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  • 1.
    Alriksson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eklund, Mats
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Historical emissions from Swedish crystal-glass production and future scenarios of soil-lead pollution1999In: Environmental Reviews, Vol. 7, p. 53-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden, Stockholm.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth and Silver in Cosmetic Products: A Source of Environmental and Resource Concern?2016In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) and silver (Ag) are used in increasing amounts and are consequently being emitted from various sources and showing high accumulation rates in soils when sewage sludge is applied on arable land. This study aimed to analyze the amounts of Bi and Ag in three cosmetic products (foundation, powder, and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. Analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (7,000 to 360,000 milligrams per kilogram) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, whereas Ag concentrations all were below the detection limit. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24% of the measured total Bi amounts per year reaching the WWTP (wastewater treatment plant), making cosmetics a major Bi source, whereas for Ag the corresponding contribution was <0.1% of the measured annual Ag amounts. The results were roughly adapted for Europe and the United States, estimating the Bi flows from cosmetics to WWTPs. On a global scale, these flows correspond to a non-negligible part of the world Bi production that, every year, ends up in sewage sludge, limiting the reuse of a valuable metal resource. From an environmental and resource perspective, foundations and powder products should be considered as significant sources of measured Bi amounts in sludge. This large Bi flow must be considered as unsustainable. For Ag, however, the three analyzed cosmetic products are not a significant source of the total Ag load to WWTPs.

  • 3.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Monitoring urban copper flows in Stockholm, Sweden: implications of changes over time2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 903-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for copper (Cu) was conducted, in which theinflow, stock, and outflow (in the form of diffuse emissions to soil and water) for Stockholmwere estimated for 2013 and compared with a previous study from 1995, hence allowing adiscussion on changes over time. A large number of applications containing Cu were analyzed(including power cables, copper alloys, heavy electrical equipment, tap water systems, roofs,cars, various consumer electronics, wood preservatives, and contact cables for the railroad).The results show that the inflow of Cu to Stockholm has increased between 1995 and 2013,both in total and per person, mainly as the result of an increase in heavy electrical equipment,power cables, and cars. The stock remains relatively unchanged, whereas the outflow hasincreased. For the outflow, the emission increase from brake linings is of greatest quantitativeimportance, with an estimated 5.8 tonnes annual emission of Cu to the environment ofStockholm in 2013 compared to 3.9 tonnes in 1995. Given that increasing inflows of limitedresources drive the global demand, continuous monitoring of flows through society andmanagement of outflow routes are crucial, including improvement of national legislationand regional environmental plans as well as efforts to increase resource-use efficiency andrecycling

  • 4.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Upstream silver source mapping2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Upstream silver source mapping - a case study in Stockholm, Sweden2014In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 392-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver (Ag) can be a problem for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and their capability to use sewage sludge as a soil fertilizer. Due to a high accumulation rate in soils, the levels of Ag in the incoming water at the WWTP must be reduced. This study aims to identify major diffuse emission sources in the technosphere through a comprehensive substance flow analysis of Ag in Stockholm, Sweden. Large inflows and stocks of Ag were present in electrical and electronic goods and appliances as well as in jewellery and silverware. The total inflow was 3.2 tonnes (4.2 g/person), the total stock was 100 tonnes (140 g/person) and the total outflow was 330 kg (430 mg/person). Major identified Ag sources with emissions ending up in the WWTP (total 26 kg, 34 mg/person) were food, amalgam and beauty products (via urine and faeces, 12 mg/person or 11% of incoming amount), and textiles (via washing, 17 mg/person or 16% of incoming amount). This study explains approximately 35% of the total 80 kg Ag in the incoming water at Henriksdal WWTP in Stockholm. Plastic, photography and beauty products were identified as possible sources of Ag that need to be examined further.

  • 6.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Lagerkvist, Ragnar
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Kotsch, Maria
    Stockholm Vatten.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Strategier att reducera silver och vismut i urbant avloppsvatten2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Silver och vismut är två metaller som på sikt kan anrikas i mark i samband med slamspridning och som därför är prioriterade enligt REVAQ, ett certifieringssystem för svenska reningsverk.

    I Naturvårdsverkets förslag till ny författning (slamförordning) föreslås gränsvärden för bland annat silver. Silver är en toxisk tungmetall med antibakteriella egenskaper som ger skadliga effekter på båda människors hälsa och miljö redan vid låga koncentrationer. Vismut är en tungmetall som anses vara ”ogiftig” men som också kan ge skadliga effekter vid högre koncentrationer.

     

    En substansflödesanalys utfördes för båda metallerna för att kartlägga inflödet till, stocken (upplagrad mängd i teknosfären) och utflödet från Stockholm under 2012. Avgränsning har gjorts till utflöden som hamnar i avloppsvattnet och på det sättet påverkar Henriksdals reningsverk. Utflödet i substansflödesanalysen blir därmed lika med ett inflöde till reningsverket. Fokus ligger på diffusa utsläpp av silver och vismut, men identifierade punktkällor räknas in i det slutliga resultatet med målet att förklara så mycket som möjligt av de uppmätta halterna av silver och vismut i Henriksdals reningsverk. Källor som har ett utflöde till avfall eller återvinning har inte inkluderats i denna rapport.

     

    För år 2102 uppmättes en tillförsel av 61 kg silver och 116 kg vismut för Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm. Källor har identifierats för ca 56 % av uppmätt silver och 49 % av uppmätt vismut i denna studie. De källor med störst bidrag silver bedöms vara textilier (19 %), urin och fekalier (från bland annat amalgamfyllningar och föda) (15 %) samt städprodukter (7 %). För vismut är det kosmetika (23 %), plast (13 %) samt fordonstvättar (9 %) som bedöms vara källor med störst bidrag.

     

    Utifrån erhållna resultat föreslår vi några åtgärder/strategier för reduktion av silver respektive vismut i urbant avloppsvatten. Vi diskuterar även aktörer som har möjlighet/rådighet att genomföra åtgärderna (Svenskt Vatten, avloppsreningsverk, myndigheter, producenter, verksamhetsutövare samt individer/konsumenter). En strategi som föreslås är att myndigheter ska informera och påverka producenter och verksamhetsutövare när det gäller silver och vismut i olika produkter samt verka för ändrad lagstiftning. Producenter kan ta ett eget ansvar att minska silver- och vismutinnehåll i produkter. Två identifierade kunskapsluckor och potentiella källor är silver i städprodukter samt vismut i plast.

     

  • 7.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bismuth in cosmetic products and its implications for sewage sludge management2015In: SETAC Europe 25th Annual Meeting, Barcelona, 3-7 May, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bismuth (Bi) is a heavy metal that over recent years has shown increasing concentrations in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), indicating an increasing Bi use in the society. The high accumulation rate of Bi in soil when sewage sludge is used as fertilizer on arable land is of environmental concern. Bismuth is used in various consumer products to replace lead, but which sources in the society that explain the increasing amount of Bi in sewage sludge in the municipal WWTPs is however unknown. This study aimed to analyze one product group suspected to contain Bi, cosmetics, and three different products were chosen (foundation, powder and eye shadow) in order to study the flows in urban wastewater in Stockholm, Sweden. The chemical analyses showed that Bi was present in very high concentrations (>100 000 mg/kg) in one third of the analyzed foundation and powder samples, while mainly low concentrations were found in eye shadow. These cosmetic products explained approximately 24 % of the measured total Bi amounts reaching the WWTP in 2012, making cosmetics a major Bi source. It is therefore recommended to monitor the Bi concentrations in sewage sludge regularly. Efforts should be made to further examine the sources of Bi to WWTPs and to decrease the emission from Bi in cosmetics to the WWTPs.

  • 8.
    Amneklev, Jennie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistics Sweden.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The Increase in Bismuth Consumption as Reflected in Sewage Sludge2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 4, p. 1-11, article id 92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of dangerous substances in consumer products increases, these substances may also be found in society’s end products, among them sewage sludge. Measuring concentrations in sewage sludge can be a way to reflect the consumption of a substance. By using substance flow analysis, the inflow, stock and outflow of the specific substance to, e.g. a city region, may be analysed. Bismuth is a heavy metal that is found in increasing levels in sewage sludge in Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a similar increase cannot be excluded for WWTPs around the world. This study aims to examine possible sources that could explain the amounts measured in one Swedish WWTP. Household products such as cosmetics (24 %) and plastics (14 %) are found to be major sources of Bi measured in sewage sludge. The remaining unidentified amounts in this study (approximately 50 %) are most likely found in effluent waters from industries or sources outside the household. There is, however, no information on measurements of Bi released by industry available and there is no legislation in place that may encourage industry to conduct such measurements.

  • 9. Anderberg, S
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Flow and distribution of chromium in the Swedish environment: A new approach to studying environmental pollution1989In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 216-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Point source emission from industrial production processes has been themajor focus of environmental concern in the past. In this article it isargued that the accumulating amount of goods/products in societyshould also be focused on in the future. From these goods substances willsooner or later be leached out to the environment. A case study usingchromium in Sweden is presented in this paper as one example of asubstance that may accumulate in the environment. Total flows ofchromium for the 20th century, based on trade statistics, production ofgoods and persistence of products in the environment are estimated. Itwas found that yearly consumption emissions are higher than the productionemissions, i.e. point source emissions from different industries. 

  • 10. Anderberg, S
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Pattern of lead emissions in Sweden 1880-19801990Report (Other academic)
  • 11. Arnemo, R
    et al.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, D
    Persson, L-E
    Tobiasson, Stefan
    Kuststatus. Miljöfakta som underlag för planering1989Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Trace metals in recharge and discharge ground waters at two sites at the Baltic coast of Sweden2009In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1640-1652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution and controls of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and U) in shallow groundwater in discharge and recharge zones were analysed at two sites on the Baltic coast of Sweden; one granite-dominated and one with a significant addition of calcite. Although the study sites differ in overburden geochemistry and groundwater trace metal concentrations, which were well reflected in the general groundwater composition, the relative hydrochemical differences between recharge and discharge ground waters were similar at both sites, and temporally stable. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and U were higher in soil tubes in recharge areas, but Cr was higher in discharge zones. Also concentrations of HS, Fe, Mn and NH4 were higher in discharge samples, which in combination with increased 34S values provide strong evidence of a transition from oxidizing to more reducing conditions along the groundwater flow gradient. In terms of trace metals, this might mean either mobilisation due to dissolution of trace-metal carrying Fe(III) and Mn(IV) phases, or immobilisation caused by precipitation of discrete trace-metal sulfides or co-precipitation with Fe sulfides. The results from this study show that the latter is dominant in both the carbonate and granite environments for the metals Cd, Cu and Ni. Chromium concentrations were likely coupled to organic complexation and were higher in discharge groundwater, where DOC was also more abundant. As the concentration of several potentially toxic trace metals were found to differ between recharge and discharge areas, a climate driven change in hydrology might have a substantial impact on the distribution of these metals.

  • 13.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    The aspect of climate change in risk assessment of contaminated land2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Filipsson, Monika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Climate change - an uncertainty factor in risk analysis of contaminated land2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 22, p. 4693-4700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals frequently occur at contaminated sites, where their potential toxicity and persistence require risk assessments that consider possible long-term changes. Changes in climate are likely to affect the speciation, mobility, and risks associated with metals. This paper provides an example of how the climate effect can be inserted in a commonly used exposure model, and how the exposure then changes compared to present conditions. The comparison was made for cadmium (Cd) exposure to 4-year-old children at a highly contaminated iron and steel works site in southeastern Sweden. Both deterministic and probabilistic approaches (through probability bounds analysis, PBA) were used in the exposure assessment. Potential climate-sensitive variables were determined by a literature review. Although only six of the total 39 model variables were assumed to be sensitive to a change in climate (groundwater infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, soil moisture, soil:water distribution, and two bioconcentration factors), the total exposure was clearly affected. For example, by altering the climate-sensitive variables in the order of 15% to 20%, the deterministic estimate of exposure increased by 27%. Similarly, the PBA estimate of the reasonable maximum exposure (RME, defined as the upper bound of the 95th percentile) increased by almost 20%. This means that sites where the exposure in present conditions is determined to be slightly below guideline values may in the future exceed these guidelines, and risk management decisions could thus be affected. The PBA, however, showed that there is also a possibility of lower exposure levels, which means that the changes assumed for the climate-sensitive variables increase the total uncertainty in the probabilistic calculations. This highlights the importance of considering climate as a factor in the characterization of input data to exposure assessments at contaminated sites. The variable with the strongest influence on the result was the soil:water distribution coefficient (Kd).

  • 15.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Saarinen, Timo
    Effects of land use and climate change on erosion intensity and sediment geochemistry at Lake Lehmilampi, Finland2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1247-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate the possible relationships between erosion intensity and changes in climate and land use during the past 5.5 cal. k years at Lake Lehmilampi, eastern Finland. In this study we compare a detailed geochemical sediment record with (1) forest and land use history inferred from the first pollen and charcoal records from Lake Lehmilampi, and (2) existing archaeological surveys and independent proxy-records of climate change in the study region. The physical and geochemical sediment parameters examined include grain size analysis data and 23 chemical elements, determined with four selective extractions and ICP-MS. There are indications of possible human impact in the lake catchment as early as the Neolithic period, c. 3000-2550 bc, but the first undisputable signs are dated to 1800-100 bc. Cereal pollen reappears at c. ad 1700 and increases rapidly until c. ad 1950. The Holocene Thermal Maximum, its end c. 2000 bc, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly' were major climate events that had a prominent effect on erosion intensity, while human impact was a more significant factor during the period 3000 bc-ad 800 and from ad 1500 onwards. Although signs of changes in erosion intensity found in the sediment were small in this small catchment, they were significant enough to have a clear impact on the fraction of potentially mobile element species. This fraction increases with decreasing erosion intensity, which is probably related to a higher degree of chemical weathering and leaching during periods of decreased erosion.

  • 16.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Saarinen, Timo
    Turku University.
    Haltia-Hovi, Eeva
    Turku University.
    Trace metal and geochemical variability during 5,500 years in the sediment of Lake Lehmilampi, Finland2010In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 1025-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-resolution geochemical profilefrom a 5,500-year-old sediment core of Lake Lehmilampiin eastern Finland was analyzed to study longtermtrends and variability in element concentrationsand accumulation rates. The accumulation rates of allstudied elements followed the same trend, respondingto changes in the total sedimentation rate. Concentrationprofiles differed among elements and showedconsiderable variation over time. Principal componentsanalysis (PCA) was used on the concentrationdata to identify groups of elements that have similargeochemical controls. The first principal componentwas influenced by changes in mineral matter accumulation,and it incorporated elements that areassociated with stable allochthonous minerals (suchas Mg, K, Cs, Rb, Li, Ti and Ga), as well as elementsin forms that become diluted when mineral matterincreases (e.g., S, Fe and Mn). The second and thirdprincipal components showed that a large proportionof the variance was accounted for by elements withcontinuously increasing or decreasing concentrationsrelated to pedogenetical development of the catchmentsoil. In the case of Hg, Pb and Cd, however,accumulation rates increased faster at the surface thanis simply accounted for by changes in total sedimentationrates. For Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn, concentrationsincreased over the past 150 years, but there were noindications of a significant addition due to atmosphericdeposition. These elements had more variableconcentrations before the mid nineteenth century thanafter, as did elements that are often used fornormalization. These findings suggest that lakesediments may not properly reflect the history of atmospheric metal deposition in remote areas.

  • 17.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Elert, M.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Höglund, L. O.
    Kemakta Konsult.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute ; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    High metal reactivity and environmental risks at a site contaminated by glass waste2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 154, p. 434-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the reactivity and risks of metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As and Sb) at a Swedish site with large glass waste deposits. Old glassworks sites typically have high total metal concentrations, but as the metals are mainly bound within the glass waste and considered relatively inert, environmental investigations at these kinds of sites are limited. In this study, soil and landfill samples were subjected to a sequential chemical extraction procedure. Data from batch leaching tests and groundwater upstream and downstream of the waste deposits were also interpreted. The sequential extraction revealed that metals in <2 mm soil/waste samples were largely associated with geochemically active fractions, indicating that metals are released from pristine glass and subsequently largely retained in the surrounding soil and/or on secondary mineral coatings on fine glass particles. From the approximately 12,000 m(3) of coarse glass waste at the site, almost 4000 kg of Pb is estimated to have been lost through corrosion, which, however, corresponds to only a small portion of the total amount of Pb in the waste. Metal sorption within the waste deposits or in underlying soil layers is supported by fairly low metal concentrations in groundwater. However, elevated concentrations in downstream groundwater and in leachates of batch leaching tests were observed for several metals, indicating on-going leaching. Taken together, the high metal concentrations in geochemically active forms and the high amounts of as yet uncorroded metal-rich glass, indicate considerable risks to human health and the environment.

  • 18.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bly - förekomst och flöden i Sveriges teknosfär samt belastning på miljön1998Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Consumption emissions of Cadmium - An environmental problem?1996In: OECD Proceedings Cadmium Workshop, Saltsjöbaden, Sweden, 16-20 October 1995 In Sources of Cadmium in the environment, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Flow and accumulation of chromium in Sweden1989In: 7th International Conference, Geneva In Proc. Heavy Metals in the Environment; Vernet, J.P. (ed.), 1989Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Förekomst av tungmetaller i slam från Degerhamns reningsverk2001Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Indikatorer för kvicksilver, kadmium och bly i samhället2004Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linköping University Studies in Arts and Science.
    Industrial Metabolism. The Emerging Landscape of Heavy Metal Immission in Sweden1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Metaller i Stockholm - kunskapssammanställningar av metallflöden via olika verksamheter i Stockholm1998Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Metallhalter studeras i Stockholmsmarken1995Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Past consumption - Future load1993In: 9th International Conference, Toronto In Proc. Heavy metals in the Environment; Allan R.J. & Nriagu J.O. (eds.), 1993Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    SFA as a tool for environmental risk assessments2006In: The International Environmetrics Society 7th International conference on qualitative methods for the Environmental sciences, 18-22 June 2006, University of Kalmar, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Undersökning av tungmetallhalter i mark inom NiFe Jungners industriområde i Fliseryd1992Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Undersökning av tungmetallhalter i mark och vatten i anslutning till Ruda Exportträs fd tryckimpregneringsanläggning1993Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Urban metal flows2001In: Account 2001, Statistics Sweden. Stockholm 26-27 April 2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Urban Metal Metabolism1999In: Proceedings Kalmar Eco-Tech´99, Kalmar Sweden, 22-24 September 1999, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Utvärdering av tidigare recipientanalyser, AB Bitus Nybro2000Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Anderberg, S
    Lohm, Ulrik
    A reconstruction of emission, flow and accumulation of chromium in Sweden 1920-19801989In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 48, p. 391-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reconstruction of Cr emissions in Sweden is presented. Estimations of total flows for 1920in 1980 were based on trade statistics, production of goods and life-length of products in society. Asimple model was used to calculate amounts of Cr accumulated in soil and sediment at different times.The importance of production emissions from tanneries and ferrochrome and steel plants is obvious,but, in the future, diffuse emissions of the same magnitude may occur from Cr products within urbanareas. 

  • 34.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Anderberg, S
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Accumulated Environmental Impact: The Case of Cadmium in Sweden1994In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 145, p. 13-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Anderberg, S
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Lead load: Historical pattern of lead use in Sweden1992In: Ambio, Vol. 21, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, H
    Metallflöden i Kalmar1995Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, H
    Eriksson, B
    Metallflöden i Kalmar kommun1994Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bayard, Ann-Christin
    Sustainable Sweden SouthEast.
    Sörme, Louise
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Avfall i Småland - en resursgruva2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever idag till stor del i en linjär ekonomi där varor produceras, används och sedan slängs. En ökande materialanvändning genererar stora avfallsflöden, varav en stor mängd går till avfallsförbränning. Samhällets ämnesomsättning ger även upphov till stora mängder slam vid rening av avloppsvatten. Näringen i slammet behöver tas tillvara och återföras till jordbruksmark, vilken inte alltid sker idag. Om man jämför samhällets flöden av material med ekologiska system finns det inget som är avfall i naturen. Istället blir en organisms avfall någon annans näring. En mer cirkulär ekonomi vill härma naturen på det sättet.

    Projektet ”Samhällets restprodukter – framtidens resurser” vill närma sig den cirkulära ekonomin genom att fokusera hur två av samhällets största restprodukter, avfall och slam, bättre kan användas i ett resurseffektivt samhälle. Projektets syfte är att ge en ökad användning av samhällets restprodukter i Småland, ge företag bättre lönsamhet genom billigare råvaror samt stärka företag som utvecklar tekniska lösningar för utvinning av ämnen. Projektets övergripande mål är att identifiera strömmar av restprodukter i Småland som kan användas som en resurs av andra företag i närheten.

    Denna rapport ”Avfall i Småland – en resursgruva” redovisar efter det första projektåret främst en kunskapsbank vad gäller avfallsflöden i Småland. Det är första gången i Sverige som avfallsdata bryts ner på regional nivå på detta sätt, vilket gör det möjligt att mer detaljerat identifiera värdefulla och outnyttjade avfallsflöden. Rapporten innehåller data över resursgruvan avfall, avfall både från hushåll och olika verksamheter och även data om hur detta avfall tas om hand. Den innehåller också basfakta om Småland, befolkning och näringsliv samt en del om den speciella anda som finns i Småland, Smålandsandan som ger en god förutsättning för entreprenörskap. Vidare innehåller rapporten inledande tankar på hur man kan arbeta för att få resursanvändningen mer cirkulär i Småland. Här finns exempel på framgångsfaktorer utifrån erfarenheter från olika företag. Slutligen finns också en del om lagar och regler, t.ex. vad som gäller om man ska ta emot avfall.

    Rapporten visar att det finns mycket blandade fraktioner i det uppkomna avfallet i Småland. Vidare går en betydande del av det avfall som behandlas till förbränning. Det finns med andra ord en stor potential att sortera och återvinna mer. Detta ger goda förutsättningar att finna avfall från en verksamhet som kan vara en resurs för en annan. Huvudsyftet med projektets arbete år två är att verka för matchning mellan företag för att bättre använda restprodukten avfall. Arbetet kommer även att inriktas mot slam, med syftet att öka användningen av denna restprodukt.

     

  • 39.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Borg, L
    Effect of acidification on uptake of Rubidium, Potassium and Ammonium ions by Spruce1989In: Journal of plant nutrition, ISSN 0190-4167, E-ISSN 1532-4087, Vol. 12, p. 1473-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Borg, Lars
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Försurningens inverkan på upptaget av magnesium- och kalciumjoner hos gran1990Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, Margareta
    Heritage of Cadmium and Lead - A Case Study of a Swedish Accumulator Factory1995In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 166, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eklund, Mats
    Lohm, Ulrik
    Svidén, J
    Duration of soil cadmium and lead pollution from shale-based alum production1997In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Vol. 58, p. 309-317Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hjortenkrans, David
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Månsson, Nina
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kadmium i Stockholm – en substansflödesanalys2005Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Håkansson, K
    Karlsson, S
    Long-range spreading of metals from a mine waste deposit1989In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, , p. 68-74p. 68-74Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, K
    Environmental problems and present policies on mercury in Sweden2001In: 6th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant. Minamata, Japan, 15-19 October 2001, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, K
    Metaller i stad och land - kretslopp och kritisk belastning1994Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, K
    Metaller i stad och land - kretslopp och kritisk belastning1996Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, K
    Metaller i stad och land. Miljöproblem och åtgärdsstrategier2002Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Mohlander, Ulf
    Urban metal flow - Review and Conclusions. A Case study of Stockholm.2001In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, Vol. 1, no 010101, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, A
    Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental1998In: The Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate Report, Vol. 1/98Article in journal (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 104
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