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  • 1. Berg, Jørn. E
    et al.
    GLT-avfall, GLT-avfall
    Marika, Hogland
    Hogland, William
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hvorfor grave ut "gammel moro"?2009In: Kretsløpet - Tidsskrift for avfall og gjenvinning, Vol. dec, no 6, p. 25-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities: A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia2017In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 627-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m(3) of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (<40 mm) and coarse (>40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of <10 mm and analyzed for its potential for metals recovery. The average chemical composition of the <10 mm soil-like fraction suggests that it offers opportunities for metal (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) extraction and recovery. The findings from this study highlight the importance of implementing best available site-specific technologies for on-site separation up to 10 mm grain size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

  • 3.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Celma, Gunita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Ozola, Ruta
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Rozina, Laine
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Viksna, Arturs
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    On the way to 'zero waste' management: Recovery potential of elements, including rare earth elements, from fine fraction of waste2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing schemes of solid waste handling have been improved implementing advanced systems for recovery and reuse of various materials. Nowadays, the 'zero waste' concept is becoming more topical through the reduction of disposed waste. Recovery of metals, nutrients and other materials that can be returned to the material cycles still remain as a challenge for future. Landfill mining (LFM) is one of the approaches that can deal with former dumpsites, and derived materials may become important for circular economy within the concept 'beyond the zero waste'. Perspectives of material recovery can include recycling of critical industrial metals, including rare earth elements (REEs). The LFM projects performed in the Baltic Region along with a conventional source separation of iron-scrap, plastics etc. have shown that the potential of fine-grained fractions (including clay and colloidal matter) of excavated waste have considerably large amounts of potentially valuable metals and distinct REEs. In this paper analytical screening studies are discussed extending the understanding of element content in fine fraction of waste derived from excavated, separated and screened waste in a perspective of circular economy. Technological feasibility was evaluated by using modified sequential extraction technique where easy extractable amount of metals can be estimated. Results revealed that considerable concentrations of Mn (418-823 mg/kg), Ni (41-84 mg/kg), Co (10.7-19.3 mg/kg) and Cd (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) were detected in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste sampled from Hogbytorp landfill, while Cr (49-518 mg/kg) and Pb (30-264 mg/kg) were found in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste from Torma landfill revealing wide heterogeneity of tested samples. Waste should become a utilizable resource closing the loop of anthropogenic material cycle as the hidden potential of valuable materials in dumps is considerable. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Gaile-Vincevica, Zane
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Stapkevica, Mara
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as rapid measurement tool for landfill mining operations: comparison of field data vs. laboratory analysis2015In: International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0306-7319, E-ISSN 1029-0397, Vol. 95, no 7, p. 609-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining applied in reclamation at the territories of old dump sites and landfills is a known approach tended to global economic and environmental benefits as recovery of metals and energy is an important challenge. The aim of this study was to analyse the concentration of several metallic elements (Ca, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Pb, Zn) in the fine fraction of waste derived in the landfill and to compare the results of measurements obtained by field-portable equipment with the data gained by advanced analytical tools. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used for the quantitative detection of metallic elements at the laboratory; whereas field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FPXRF) was applied for rapid sample characterisation in the field (on-site). Wet digestion of samples (fine fraction of waste at landfill) was done prior analytical procedures at the laboratory conditions, but FPXRF analysis was performed using raw solid samples of waste fine fraction derived in the Kudjape Landfill in Estonia. Although the use of AAS and ICP-MS for the measurements of metals achieves more precise results, it was concluded that precision and accuracy of the measurements obtained by FPXRF is acceptable for fast approximate evaluation of quantities of metallic elements in fine fraction samples excavated from the waste at landfills. Precision and accuracy of the results provided by express method is acceptable for quick analysis or screening of the concentration of major and trace metallic elements in field projects; however, data correction can be applied by calculating moisture and organic matter content dependent on sample matrix as well as special attention must be paid on sample selection and homogenisation and number of analysed samples.

  • 5.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Stapkevica, Mara
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mobility of Metals and Valorization of Sorted Fine Fraction of Waste After Landfill Excavation2016In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 593-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reclamation of landfills and dumpsites requiresdetailed technical and economic evaluation of actual and potential pollution at the site, including detection of the main contaminants, their concentration, chemical stability and mobility in the environment. Contamination with metallic elements and metalloids is among the most important problems that limits recultivation of landfills and dumpsites and reuse of landfilled materials. This study was implemented at the Kudjape Municipal Landfill, located on Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The Kudjape Landfill is apartly closed landfill recultivated by covering it with a layer of a fine fraction of landfill material after the landfill mining operations. The fine fraction was derived at the site by sorting the landfill material (i.e., disposed waste) using mechanical screening, manual sorting and sieving. Obtained relatively homogeneous material, consisting of particles smaller than 10 mm, was defined as a fine fractionof waste. Samples from the fine fraction at different depth were collected and analyzed. Metal mobility was assessed after the sequential extraction. Results revealed that such elements as Zn, Mn, Mg are found in various fractions; Fe,Cd, Cr—mainly in residual fraction; Cu, Pb, Ni, Ba, Co and Rb mostly in fractions of residuals and reduced compounds,but they are presented in larger proportion of acid and water soluble fractions. Slight interconnection ofdetected parameters and sampling depth was revealed. Sequential extraction of elements in the fine fraction suggested the valorization of waste and confirmed that such landfill material can be successfully used as a landfill covering layer under the specific engineering circumstances.

  • 6.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Arina, Dace
    Institute of Physical Energetics, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ozola, Ruta
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    A. Tsereteli State University, Georgia.
    Daugelaite, Valdone
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Bucinskas, Algimantas
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Rudovica, Vita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Horttanainen, Mika
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Klavins, Maris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Metals and rare Earth’s elements in landfills: case studies2016In: 3rd Int. Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, Lisboa, 8-10/2/2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills are considered as places where the life cycle of products ends and materialshave been “disposed forever”. The landfill mining (LFM) approach can deal with formerdumpsites and this material may become important for circular economy perspectiveswithin the concept “Beyond the zero waste”. Potential material recovery should includeperspectives of recycling of critical industrial metals where rare Earth elements (REEs)are playing more and more important role. Real-time applied LFM projects in the BalticRegion have shown the potential of fine-grained fractions (including clay and colloidalmatter) of excavated waste as storage of considerably large amounts of valuable metalsand REEs. Analytical screening studies have extended a bit further the understanding offine fraction contents of excavated, separated and screened waste in a circular economyperspective. The Swedish Institute and Latvian Research Program “Res Prod” supportedthe research.

  • 7.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Klavins, Maris
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Stenis, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mykhaylenko, Valeriy
    Taras Shevchenko Natl Univ Kyiv, Ukraine.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Fac Chem Technol, Lithuania.
    Turkadze, Tsitsino
    Akaki Tsereteli State Univ, Republic of Georgia.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Rosendal, Rene Moller
    Danish Waste Solut ApS, Denmark.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Paradigms on landfill mining: From dump site scavenging to ecosystem services revitalization2017In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 123, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the next century to come, one of the biggest challenges is to provide the mankind with relevant and sufficient resources. Recovery of secondary resources plays a significant role. Industrial processes developed to regain minerals for commodity production in a circular economy become ever more important in the European Union and worldwide. Landfill mining (LFM) constitutes an important technological toolset of processes that regain resources and redistribute them with an accompanying reduction of hazardous influence of environmental contamination and other threats for human health hidden in former dump sites and landfills. This review paper is devoted to LFM problems, historical development and driving paradigms of LFM from 'classical hunting for valuables' to 'perspective in ecosystem revitalization'. The main goal is to provide a description of historical experience and link it to more advanced concept of a circular economy. The challenge is to adapt the existing knowledge to make decisions in accordance with both, economic feasibility and ecosystems revitalization aspects. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Hogland, Marika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Arina, Dace
    Inst Phys Energet, Latvia.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Jani, Yahya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    de Sa Salomao, Andre Luis
    Univ Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Rudovica, Vita
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas Technol Univ, Lithuania.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    Univ Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Remarks on four novel landfill mining case studies in Estonia and Sweden2018In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 1355-1363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In common sense, a landfill is a place where the life cycle of products ends. Landfill mining (LFM) mostly deals with former dumpsites and derived material may have a significant importance for the circular economy. Deliverables of recently applied LFM projects in Sweden and Estonia have revealed the potential and problems for material recovery. There are 75-100 thousand old landfills and dumps in the Baltic Sea Region, and they pose environmental risks to soil, water and air by pollution released from leachate and greenhouse gas emissions. Excavation of landfills is potential solution for solving these problems, and at the same time, there are perspectives to recover valuable lands and materials, save expenses for final coverage of the landfills and aftercare control. The research project "Closing the Life Cycle of Landfills-Landfill Mining in the Baltic Sea Region for Future" included investigation at four case studies in Estonia and Sweden: Kudjape, Torma, Hogbytorp and Vika landfills. Added value of this research project is characterization of waste fine fraction material, determination of concentration for most critical and rare earth elements. The main results showed that both, coarse and fine, fractions of waste might have certain opportunities of recovery.

  • 9.
    Hogland, Marika
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Celma, Gunita
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane
    University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. University of Latvia, Latvia.
    Preliminary analysis of elements in water supply sludge at Rönneholms Mosse fields, southern Sweden2018In: 18th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference (SGEM 2018): Conference Proceedings, Sofia: International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM , 2018, Vol. 18, no 1.4, p. 111-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sydvatten AB operates the water plant Ringsjö Agency in Stehag, Southern Sweden, and the company has since the 1970s deposited waterworks sludge in the sludge landfill at Rönneholms Mosse (bog), Sjöholmen (WGS84 55°48'46.1"N 13°18'25.6"E). In order to handle the produced future waterworks sludge from Ringsjö there was carried out a trenching and stratigraphic study of Ringsjö Agency waterworks sludge. The aim of the project was to roughly determine the mass balance for Fe and Al for the basis of the results to determine potential extraction and recycling opportunities for the iron and/or aluminum hydroxides of water treatment sludge. In addition trace elements and rare earth elements (REE) were studied. Analysis of 10 cores were characterized by technogenic stratigraphy, texture and color, results of geochemical studies of processed sludge recovered possible recycling opportunities to implement circular economy principles in sludge management. The Interreg Baltic Sea Region within the scope of project “Interactive Water Management” (IWAMA) has supported this study.

  • 10.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marika, Hogland
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Enhanced Landfill Mining: Material recovery, energy utilization and economics in the EU (Directive) perspective.2010In: Enhanced Landfill Mining and the transition of Sustainable Materials Management.: Proceedings of the International Academic Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining, Houthalen-Helchteren, Belgium, 2010, p. 209-222Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marika, Hogland
    Department of Engineering, Physics & Mathematics, Mid Sweden University.
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Financial aspects of landfill mining2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hogland, William
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Marika, Hogland
    Marques, Marcia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Financial aspects on Landfill Mining seen as a part of the urban mining.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Charlotte, Marchand
    University of Montréal, Canada.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mait, Kriipsalu
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Anders, Kihl
    Ragn-Sells AB, Sollentuna.
    Characterisation of excavated fine fraction and waste composition from a Swedish landfill2016In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 1292-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23.5% and 16.6%, respectively. The analysed calorific value (1.7 MJ kg-1), the potential of CH4 (4.74 m3 t-1 dry matter) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (5.6%) were low and offer low potential of energy. Sieving the fine fraction further showed that 80% was smaller than 2 mm. The fine represents a major fraction at any landfill (40%–70%), therefore, characterising the properties of this fraction is essential to find the potential of reusing/recycling or safely redisposing.

  • 14.
    Jani, Yahya
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Pehme, Kaur-Mikk
    Estonian University of Life Sciences, Estonia.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Denafas, Gintaras
    Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Composition of waste at an early EU-landfill of Torma in Estonia2017In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment / Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfills represent a continuous environmental threat due to the emission of different greenhouse gases, which are mainly responsible for the climate changes, and the contaminated leachate that affects the surface and ground water recipients. The circular economy approach appeared as a useful solution to reduce the depletion of the Earth’s natural resources and the environmental risk effects by considering all of the lost resources like wastes including the landfills as potential secondary resources. It is well known that characterizing the composition of landfill waste is an essential step in specifying the recycling methods. In the current research the waste composition at one of the first EU regulations-compliant sanitary landfills (the Torma landfill in Estonia) was studied. The results showed that the fine fraction (<20 mm) represented 53% of the total excavated waste materials while the waste to energy fraction (plastics, woods etc.) was the highest within the coarse fraction (>20 mm). The present work emphasized that mining landfills can be a good solution either for extracting primary raw materials like metals, as a source for recovering energy, or for acquiring landfill space.

  • 15.
    Kaczala, Fabio
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burlakovs, Juris
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bhatnagar, Amit
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (< 10 mm) of waste excavated from a municipal landfill2017In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (<10 mm) of excavated waste from an Estonian landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  • 16.
    Vergeles, Yuriy
    et al.
    National Academy of Municipal Economy, Ukraine.
    Butenko, Nataliya
    National Academy of Municipal Economy, Ukraine ; University of the Algarve, Portugal.
    Ishchenko, Andriy
    National Academy of Municipal Economy, Ukraine.
    Stolberg, Felix
    National Academy of Municipal Economy, Ukraine.
    Hogland, Marika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science. Natl Acad Municipal Econ, Ukraine.
    Formation and properties of sediments in constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewater2016In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 293-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments formation and biogeochemical properties were studied in an experimental constructed wetland site in Ukraine (Bioplato) for treatment of domestic effluents. The wetland, with a capacity of 50m(3) d(-1) of wastewater, consists of vertical and horizontal filtrations units with fine gravel, middle and coarse sand, a subsurface flow unit with natural wetland soil applied, and a septic tank and sludge-drying field. Macrophytes, reed (Phragmites australis), cattail (Typha latifolia) and a number of sedge species (Carex spp.) were planted in the area and dominate the average cover of 85-90%. Treatment efficiency for BOD5 and suspended solids was 93-96%, for COD - 82%, for nutrients - 27-50%, and for pathogenic microorganisms 99.3-99.6%. Sludge was sampled at each unit followed by standard laboratory analyses of its main characteristics: total organic carbon (TOC), total nutrients (N, P), contents of trace elements, abundance of pathogenic microorganisms, and general toxicity. Results confirmed that the top layer of sludge from each unit of wetland could be used as a source of fertilizers for grain and leguminous crops.

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