemplo la “la metalepsis de autor”, las metalepsis “triviales e inocentes” de la retórica clásica, las metalepsis “más literales”, o más atrevidas, del escritor inglés Laurence Sterne, y también los dos tipos de metalepsis según la dirección de la intrusión: si el universo diegético hace intrusión en el universo extradiegético, o inversamente. En el mismo libro, Genette menciona una eventual transmedialidad del concepto, cuando habla de “personajes escapados de un cuadro, de un libro, de un recuerdo de prensa, de una fotografía” y también del medio cinematográfico.

     

    El concepto de la metalepsis no tuvo el mismo éxito que otros términos creados por el narratólogo  francés en los primeros años después de la publicación de su Figuras III.  Sin embargo, los numerosos estudios anglosajones sobre la metaficción  publicados en los años 1990 han despertado un nuevo interés por la metalepsis. Un gran nombre de publicaciones y conferencias han sido dedicadas al concepto en los diez últimos años. 

     

    Muchos de estos estudios intentan establecer una taxonomía de las metalepsis. Es por ejemplo el caso de algunos de los artículos del volumen Métalepses. Entorses au pacte de la représentation, publicado por J. Pier y J-M Schaeffer en 2005, del volumen La narración paradójica, Normas narrativas y el principio de la transgresión publicado por N. Grabe, S. Lang y K. Meyer-Minneman en 2006, y de unos artículos de S. Klimek (2009 y 2011).

     

    En esta conferencia voy a profundizar en algunos detalles de estas taxonomías. Desde un punto de vista intermedial, es decir utilizando varios medios, voy a analizar la posibilidad de distinguir entre metalepsis retóricas (o discursivas) y ontológicas (D. Cohn y M. Fludernik), metalepsis vertical y horizontal (S. Lang y S. Klimek), y también la distinción entre procedimientos de anulación y de transgresión de límites (S. Lang y K. Meyer-Minneman).

  • 30.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    La syllepse narrative vue dans une perspective didactique2012In: Actes du XVIIIe congrès des romanistes scandinaves / Actas del XVIII congreso de romanistas escandinavos / [ed] Eva Ahlstedt, Ken Benson, Elisabeth Bladh, Ingmar Söhrman, Ulla Åkerström, Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 2012, p. 494-502Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These papers were originally presented at the XVIIIe conference on Romance language research in Scandinavia that took place at the University of Gothenburg August 9–12, 2011, bringing together researchers from Danish, Finnish, Icelandic, Norwegian, Baltic, and Swedish universities. The subjects approached cover a broad range of areas within linguistics, translation studies, literary studies and didactics. The following specialists were invited as key-note speakers: Manuel Alberca, Philippe Gasparini, Zlatka Guentchéva, and Martin Maiden.

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    fulltext
  • 31.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    L’emploi de l’iconicité dans les œuvres de Juan García Ponce et de Marie Ndiaye2017In: 20th Nordic Romanist Conference : Book of Abstracts: ROM17, University of Bergen, Department of Foreign Languages, August 15-18, 2017, University of Bergen, 2017, p. 72-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Dans cette communication, je me propose d’investiguer, d’un point de vue des relations intermédiales, comment les ouvrages narratifs peuvent produire du sens en exploitant le rapport entre forme et sens. Plus précisément, j’emploie les théories de l’intermédialité et notamment de l’iconicité dans l’analyse de deux ouvrages narratifs : le premier récit du roman Trois femmes puissantes de l’écrivaine française Marie Ndiaye, publié en 2009, et la nouvelle El café, publié en 1963 par l’écrivain mexicain Gabriel García Ponce. J’analyse notamment la manière dont ces ouvrages imitent des peintures. Ce genre d’imitation, appelée “imitation intermédiale” par le théoricien allemand Werner Wolf, a lieu lorsque les signifiants d’un ouvrage et/ou sa structure sont affectés par le médium non dominant, puisqu’ils semblent imiter ses caractéristiques et sa structure (Wolf, 2002:25). Selon le sémioticien Winfried Nöth, de telles relations peuvent être classifiées comme des cas typiques d’iconicité, dans lesquels la forme d’un médium imite la forme d’un autre médium, ou “form miming form” avec les mots de Nöth (2001:18). Le théoricien suédois Lars Elleström propose que l’iconicité contienne aussi les cas lorsque le sens ou la forme imitent le sens ou la forme, un sujet controversé dans les études de l’iconicité. Pourtant, l’hypothèse d’Elleström semble valide dans les ouvrages que j’étudie ici.

    Il faut aussi mentionner que les imitations intermédiales étudiées dans mes exemples concernent des récits écrits qui imitent des peintures à un niveau général. De tels cas peuvent être étudiés comme des cas de model ekphrasis, selon la classification faite par Tamar Yacobi. Dans le cas de Ndiaye, la forme visuelle de l’écriture, ou la mise en page, ressemble au cadre d’un tableau, sans que ce soit un tableau spécifique. Le fait même de suggérer un cadre souligne l‘existence d’un autre type de cadre dans ce récit, un cadre entre les niveaux narratifs.  L’écriture de García Ponce a aussi des traits picturaux, mais ce qui est imité à un certain moment est un tableau spécifique, comme dans ce que Yacobi appelle one-to-one ekphrasis : plus précisément le tableau Nighthawks d’Edward Hopper. Ma conclusion est que bien que le tableau de Hopper ne soit pas mentionné explicitement dans la nouvelle, la découverte de sa présence palimpsestique contribue à une lecture plus intéressante, grâce au sens que cela ajoute à l’histoire.

  • 32.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Les technologies de l’information et de la communication dans l’enseignement de la littérature: l’exemple d’un lycée suédois2012In: Meridian Critic, ISSN 2069-6787, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 75-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I will explore the dynamics of the relation between literature and technology by concentrating on the didactics of literature. Indeed, teaching literature must take into account the latest technological developments and the new media forms, especially since the pupils are supposed to get acquainted with these in order to be active participants in the public life of today’s information society. I will consequently describe an experiment implemented in a class of Swedish pupils at upper secondary level. They worked in small groups with an ICT facility which was used to present French speaking writers from outside continental France. This teaching method gave the pupils the opportunity to be not only passive consumers, but active producers of knowledge, something that contributed to enhancing their creative and collaborative competences.

  • 33.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    L'intermédialité comme méthode d'analyse textuelle: L'exemple de Patrick Chamoiseau2018In: Orbis Litterarum, ISSN 0105-7510, E-ISSN 1600-0730, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 80-100, article id OLI12163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Cet article a deux objectifs. Pour commencer, nous présentons lathéorie intermédiale actuelle telle qu’elle s’est établie principalement dans la recherche allemande et suédoise, par exemple dans les travaux de Werner Wolf et de Lars Elleström. Ensuite, nous appliquons cette théorie sur l’oeuvre de l’écrivain martiniquais contemporain Patrick Chamoiseau. Dans une première étape, nous abordons plusieurs aspects intermédiaux de cette oeuvre d’une perspective générale, avant de nous lancer dans une analyse textuelle de quelques extraits de trois romans –Biblique des derniers gestes (2002), Solibo Magnifique (1988) et L’empreinte à Crusoé (2012) – où l’intermédialité est mise en oeuvre de manière particulièrement intéressante. Notre parcours montre non seulement que Chamoiseau est actif dans plusieurs médias, mais que son écriture est hautement intermédiale. Il traite le médium de l’écriture de manière flexible et ouverte, non pas comme une entité essentialiste et stable. Notre conclusion est que l’originalité de l’oeuvre chamoisienne peut mettre à l’épreuve la théorie de l’intermédialité de manière constructive, sans pour autant l’invalider.

  • 34.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Literary Theory in Swedish Upper Secondary School: Classroom Examples2011In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, Madrid: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development , 2011, p. 5533-5542Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I challenge the opinion that literary theory should not be taught at upper secondary level. According to French literary theorist Tzvetan Todorov, the teacher at this level should aim at teaching literary works, not theory. Theory should only be used as an invisible instrument. My hypothesis is that literary theory can be used successfully at upper secondary level. A certain insight in theory can help the pupils become better readers. A possible way to do this is by using an inductive approach, that is starting with examples from literary works and get to the theory instead of the other way.

  • 35.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Literatura y pintura. Un ejemplo de análisis intermedial: [Literature and painting. An example of intermedial analysis]2021In: Bellaterra Journal of Teaching & Learning Language & Literature, ISSN 2013-6196, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-16, article id 942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literary works have more or less evident links to works from other media, especial from artistic media such as painting, music or architecture. These kinds of links are nowadays studied in the field of intermediality, a science in which there are no hierarchical relations among arts. This article is an example of applying intermedial theory, as illustrated by names such as Lars Elleström, Werner Wolf, Winfried Nöth and Hans Lund, on a literary work which has interesting links to a work of painting. The intermedial perspective can contribute, according to our analysis, to a better understanding of an original and complex literary work.

  • 36.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Literature, ICT and Globalization: Using Glogster in Teaching Francophone Literature2011In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation, International Association for Technology, Education and Development(IATED), Madrid, Madrid: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development , 2011, p. 5523-5532Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I describe an example of how ICT (Information and communication technologies) can be used in teaching literature at upper secondary level in Sweden in a way that lets the pupils become more active producers of knowledge in a flexible learning environment and promotes a globalized view of literature, especially of French literature, which goes beyond the nation’s borders.

  • 37.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Media Transformation in Recent British Cinema: Biblical Motifs in Peter Greenaway’s Goltzius and the Pelican Company and Shane Meadows’s Dead Man’s Shoes2018In: Symbiotic Cinema: Confluences between Film and Other Media, Växjö: Linnaeus University , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent British cinema has produced films stretching from heritage films to kitchen sink realism. The main differences between these poles lies in the classes described – bourgeoisie and aristocracy in heritage films vs. working class in kitchen sink realism -, and in the mise en scène  – high-quality visual production values for heritage films vs. the simplicity, banality and avoidance of carefully constructed plots or settings for kitchen sink realism. In this paper, I will analyze two films, one from each one of these two categories: Peter Greenaway’s Goltzius and the Pelican Company (2012), representing the heritage tradition, and Shane Meadows’s Dead Man’s Shoes (2004), representing kitchen sink realism. None of the films could be considered as ideal examples of their class though. Greenaway’s film describes an older period than usually do heritage films (the sixteenth century), and does it in ways that combines naturalistic and extremely lavish settings. It can be seen as an example of what Claire Monk (2002) calls ‘post-heritage films’, that is films which adopt a less naturalistic, even anachronistic approach to screening narratives set in the past. Meadows’s film is basically social-realistic, but has a twist which elevates it to a mythical level which is far from typical of kitchen sink realism. One of the things which complicate, in both cases, the classification is the use of biblical motifs. Consequently, I will analyze the use of these based on Lars Elleström’s model of media transformation (2014). A close look on whether certain scenes are to be considered as cases of media transformation or transmediation (Elleström 2014) shows that Greenaway’s film deconstructs the religious motif, whereas Meadows’s film, on the contrary, constructs it in unexpected and subtle ways. In both cases, however, different intermedial strategies are used in sophisticated ways in relation to religious motifs, something that deserves a closer analysis.

  • 38.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Metalepsis and History: The Example of Three Francophone Writers2013In: The 3rd ENN Conference, EmergingVectors of Narratology: Toward Consolidation orDiversification?, Paris,29-30 mars 2013 / [ed] John Pier, 2013, p. 59-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will analyze the way in which a narrative figure as metalepsis is used in three Francophone works of fiction dealing with the past. Indeed, it could seem inappropriate  to use a device classified under the label of "paradoxical narration" by some theorists (K. Meyer-Minnemann, S. Lang, N. Grabe) when dealing with history. However, the frame-breaking nature of metalepsis (cf. Debra Malina) allows for the possibility of bringing together two different worlds, something that can be highly relevant when representing the past.

    In the three works chosen, written by C. F. Ramuz, Patrick Chamoiseau and Marie Ndiaye, narrative metalepsis is used in complex ways in order to enact the fusion of different consciences and thereby of different time periods. The metalepses in the three works are interesting to study also when it comes to the narrative boundaries which are crossed and the direction of the crossing (ascendant, descendant or horizontal, cf. G. Prince, S. Klimek, S. Rabau), since these are aspects that can have important impact on the representation (or sometimes non-representation) of the past. Moreover, the three works constitute examples of both different genres and different attitudes towards the past, only one of them (Chamoiseau) aiming at historiography.   

  • 39.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Metalepsis and its effects on the recipient2015In: Modelling Narrative Across Borders”, 4th Conference of the European Narratology Network, Ghent 14-16 April 2015, 2015, p. 49-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Already from the start, narrative metalepsis has been associated with its effects. According to Gérard Genette’s first definition from 1972, it “produces an effect of strangeness that is either comical […] or fantastic”. Eleven years later, Genette added the possibility of an aesthetic effect: Metalepsis, he said, can produce ”an effect of “humor” or of “the fantastic” or “some mixture of the two […], unless it functions as a figure of the creative imagination”.

    Later research on metalepsis (Ryan, Wagner, Malina) has taken up the aesthetic aspect, arguing that metalepsis has an anti-immersive effect, thanks to its “potential for self-reference and thus for laying bare the fictionality of the work in which it appears” (Pier). But what is interesting is that this “laying bare” of the creative process is neither always anti-immersive, nor necessarily separated from the other effects mentioned by Genette. I will study some examples in which the self-reflexive dimension is related to “the fantastic effect” (or rather what Rita Felski would call shock as a mode of textual engagement), or to the “comical” effect on a recipient. I will concentrate on the represented effects (that is the reactions of the characters inside the diegesis), but I will briefly mention the possibilities to study the effects on empirical recipients.

  • 40.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Metalepsis and Participation in Games of Make-Believe2012In: Howto Make Believe. The Fictional Truths of the Representational Arts, iLund, Språk- och litteraturcentrum, 15 mars – 17 mars 2012 / [ed] Alexander Bareis, Lene Nordrum, Lund, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I will concentrate on how a device as the narrative metalepsis affects the participation in what Kendal Walton calls the games of make-believe. According to Walton, ”viewers of paintings and films, spectators of plays, readers of novels […] participate in the games in which these works are props much as children participate in games” (p. 213). This means that readers and spectators of works of art participate in the worlds of these works in a way that is analogous to how children participate in their games: “Children are almost invariably characters in their games of make-believe”, says Walton (p. 209). Hence the importance of participation in the activities of reception of representational works of art. But Walton is aware that there is another possible reaction to works of art, which he calls “appreciation”. Appreciation is a more distanced, or reflexive, attitude. Appreciation usually involves participation, but this is not always the case. According to Walton, especially the participation of the kind “being caught up in story” (p. 275) is discouraged for instance by works “declaring or displaying their fictionality” (ibid).

    Metalepsis would count as a device that breaks the fictional illusion, since it emphasises the boundary between the world of representation and the represented world, according to the definition coined by Gérard Genette. However, it might be argued that metalepsis does not always have an anti-illusionist effect (Wolf, Klimek). In this paper, I will focus on a couple of examples where metalepsis can even be argued to have an illusionist effect. The examples will be taken from different media, something that illustrates Walton’s intermedial view of fictionality. I will thus start with three cases, in painting, children’s literature and detective fiction, where the metalepses clearly encourage participation. I will then analyze two recent films where the use of metalepsis is more complex, especially when it comes to its relation to participation.

  • 41.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Metalepsis and Participation in Games of Make-Believe2015In: How to Make Believe: The Fictional Truths of the Representational Arts / [ed] J. Alexander Bareis, Lene Nordrum, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2015, p. 203-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I concentrate on how a device as the narrative metalepsis affects the participation in what Kendal Walton calls the games of make-believe. According to Walton, ”viewers of paintings and films, spectators of plays, readers of novels […] participate in the games in which these works are props much as children participate in games” (p. 213). This means that readers and spectators of works of art participate in the worlds of these works in a way that is analogous to how children participate in their games: “Children are almost invariably characters in their games of make-believe”, says Walton (p. 209). Hence the importance of participation in the activities of reception of representational works of art. But Walton is aware that there is another possible reaction to works of art, which he calls “appreciation”. Appreciation is a more distanced, or reflexive, attitude. Appreciation usually involves participation, but this is not always the case. According to Walton, especially the participation of the kind “being caught up in story” (p. 275) is discouraged for instance by works “declaring or displaying their fictionality” (ibid).

    Metalepsis would count as a device that breaks the fictional illusion, since it emphasises the boundary between the world of representation and the represented world, according to the definition coined by Gérard Genette. However, it might be argued that metalepsis does not always have an anti-illusionist effect (Wolf, Klimek). In this paper, I will focus on a couple of examples where metalepsis can even be argued to have an illusionist effect. The examples will be taken from different media, something that illustrates Walton’s transmedial view of fictionality. I will thus analyse examples of paintings, detective fiction, where the metalepses seem to encourage participation. I will then analyze two recent films where the use of metalepsis is more complex, especially when it comes to its relation to participation.

  • 42.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Metalepsis and the Past in Fiction: A Study Based on Francophone Literature2015In: Metacritic journal for comparative studies and theory, ISSN 2457-8827, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 13-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to challenge the view that narrative metalepsis is incompatible with the writing about the past and history. I study three works by francophone writers in which metalepsis and another similar narrative device, syllepsis, are used in interesting ways in stories dealing in different ways with the past. In C F Ramuz’s short story Scène dans la forêt, both devices are used in order to give the reader the impression of being in physical contact with past events and with the fictional events represented in the story. The past here is of an individual type. In Marie NDiaye’s first story of her novel Three Strong Women, the individual past can be read as an allegory of France’s postcolonial relation to the former African colonies. Metalepsis is used in order to suggest that the character accepts her past. In Patrick Chamoiseau’s novel Biblique des derniers gestes, metalepses are used in order to suggest a physical contact with the forgotten history of slavery.

  • 43.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Metalepsis in Different Media2020In: Beyond Media Borders, Volume 2: Intermedial Relations among Multimodal Media / [ed] Lars Elleström, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 149-173Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generally acknowledged definition of metalepsis excludes the existence of metalepsis in other media than literature. Therefore, one of the aims of the chapter is to analyse the transmediality of metalepsis; that is, its potential to be employed in various media. Based on a number of different specific media products (from the media types of literature and film), the author analyses closely how metalepsis can depend on the modalities of different media. He argues that one can create metalepsis in other ways than only using a narrator’s voice. This is because one can expand the notion of narrative levels, which seems indispensable in the case of metalepsis, to representational levels. Defining metalepsis based on representation rather than narrative voice allows for the study of metalepsis in other media types, of which film is one example.

  • 44.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Minimalism in Romanian New Wave Cinema: The Example of Cristi Puiu2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will take a closer look at the use of minimalism in the Romanian New Wave films (i.e. films by some Romanian directors between 2001 and 2014). According to Dominique Nasta (2013) and Doru Pop (2014), the films belonging to this “wave” are characterized by a minimalist style, defined as a reduction to the basics of the cinematic language, especially composition (sight and sound) and narrative (plot, characters and narrative techniques). One interesting question is whether this style is related to the crisis in Post-Communist Romania, more specifically to its realistic representation in the films or to the lack of funding, or if it is rather an aesthetic choice. I will closely analyze a number of scenes in Cristi Puiu’s three feature films, Stuff and Dough (2001), The Death of Mister Lăzărescu (2005) and Aurora (2010), which seem to break with what one would expect from minimalism. It is especially the emphasizing of the use of a cinematic medium in scenes where remediation occurs (cf. Bolter & Grusin, Rajewsky, Wolf) that seems to contradict the minimalist aim of giving the illusion of immediacy (cf. Pop). However, I argue that even such cases are rather subordinate to the minimalist style, since they contribute, for instance, to the reduction of the narrative, by avoiding the need for lengthy presentations and explanations.

  • 45.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Mircea Cartarescu en suédois: Entre sourcisme et ciblisme2017In: Orbis Litterarum, ISSN 0105-7510, E-ISSN 1600-0730, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 51-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I analyze the reception of a Romanian writer in Sweden, looking in particular at the translation and at the influence that the translation might have on the reception. The book in question is the first volume of Mircea Cartarescu's trilogy Orbitor, published in 1996 and entitled Orbitor. Aripa stânga in Romanian, and translated into Swedish in 2004 as Orbitor. Vänster vinge. I wil concentrate on the choice of the Swedish translator Inger Johansson whether to achieve a transparent text (or naturalising it) or an opaque text (exotisizing it) for the Swedish readers. I will base my analyses on the theoretical discussions about the two different translation strategies: « sourcière » (source oriented) or « cibliste » (target-oriented), underligning particularly the cultural and ethical consequences of a choice between these. In doing so, I will compare the Swedish translation with the French and English translation, in order to detect the translation strategies.

  • 46.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Mircea Cărtarescu en suédois – naturalisation ou exotisation?: un exemple de traduction et de réception de la littérature roumaine en Suède2012In: International Conference on Romance Languages – In Memoriam Alf Lombard, Lund University, The Pufendorf Institute, 7-8 november 2012., LUND, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long time after their first use by Friederich Schleiermacher, the concepts of naturalization and alienation have been taken up by Lawrence Venuti (1995) in translation theory and renamed as domestication and foreignisation. The two concepts are based on the idea that the culture of the original text has to be approached in some way in the process of translation, either by adapting it to the context of the target language (domestication) or by adapting the target language to the context of the source text (foreignisation). As Lawrence Venuti claims, translations usually end up as: “an ethnocentric reduction of the foreign text [i.e. domestication] or an ethnodeviant pressure on those [target-language] values to register the linguistic and cultural difference of the foreign text [i.e. foreignisation]” (Venuti, 1995, p. 20).

     

    Both strategies have been criticized: domestication for betraying the culture of the source text, foreignisation for its elitistic touch (Robinson 1997, 109-112). Foreignisation can also be used to highlight the foreign identity of the source text and protecting it from the ideological dominance of the target culture, which is one of Venuti's concerns.

     

    In this paper, I will analyze some details of the translation of Mircea Cartarescu's novels from Romanian into Swedish in order to see if they can be classified according to the dichotomy domestication/foreignisation. I will also try to broaden the analysis by discussing the implications of the strategies which are used, especially when it comes to the reception of Cartarescu in Sweden.

  • 47.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Narrative Metalepsis in Detective Fiction2011In: Metalepsis in Popular Culture / [ed] Kukkonen, Karin and Klimek, Sonja, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2011, Vol. 28, p. 41-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the metalepsis in detective fiction. The study is published as a chapter in a volume which establishes a transmedial definition of metalepsis and explores the phenomenon in twelve case studies across media and genres of popular culture: from film, TV series, animated cartoons, graphic novels and popular fiction to pop music, music videos, holographic projections and fan cultures.Metalepsis describes the transgression of the boundary between the fictional world and (a representation of) the real world. Narrative studies have considered metalepsis so far largely as a phenomenon of postmodern or avant-garde literature. This volume investigates metalepsis’ ties to the popular and traces its transmedial importance through a wealth of examples.

  • 48.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Narratology and Intermediality: Testing Elleström’s concept of “Transmedial Narration”2023In: Ekphrasis, E-ISSN 2559-2068, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 14-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article makes an overview of the relation between narratology and intermediality asexemplified by Swedish intermediality scholar Lars Elleström’s approach. In a book from 2019, entitledTransmedial Narration. Narratives and Stories in Different Media, Elleström presents his approach to narra-tology and elaborates the concept of “transmedial narration” on the basis of his earlier theoretical model ofintermedial relations. The search for a concept of narration that should be as simple and flexible as possi-ble, in order for it to be applied to as many media types as possible, leads Elleström to the conclusion thatthe concepts stemming from classical narratology are not suitable in a transmedial context, since they aretoo media specific. Even if I support Elleström’s effort to open up narration to other media types, I find thatFrench scholar Gérard Genette’s detailed narratological model from 1972 can be used as the basic toolwhen analyzing works form other media than literature. This hypothesis is tested in the article in a numberof media types which are increasingly different from literature.

  • 49.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Lund University.
    Narratology in Classroom: Using Narrative Metalepsis in Teaching Literature at Upper Secondary Level2011In: Critical Discourse and Linguistic Variation: New Investigation Perspectives : Receptions, Analyses, Openings: September 8-9, 2010, Suceava, România / [ed] Mircea A. Diaconu, Suceava: Editura Universitatii Stefan cel Mare, Suceava , 2011, p. 161-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I explore the tension between research in narratology and teaching narratology. My main concern is to study how the research in this field can be used in teaching. The study is made on pupils at upper secondary level in Sweden. I study the pupils’ reactions to one kind of frame-breaking narrative device: the narrative metalepsis. In doing so, I question some theorists according to whom narratology should not be used at upper secondary level. Especially frame-breaking devices can cause problems for students according to some studies. My aim is to challenge this standpoint, and to promote the use of frame-breaking devices in teaching about the narrator and the different possible narrative levels. The metalepsis concerns film but from an intermedial point of view and with an intermedial follow-up.

  • 50.
    Lutas, Liviu
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Nya metoder och gamla begrepp – Hur eye-tracking-tekniken kan användas inom intermediala studier2013Conference paper (Refereed)
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