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  • 1.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities: A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia2017In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 627-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m(3) of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (<40 mm) and coarse (>40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of <10 mm and analyzed for its potential for metals recovery. The average chemical composition of the <10 mm soil-like fraction suggests that it offers opportunities for metal (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) extraction and recovery. The findings from this study highlight the importance of implementing best available site-specific technologies for on-site separation up to 10 mm grain size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  • 2.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Dept Sanit & Environm Engn, UERJ, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Paraskeva, Christakis A.
    Papadakis, Vagelis G.
    Sillanpaa, Mika
    Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control-a review2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 268-298Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5 % of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78 % between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  • 3.
    Burlakovs, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, M.
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Arina, D.
    Latvia University of Agriculture, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Shmarin, S.
    Kyiv National University, Ukraine.
    Denafas, G.
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Former dump sites and the landfill mining perspectives in baltic countries and Sweden: The status2013In: SGEM2013 Conference Proceedings, 2013, p. 485-492Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills are considered as places where the life cycle of products ends thus meaning that resources and materials, which before were valuables, become useless and are disposed forever in places away from the sight. Landfills that were not closed appropriately are of primary importance as the EU legislation demands closure of noncompliant landfills, re-cultivation followed by soil and groundwater remediation. Waste dumps in former times were created without any environmental planning and it causes problems. Planned actions to reduce and prevent impacts to the environment and get extracted valuables from dump sites are proposed in a new approach known as "landfill mining" (LFM). The number of dumpsites which are still not appropriately closed according to the EU Directives has diminished, but not completely. Landfills that are located close to the Baltic Sea and Black Seas could be good candidates for LFM. This research topic has had evolved in many aspects with the interest increase on material recovery, refuse derived fuels (RDF) production, greenhouse gas and leachate emission diminishing. Real-time applied LFM in last decade in Sweden has started and Estonian scientists and entrepreneurs took over the initiative - the project in Saaremaa Island is an example of closing the life cycle of dumpsites by following a more sustainable approach. The rise of raw material and energy costs promotes the process of LFM to be economically feasible, but this approach must be adjusted in regulations (permittingprohibiting schemes, environmental impact assessment, staff safety, monitoring).

  • 4.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Celma, Gunita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Ozola, Ruta
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Rozina, Laine
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Viksna, Arturs
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    On the way to 'zero waste' management: Recovery potential of elements, including rare earth elements, from fine fraction of waste2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing schemes of solid waste handling have been improved implementing advanced systems for recovery and reuse of various materials. Nowadays, the 'zero waste' concept is becoming more topical through the reduction of disposed waste. Recovery of metals, nutrients and other materials that can be returned to the material cycles still remain as a challenge for future. Landfill mining (LFM) is one of the approaches that can deal with former dumpsites, and derived materials may become important for circular economy within the concept 'beyond the zero waste'. Perspectives of material recovery can include recycling of critical industrial metals, including rare earth elements (REEs). The LFM projects performed in the Baltic Region along with a conventional source separation of iron-scrap, plastics etc. have shown that the potential of fine-grained fractions (including clay and colloidal matter) of excavated waste have considerably large amounts of potentially valuable metals and distinct REEs. In this paper analytical screening studies are discussed extending the understanding of element content in fine fraction of waste derived from excavated, separated and screened waste in a perspective of circular economy. Technological feasibility was evaluated by using modified sequential extraction technique where easy extractable amount of metals can be estimated. Results revealed that considerable concentrations of Mn (418-823 mg/kg), Ni (41-84 mg/kg), Co (10.7-19.3 mg/kg) and Cd (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) were detected in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste sampled from Hogbytorp landfill, while Cr (49-518 mg/kg) and Pb (30-264 mg/kg) were found in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste from Torma landfill revealing wide heterogeneity of tested samples. Waste should become a utilizable resource closing the loop of anthropogenic material cycle as the hidden potential of valuable materials in dumps is considerable. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Gaile-Vincevica, Zane
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stapkevica, Mara
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as rapid measurement tool for landfill mining operations: comparison of field data vs. laboratory analysis2015In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 609-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining applied in reclamation at the territories of old dump sites and landfills is a known approach tended to global economic and environmental benefits as recovery of metals and energy is an important challenge. The aim of this study was to analyse the concentration of several metallic elements (Ca, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Zn) in the fine fraction of waste derived in the landfill and to compare the results of measurements obtained by field-portable equipment with the data gained by advanced analytical tools. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for the quantitative detection of metallic elements at the laboratory; whereas field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FPXRF) was applied for rapid sample characterisation in the field (on-site). Wet digestion of samples (fine fraction of waste at landfill) was done prior analytical procedures at the laboratory conditions, but FPXRF analysis was performed using raw solid samples of waste fine fraction derived in the Kudjape Landfill in Estonia. Although the use of AAS and ICP-MS for the measurements of metals achieves more precise results, it was concluded that precision and accuracy of the measurements obtained by FPXRF is acceptable for fast approximate evaluation of quantities of metallic elements in fine fraction samples excavated from the waste at landfills. Precision and accuracy of the results provided by express method is acceptable for quick analysis or screening of the concentration of major and trace metallic elements in field projects; however, data correction can be applied by calculating moisture and organic matter content dependent on sample matrix as well as special attention must be paid on sample selection and homogenisation and number of analysed samples.

  • 6.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Stapkevica, Mara
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mobility of Metals and Valorization of Sorted Fine Fraction of Waste After Landfill Excavation2016In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 593-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reclamation of landfills and dumpsites requiresdetailed technical and economic evaluation of actual and potential pollution at the site, including detection of the main contaminants, their concentration, chemical stability and mobility in the environment. Contamination with metallic elements and metalloids is among the most important problems that limits recultivation of landfills and dumpsites and reuse of landfilled materials. This study was implemented at the Kudjape Municipal Landfill, located on Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The Kudjape Landfill is apartly closed landfill recultivated by covering it with a layer of a fine fraction of landfill material after the landfill mining operations. The fine fraction was derived at the site by sorting the landfill material (i.e., disposed waste) using mechanical screening, manual sorting and sieving. Obtained relatively homogeneous material, consisting of particles smaller than 10 mm, was defined as a fine fractionof waste. Samples from the fine fraction at different depth were collected and analyzed. Metal mobility was assessed after the sequential extraction. Results revealed that such elements as Zn, Mn, Mg are found in various fractions; Fe,Cd, Cr—mainly in residual fraction; Cu, Pb, Ni, Ba, Co and Rb mostly in fractions of residuals and reduced compounds,but they are presented in larger proportion of acid and water soluble fractions. Slight interconnection ofdetected parameters and sampling depth was revealed. Sequential extraction of elements in the fine fraction suggested the valorization of waste and confirmed that such landfill material can be successfully used as a landfill covering layer under the specific engineering circumstances.

  • 7.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Arina, Dace
    Institute of Physical Energetics, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ozola, Ruta
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    A. Tsereteli State University, Georgia.
    Daugelaite, Valdone
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Bucinskas, Algimantas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Rudovica, Vita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Horttanainen, Mika
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metals and rare Earth’s elements in landfills: case studies2016In: 3rd Int. Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, Lisboa, 8-10/2/2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills are considered as places where the life cycle of products ends and materialshave been “disposed forever”. The landfill mining (LFM) approach can deal with formerdumpsites and this material may become important for circular economy perspectiveswithin the concept “Beyond the zero waste”. Potential material recovery should includeperspectives of recycling of critical industrial metals where rare Earth elements (REEs)are playing more and more important role. Real-time applied LFM projects in the BalticRegion have shown the potential of fine-grained fractions (including clay and colloidalmatter) of excavated waste as storage of considerably large amounts of valuable metalsand REEs. Analytical screening studies have extended a bit further the understanding offine fraction contents of excavated, separated and screened waste in a circular economyperspective. The Swedish Institute and Latvian Research Program “Res Prod” supportedthe research.

  • 8.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Stenis, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Fac Chem Technol, Lithuania.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    Akaki Tsereteli State Univ, Republic of Georgia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rosendal, Rene Moller
    Danish Waste Solut ApS, Denmark.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Paradigms on landfill mining: From dump site scavenging to ecosystem services revitalization2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 123, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the next century to come, one of the biggest challenges is to provide the mankind with relevant and sufficient resources. Recovery of secondary resources plays a significant role. Industrial processes developed to regain minerals for commodity production in a circular economy become ever more important in the European Union and worldwide. Landfill mining (LFM) constitutes an important technological toolset of processes that regain resources and redistribute them with an accompanying reduction of hazardous influence of environmental contamination and other threats for human health hidden in former dump sites and landfills. This review paper is devoted to LFM problems, historical development and driving paradigms of LFM from 'classical hunting for valuables' to 'perspective in ecosystem revitalization'. The main goal is to provide a description of historical experience and link it to more advanced concept of a circular economy. The challenge is to adapt the existing knowledge to make decisions in accordance with both, economic feasibility and ecosystems revitalization aspects. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Dace, Elina
    et al.
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Muizniece, Indra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Blumberga, Andra
    Riga Tech Univ, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions - Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 527, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition tomove towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Significance of environmental dredging on metal mobility from contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor, Sweden2015In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, p. 445-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals are often seen as immobile in bottom sediments as long as these environmental sinks remain undisturbed. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential metal mobility due to resuspension under pseudo-dredging conditions of contaminated sediments in the Oskarshamn Harbor that are likely to be dredged as part of a remediation program established in Sweden. To address this concern, mixtures of water slurries were sampled from pore, leaching, and surface water over a period of nearly 36 d, and the major ions and trace metal concentrations determined. The results of this study pointed out the potential mobility and toxicity of metals posed by temporary changes during dredging operations, and highlighted the potential release of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Ni to the environment. Among the toxic metals, regarding pre and post dredging, Cu and Pb significantly demonstrated to be in ionic form, apparently because of dissolution of Fe-Mn oxy/hydroxides and decomposition of organic matter. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Fathollahzadeh, Homayoun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Speciation of metals in contaminated sediments from Oskarshamn Harbor, Oskarshamn, Sweden2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2455-2464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediments in coastal regions have been considered the ultimate sink for a number of contaminants, e. g., toxic metals. In this current study, speciation of metals in contaminated sediments of Oskarshamn harbor in the southeast of Sweden was performed in order to evaluate metal contents and their potential mobility and bioavailability. Sediment speciation was carried out by the sequential extraction BCR procedure for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (R) fractions were determined. The results have shown that Zn and Cd were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (F1) with 42-58 % and 43-46 %, respectively, of their total concentrations in the mobile phase. The assessment of sediment contamination on the basis of quality guidelines established by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Italian Ministry of Environment (Venice protocol for dredged sediments) has shown that sediments from Oskarshamn harbor are highly contaminated with toxic metals, especially Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, As, and Zn posing potential ecological risks. Therefore, it is of crucial importance the implementation of adequate strategies to tackle contaminated sediments in coastal regions all over the world.

  • 12.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Amaro, Alexandre
    Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Recalcitrant Wastewater from a Wood-Based Industry: a Comparative Study of O3 and O3/UV2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 7, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozone and ozone-based advanced oxidation processes were applied for the treatment of a recalcitrant wastewater generated by wood-based industries that contains different inorganic and organic constituents and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying between 3,400 and 4,000 mg/L. The investigation used a tubular ozone reactor combined with an UV reactor designed for different hydraulic retention times. The dependent variables addressed to evaluate the treatment efficiency were the reduction of COD and total organic carbon (TOC) and the biodegradability of the treated effluent based on respirometric studies using activated sludge from a wastewater treatment. The results showed that even though ozonation alone at acid pH promoted COD and TOC reductions of 65 and 31 % respectively, a decrease in the biodegradability was observed. The most effective treatment (COD and TOC reductions of 93 and 43 %, respectively) was obtained when applying ozone combined with UV light at basic pH. The ozone-UV combination was capable of increasing the amount of readily available COD by 75 % with an additional reduction of TOC by 60 %. In conclusion, ozonation at low pH effectively reduces the COD content in wastewater generated by the wood-based industry; however, in order to combine advanced oxidation with biological process, ozone combined with UV is recommended.

  • 13.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Rio de Janeiro State University-UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Photo-fenton and fenton oxidation of recalcitrant industrial wastewater2012In: Proceedings / Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2012, international conference on natural sciences and environmental technologies for waste and wastewater treatment, remediation, emissions related to climate, environmental and economic effects ; the eighth International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region, and the World, November 26-28, 2012, Kalmar, Sweden / [ed] Eva Kumar, Joacim Rosenlund, Fabio Kaczala, William Hogland, Linnaeus University , 2012, p. 187-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences. Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Photo-Fenton and Fenton Oxidation of Recalcitrant Industrial Wastewater Using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron2012In: International Journal of Photoenergy (Online), ISSN 1110-662X, E-ISSN 1687-529X, Vol. 2012, article id 531076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for the development of on-site wastewater treatment technologies suitable for "dry-process industries," such as the wood-floor sector. Due to the nature of their activities, these industries generate lower volumes of highly polluted wastewaters after cleaning activities. Advanced oxidation processes such as Fenton and photo-Fenton, are potentially feasible options for treatment of these wastewaters. One of the disadvantages of the Fenton process is the formation of large amounts of ferrous iron sludge, a constraint that might be overcome with the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) powder. Wastewater from a wood-floor industry with initial COD of 4956 mg/L and TOC of 2730 mg/L was treated with dark-Fenton (nZVI/H2O2) and photo-Fenton (nZVI/H2O2/UV) applying a 2-level full-factorial experimental design. The highest removal of COD and TOC (80% and 60%, resp.) was achieved using photo-Fenton. The supply of the reactants in more than one dose during the reaction time had significant and positive effects on the treatment efficiency. According to the results, Fenton and mostly photo-Fenton are promising treatment options for these highly recalcitrant wastewaters. Future investigations should focus on optimizing treatment processes and assessing toxic effects that residual pollutants and the nZVI might have. The feasibility of combining advanced oxidation processes with biological treatment is also recommended.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Rio de Janeiro State Univ UERJ, Brazil.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Photo-Fenton and Fenton Oxidation of Recalcitrant Wastewater from the Wooden Floor Industry2015In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 87, no 6, p. 491-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for development of on-site wastewater treatment technologies suitable to "dry-process'' industries, such as the wooden floor sector. Due to the nature of their activities, these industries generate low volumes of highly polluted and recalcitrant wastewaters due to washing and cleaning surfaces and machinery. Advanced oxidation processes such as Fenton and photo-Fenton are potentially feasible options for the treatment of wastewaters with not easily biodegradable pollutants. The wastewater from a wooden floor industry with initial COD value of 4956 mg/L and TOC value of 2730 mg/L was treated with Fenton (Fe/H2O2) and photo-Fenton (Fe/H2O2/UV) applying a 2-level full-factorial experimental design. The highest removals of COD and TOC (79% and 62% respectively) were achieved when photo-Fenton was applied. In conclusion, Fenton and photo-Fenton are promising treatment options for these highly recalcitrant wastewaters, photo-Fenton being a more promising option according to the results.

  • 16.
    Hogland, Marika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Arina, Dace
    Inst Phys Energet, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas Technol Univ, Lithuania.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Remarks on four novel landfill mining case studies in Estonia and Sweden2018In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 1355-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In common sense, a landfill is a place where the life cycle of products ends. Landfill mining (LFM) mostly deals with former dumpsites and derived material may have a significant importance for the circular economy. Deliverables of recently applied LFM projects in Sweden and Estonia have revealed the potential and problems for material recovery. There are 75-100 thousand old landfills and dumps in the Baltic Sea Region, and they pose environmental risks to soil, water and air by pollution released from leachate and greenhouse gas emissions. Excavation of landfills is potential solution for solving these problems, and at the same time, there are perspectives to recover valuable lands and materials, save expenses for final coverage of the landfills and aftercare control. The research project "Closing the Life Cycle of Landfills-Landfill Mining in the Baltic Sea Region for Future" included investigation at four case studies in Estonia and Sweden: Kudjape, Torma, Hogbytorp and Vika landfills. Added value of this research project is characterization of waste fine fraction material, determination of concentration for most critical and rare earth elements. The main results showed that both, coarse and fine, fractions of waste might have certain opportunities of recovery.

  • 17.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Strömblad, Anna
    Erlandsson, Åke
    Nilsson, Malena
    Peterson, Ana
    Wiberg, Camila
    Ingdahl, Helen
    Charlotta, Persson
    Planning and Communication for Development of an Integrated Approach for Industrial Wastewater Treatment System in the Wood-industry Sector-Process Water, Stormwater and Leachate.2009In: CISA, Cagliari, Italy, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Laohaprapanon, Sawanya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Removal of Organic Pollutants from Industrial Cleaning Wastewaters Using a Combined Sedimentation and Packed-bed Column Treatment2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Alriksson, Stina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fires at storage sites of organic materials, waste fuels and recyclables2013In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 937-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, the European Union has enforced the diversion of organic wastes and recyclables to waste management companies operating incineration plants, composting plants and recycling units instead of landfills. The temporary storage sites have been established as a buffer against fluctuations in energy demand throughout the year. Materials also need to be stored at temporary storage sites before recovery and recycling. However, regulations governing waste fuel storage and handling have not yet been developed, and, as a result, companies have engaged in risky practices that have resulted in a high number of fire incidents. In this study, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 249 of the 400 members of Avfall Sverige (Swedish Waste Management Association), which represents the waste management of 95% of the Swedish population. Information regarding 122 storage facilities owned by 69 companies was obtained; these facilities were responsible for the storage of 47% of the total treated waste (incineration + digestion + composting) in 2010 in Sweden. To identify factors related to fire frequency, the questionnaire covered the amounts of material handled and burnt per year, financial losses due to fires, storage duration, storage method and types of waste. The results show that 217 fire incidents corresponded to 170 kilotonnes of material burnt and cumulative losses of 49 million SEK (€4.3 million). Fire frequency and amount of material burnt per fire was found to be dependent upon type of management group (waste operator). Moreover, a correlation was found between fire frequency and material recycled during past years. Further investigations of financial aspects and externalities of fire incidents are recommended.

  • 20.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Characterization of municipal solid waste temporary storage sites: Risks posed to surrounding areas as a consequence of fire incidents2013In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 2296-2306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study temporary storage sites of municipal solid waste were characterized based on their potential social, health and environmental impacts as a consequence of spontaneous fires, by employing Boolean as well as weighted-linear-combination approaches in connection with various fuzzy set functions of population density around the storage sites. Sweden was used as the case study and data from 105 storage sites were analysed; of these, 38 were identified to be posing high risk for downwind residing population. Furthermore, during the past 10 years, the fire frequency and the average population residing within a radius of 1, 2, and 3 km were found to be comparatively higher for storage sites owned by private ompanies than for those owned by municipalities. The study provided first-cut information of poorly sited temporary storage sites and can help in formalizing the comprehensive risk analysis in the future.

  • 21.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Charlotte, Marchand
    University of Montréal, Canada.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mait, Kriipsalu
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Anders, Kihl
    Ragn-Sells AB, Sollentuna.
    Characterisation of excavated fine fraction and waste composition from a Swedish landfill2016In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1292-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23.5% and 16.6%, respectively. The analysed calorific value (1.7 MJ kg-1), the potential of CH4 (4.74 m3 t-1 dry matter) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (5.6%) were low and offer low potential of energy. Sieving the fine fraction further showed that 80% was smaller than 2 mm. The fine represents a major fraction at any landfill (40%–70%), therefore, characterising the properties of this fraction is essential to find the potential of reusing/recycling or safely redisposing.

  • 22.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    A Review of Dry Toilet Systems2006Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Integrated Wastewater Management for the Wood Industry - Process Water, Stormwater and Leachate. Characterization of Industrial Processes, Wastewater Streams and Treatability Studies.2007Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Terra Munda Toilet System. Pre Study at Grevagården.2006Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Blum, Shlomo E.
    Kimron Veterinary Institute, Israel.
    The Occurrence of Veterinary Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: A Review2016In: Current Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 1573-4110, E-ISSN 1875-6727, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that there is a widespread use of veterinary pharmaceuticals and consequent release into different ecosystems such as freshwater bodies and groundwater systems. Furthermore, the use of organic fertilizers produced from animal waste manure has been also responsible for the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in agricultural soils. This article is a review of a number of different studies focused on the detection and quantification of such compounds in environmental compartments using different analytical techniques. Furthermore, this paper reports the main challenges regarding veterinary pharmaceuticals in terms of analytical methods and detection/quantification of parent compounds and metabolites and risks/toxicity to human health and aquatic ecosystems. Based on the existing literature, it is clear that only limited data is available regarding veterinary compounds and there are still considerable gaps to be bridged in order to remediate existing problems and prevent future ones. In terms of analytical methods, there are still considerable challenges to be overcome considering the large number of existing compounds and respective metabolites. A number of different studies highlight the lack of attention given in the detection and quantification of transformation products and metabolites. Furthermore more attention needs to be given in relation to the toxic effects and potential risks that veterinary compounds pose to environmental and human health. To conclude the more research investigations focused on these subjects take place in the near future, more rapidly we will get a better understanding about the behavior of these compounds and the real risks they pose to aquatic and terrestrial environments and how to properly tackle them.

  • 26.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Preliminary evaluation of a wastewater pilot treatment system in a wood-based factory: Use of low cost "non-conventional" sorbents2009In: Proceedings of Polish Scientific Conference v.56, Gdansk, Polen, 2009, p. 178-187Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Preliminary Evaluation of a Wastewater Pilot Treatment System in a Wood-based Factory: Use of low cost "non-conventional" Sorbents2009In: International Journal of Ecological Engineering Monographs 56 / [ed] Polish Academy of Sciences, Gdansk, Poland, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Preliminary evaluation of a wastewater pilot treatment system ina wood-based factory: Use of low cost “non-conventional” sorbents.Preliminary evaluation of a wastewater pilot treatment system ina wood-based factory: Use of low cost “non-conventional” sorbents.2009In: International Journal of Ecological Engineering Monographs - Polish Academy ofSciencesPolish Academy ofSciences. Vol 56, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    An Integrated approach for industrial wastewater and stormwater management in a wood-based factory: Feasibility of using "non-conventional" sorbents in a pilot scale plant2009In: book of abstracts, the 1st International Conferencde on Advances in wastewater treatment and reuse, Tehran, Iran, 2009, p. 33-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Juanga, JeangerHogland, WilliamUniversity of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.MARQUES, MARCIAUniversity of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.Vinrot, Eva
    Proceedings of: 6th International Conference on Technologies for Waste and Wastewater treatment, Energy from Waste, Remediation of Contaminated Sites, Emissions Related to Climate.2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Juanga, JeangerHogland, WilliamUniversity of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.MARQUES, MARCIAUniversity of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.Vinrot, Eva
    Proceedings of: Kalmar Eco-Tech 2007. 6th International Conference on Technologies for Waste and Wastewater treatment, Energy from Waste, Remediation of Contaminated Sites and Emissions Related to Climate.2007Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Preliminary Treatability Test of a Non-Conventional Industrial Wastewater in the Wood Sector: COD and Formalin Reduction.Preliminary Treatability Test of a Non-Conventional Industrial Wastewater in the Wood Sector: COD and Formalin Reduction.2007In: Kalmar ECOTECH´07 – 6th International Conferences on Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste,Remediation of Contaminated Sites and Emissions Related to Climates.Kalmar ECOTECH´07 – 6th International Conferences on Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste,Remediation of Contaminated Sites and Emissions Related to Climates. / [ed] Kaczala F., et al., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Biotreatability of wastewater generated during machinery washing in a wood-based industry: COD, formaldehyde and nitrogen removal2010In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 101, no 23, p. 8975-8983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes biotreatability tests for treating a wastewater stream generated by wood-floorindustries after cleaning and washing of machinery used to apply urea–formaldehyde resins ontowood-fiber boards. A biological system consisting of an anaerobic – intermittently aerated reactor inlab-scale was constructed. Since the investigated wastewater is intermittently generated, the systemwas designed to operate in batch mode. The treatment focused on removal of formaldehyde and COD,as well as the efficiency of nitrification–denitrification. The proposed cheap and relatively simple-tooperatebiological system achieved COD and formaldehyde removal rates of 65 ± 11% and 93 ± 4% respectively.In spite of anaerobic ammonium removal and denitrification, the intermittently-aerated reactorshowed poor performance for nitrification. Therefore, a better understanding of constraints for the processimprovement is necessary. Regardless the constraints faced during the investigation, the proposedsystem can be considered feasible to partially reduce a great amount of biodegradable compounds inurea–formaldehyde-based wastewaters. However, to comply with strict threshold limits for industrialeffluent discharges, the use of biological treatment combined with more advanced processes is neededto achieve a better quality of the final effluent.This paper describes biotreatability tests for treating a wastewater stream generated by wood-floorindustries after cleaning and washing of machinery used to apply urea–formaldehyde resins ontowood-fiber boards. A biological system consisting of an anaerobic – intermittently aerated reactor inlab-scale was constructed. Since the investigated wastewater is intermittently generated, the systemwas designed to operate in batch mode. The treatment focused on removal of formaldehyde and COD,as well as the efficiency of nitrification–denitrification. The proposed cheap and relatively simple-tooperatebiological system achieved COD and formaldehyde removal rates of 65 ± 11% and 93 ± 4% respectively.In spite of anaerobic ammonium removal and denitrification, the intermittently-aerated reactorshowed poor performance for nitrification. Therefore, a better understanding of constraints for the processimprovement is necessary. Regardless the constraints faced during the investigation, the proposedsystem can be considered feasible to partially reduce a great amount of biodegradable compounds inurea–formaldehyde-based wastewaters. However, to comply with strict threshold limits for industrialeffluent discharges, the use of biological treatment combined with more advanced processes is neededto achieve a better quality of the final effluent.

  • 34.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Biotreatability of wastewater generated during machinery washing in wood-floor industries2010In: Proceedings of the 5th International conference of Environmental Science and Technology, American Academy of Sciences, 12-17 July – 2010, Houston, Texas –USA. IC EST2010, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Formaldehyde Toxicity studies over activated sludge (In portuguese)2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lead and vanadium removal from a real industrial wastewater by gravitational settling/sedimentation and sorption onto Pinus sylvestris sawdust2009In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batch sorption with untreated Pinus sylvestris sawdust after settling/sedimentation phase to removevanadium and lead from a real industrial wastewater was investigated using different adsorbent doses,initial pH, and contact time. The development of pH along the sorption test and a parallel investigationof metals release from sawdust in distilled water were carried out. In order to evaluate kinetic parametersand equilibrium isotherms, Lagergren first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion andFreundlich models were explored. When the initial pH was reduced from 7.4 to 4.0, the sorptionefficiency increased from 32% to 99% for Pb and from 43% to 95% for V. Whereas, V removal was positivelycorrelated with the adsorbent dose, Pb removal was not. The sorption process was best described bypseudo-second-order kinetics. According to Freundlich parameters (Kf and n) sawdust presentedunfavourable intensity for sorption of V.Batch sorption with untreated Pinus sylvestris sawdust after settling/sedimentation phase to removevanadium and lead from a real industrial wastewater was investigated using different adsorbent doses,initial pH, and contact time. The development of pH along the sorption test and a parallel investigationof metals release from sawdust in distilled water were carried out. In order to evaluate kinetic parametersand equilibrium isotherms, Lagergren first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion andFreundlich models were explored. When the initial pH was reduced from 7.4 to 4.0, the sorptionefficiency increased from 32% to 99% for Pb and from 43% to 95% for V. Whereas, V removal was positivelycorrelated with the adsorbent dose, Pb removal was not. The sorption process was best described bypseudo-second-order kinetics. According to Freundlich parameters (Kf and n) sawdust presentedunfavourable intensity for sorption of V.

  • 37.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Preliminary Treatability test of a Non-Conventional Industrial Wastewater in the Wood Sector: COD and Formalin removal.2007In: University of Kalmar Volume I / [ed] Kaczala et al., 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The removal of Lead and Vanadium from an Industrial (In Portuguese)2009In: ABES / [ed] ABES, Recife, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The removal of Pb and V from an industrial effluent by sorption onto Pinus sylvestris sawdust.2009In: 25 Congresso Brasileiro deEngenharia Sanitária e Ambiental. 20-25 Setembro, 2009. Recife-Brasil., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The Use of Respirometry for the evaluation of an Industrial Wastewater toxicity over activated sludge.2007In: University of Kalmar Volume I / [ed] Kaczala et al., 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    The use of Respirometry for the Evaluation of an Industrial Wastewater Toxicity over Activated Sludge2007In: University of Kalmar II / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Jeanger Juanga, William Hogland and Marcia Marques, Kalmar, Sweden, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The Use of Respirometry for the Evaluation of anIndustrial Wastewater Toxicity over Activated SludgeThe Use of Respirometry for the Evaluation of anIndustrial Wastewater Toxicity over Activated Sludge2007In: Kalmar ECO TECH´07 – 6th InternationalConferences on Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste, Remediation of ContaminatedSites and Emissions Related to Climates.Kalmar ECO TECH´07 – 6th InternationalConferences on Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Energy from Waste, Remediation of ContaminatedSites and Emissions Related to Climates. / [ed] Kaczala et al., 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Toxicity of an Industrial Wastewater withFormaldehyde. Effects over Activated SludgeToxicity of an Industrial Wastewater withFormaldehyde. Effects over Activated Sludge2007In: 24º Congresso Brasileiro deEngenharia Sanitária e Ambiental - ABES. Belo Horizonte/MG- Brazil24º Congresso Brasileiro deEngenharia Sanitária e Ambiental - ABES. Belo Horizonte/MG- Brazil, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Treatment of Industrial Effluentwith high COD and Formaldehyde. Sequential Batch Reactor - Laboratory ScaleTreatment of Industrial Effluentwith high COD and Formaldehyde. Sequential Batch Reactor - Laboratory Scale2007In: 24ºCongresso Brasileiro de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental - ABES. Belo Horizonte/MG- Brazil24ºCongresso Brasileiro de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental - ABES. Belo Horizonte/MG- Brazil, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    MARQUES, MARCIA
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nammari, Diauddin
    Treatment of an Industrial effluent with high concentrations of Formalin and COD: Sequential Batch Reactor (In Portuguese)2007In: ABES, Belo Horizonte, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nammari, Diauddin R
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tratamento de efluente industrial com altas concentrações de formaldeído e DQO: Reator sequencial em batelada - Escala de laboratório (Treatment of Industrial Effluents of high Concentrations of Formaldehyde and COD)2007In: 24o CBESA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    MARQUES, MARCIA
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Toniato, Joao Vitor
    Wastewater Treatment with a Small Constructed Wetland in a Fragile Ecosystem.2005In: University of Kalmar, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Vinrot, Eva
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Stormwater run-off from an industrial log yard: characterization, contaminant correlation and first-flush phenomenon.2012In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 33, no 13-15, p. 1615-1628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stormwater run-off generated in an industrial log yard during eight run-off events was studied with the main focus on the transport of toxic metals. Associations between water quality constituents and potential surrogates were evaluated by correlation analysis. The first-flush phenomenon was verified by normalized M(V) curves. The results have shown that, whereas some metals such as Zn, Ba, Cd, As and Fe were always detected in these waters, others (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, V, Co) were not. Large variations in the water constituents' concentrations were observed, with Fe, Pb and V being the most variable ones. Concentrations of Zn and Cu in the run-off waters exceeded the values established by the Swedish environmental authorities in 100% and 97% of samples, respectively. The correlation analyses indicated TSS as a potential surrogate of Pb, V, Co, Ni, As, Ba, Cr and COD (0.949 > R > 0.808), making it reasonable to state that a treatment system with focus on TSS removal would also reduce toxic metals from these waters. The first-flush phenomenon was evident for most of the constituents. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the first-flush magnitude of different run-off events were observed confirming that hydro-meteorological variables such as dry period, precipitation duration and average intensity play important roles. Metal loads originating from the log yard were mainly composed ofZn, Cu and Ba. Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics, discharge dynamics and the storm variables involved in the process is a crucial step for the proposal and implementation of a stormwater management programme.

  • 49.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mehdinejad, Mohammad Hadi
    Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Laane, Allar
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Leaching characteristics of the fine fraction from an excavated landfill: physico-chemical characterization2017In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaching of fine fraction (< 10 mm) obtained from landfill mining activities in an Estonian landfill was done. On-site excavation was carried out in four test pits (TP1, TP2, TP3, TP4) that were further divided in four layers (L (1), L (2), L (3), L (4)). Total chemical oxygen demand (CODt), dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODd), total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) were analyzed. The results showed that approximately 70 % of CODt were in particulate/colloidal state. The TOC released ranged between 2326 and 3530-mg/kg dry matter for test pits suggesting spatial differences in the studied landfill. DOC ranged between 365-874 and 317-940 mg/kg for different test pits and sampling layers, respectively. Low average leaching rates of metals were observed (0.2-1.5 %). Pb had a significantly higher average leaching rate (1.0 %) compared to Zn (0.70 %) and Cu (0.35 %). The potential use of CODt as a surrogate indicator of TOC, DOC and Zn on the basis of high correlation coefficients was observed. To conclude, the implementation of adequate strategies to manage fine-grained fractions obtained from excavated waste relies on physico-chemical characterization of both the fine fractions itself and the leachate generated during storage and use.

  • 50.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Olsson, Andreas
    Hultkvist, Mikael
    Erlandsson, Åke
    Development of Hydrologically Functional Landscapes as a Sustainable Integrated Management of Process Waters, Stormwater and Leachate. Case Study: Wood industry AB Gustaf Kähr2006Conference paper (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 66
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