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  • 1.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gaillard, Marie-José
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mazier, Florence
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Saarinen, Timo
    Effects of land use and climate change on erosion intensity and sediment geochemistry at Lake Lehmilampi, Finland2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1247-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to evaluate the possible relationships between erosion intensity and changes in climate and land use during the past 5.5 cal. k years at Lake Lehmilampi, eastern Finland. In this study we compare a detailed geochemical sediment record with (1) forest and land use history inferred from the first pollen and charcoal records from Lake Lehmilampi, and (2) existing archaeological surveys and independent proxy-records of climate change in the study region. The physical and geochemical sediment parameters examined include grain size analysis data and 23 chemical elements, determined with four selective extractions and ICP-MS. There are indications of possible human impact in the lake catchment as early as the Neolithic period, c. 3000-2550 bc, but the first undisputable signs are dated to 1800-100 bc. Cereal pollen reappears at c. ad 1700 and increases rapidly until c. ad 1950. The Holocene Thermal Maximum, its end c. 2000 bc, and the Medieval Climate Anomaly' were major climate events that had a prominent effect on erosion intensity, while human impact was a more significant factor during the period 3000 bc-ad 800 and from ad 1500 onwards. Although signs of changes in erosion intensity found in the sediment were small in this small catchment, they were significant enough to have a clear impact on the fraction of potentially mobile element species. This fraction increases with decreasing erosion intensity, which is probably related to a higher degree of chemical weathering and leaching during periods of decreased erosion.

  • 2.
    Augustsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Saarinen, Timo
    Turku University.
    Haltia-Hovi, Eeva
    Turku University.
    Trace metal and geochemical variability during 5,500 years in the sediment of Lake Lehmilampi, Finland2010In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 1025-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-resolution geochemical profilefrom a 5,500-year-old sediment core of Lake Lehmilampiin eastern Finland was analyzed to study longtermtrends and variability in element concentrationsand accumulation rates. The accumulation rates of allstudied elements followed the same trend, respondingto changes in the total sedimentation rate. Concentrationprofiles differed among elements and showedconsiderable variation over time. Principal componentsanalysis (PCA) was used on the concentrationdata to identify groups of elements that have similargeochemical controls. The first principal componentwas influenced by changes in mineral matter accumulation,and it incorporated elements that areassociated with stable allochthonous minerals (suchas Mg, K, Cs, Rb, Li, Ti and Ga), as well as elementsin forms that become diluted when mineral matterincreases (e.g., S, Fe and Mn). The second and thirdprincipal components showed that a large proportionof the variance was accounted for by elements withcontinuously increasing or decreasing concentrationsrelated to pedogenetical development of the catchmentsoil. In the case of Hg, Pb and Cd, however,accumulation rates increased faster at the surface thanis simply accounted for by changes in total sedimentationrates. For Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn, concentrationsincreased over the past 150 years, but there were noindications of a significant addition due to atmosphericdeposition. These elements had more variableconcentrations before the mid nineteenth century thanafter, as did elements that are often used fornormalization. These findings suggest that lakesediments may not properly reflect the history of atmospheric metal deposition in remote areas.

  • 3.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences ; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    The impact of fluoride on Al abundance and speciation in boreal streams2015In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 409, p. 118-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of fluoride on the abundance and speciation of aluminium (Al) was investigated in three boreal streams characterised by overall high concentrations of fluoride and dissolved organic matter. Stream-water sampling was carried out several times a year for at least 4 years, and a chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ) was applied in order to model the proportion of colloidal and organically/inorganically complexed Al in the waters. The Al concentrations in filtered (0.45 mu m) water samples were inversely correlated with pH, and reached values up to approximately 1 mg/L during low pH conditions (pH < 6.0). In a stream with high fluoride concentrations, as compared to a similar stream with only moderately elevated fluoride concentrations, the Al concentrations were consistently elevated. For the stream with high concentrations of fluoride and Al, the model predicted both high concentrations and proportions of Al-fluoride complexation. This prediction indicates that high fluoride levels contribute to raise both the Al abundance and the ratio of inorganic to organic Al complexation in stream water. In contrast, for another stream with high fluoride concentrations and consistently high (near neutral) pH, there was no evidence of fluoride affecting Al concentration or complexation. These results show that it is important to focus future studies on the role of high levels of dissolved fluoride on both the speciation and the toxicity of Al in stream water.

  • 4.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Fluoride patterns in a boreal stream influenced by bedrock and hydrology2011In: Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2011. Mineralogical Magazine, Vol. 75 (3), 2011, p. 517-517Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Impact of a Fluorine-Rich Granite Intrusion on Levels and Distribution of Fluoride in a Small Boreal Catchment2012In: Aquatic geochemistry, ISSN 1380-6165, E-ISSN 1573-1421, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 77-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the influence of a fluorine-rich granite on fluoride concentration in a small boreal catchment in northern Europe. The materials include stream water and shallow groundwater sampled in spatial and temporal dimensions, and analytical data on fluoride and a number of ancillary variables. Fluoride increased strongly towards the lower reaches of the catchment—at the stream outlet the concentrations were up to 4.2 mg L −1 and 1.6–4.7 times higher than upstream. Additionally, fluoride concentrations were particularly high in groundwater and small surface-water bodies (including quarries) above or in direct contact with the granite and showed a strong inverse correlation with water discharge in the stream. Taken together, these data and patterns pin-point the granite intrusion as the ultimate source, explaining the abundance and distribution of dissolved fluoride within the catchment. The granite most likely deliver fluoride to the stream by three mechanisms: (1) weathering of the fine fraction of glacial deposits, derived from the granite and associated fluorine-rich greisen alterations, (2) large relative input of baseflow, partially originating in the granite and greisen, into the lower reaches during low flow in particular, and (3) water-conducting fractures or fracture zones running through the fluorine-rich granite and greisen.

  • 6.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Svensson, Daniel
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fluorine geochemistry of Quaternary deposits in a nemo-boreal catchment with elevated dissolved fluoride in surface waters and groundwaterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Yu, Changxun
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Svensson, Daniel
    Aspö Hard Rock Lab, Oskarshamn.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Fluorine geochemistry of quaternary deposits in a nemo-boreal catchment with elevated dissolved fluoride in surface waters and groundwater2016In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 170, p. 148-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on fluorine (F) concentrations and solid-phase speciation in Quaternary deposits, including till, sorted sediments (gravel, sand, clay/silt) and organic-rich soil types, in an area in southeast Sweden underlain by 1.8 Ga granites and quartz monzodiorites with moderate F concentrations (0.11-0.13 wt%) and an outcrop (5 km in diameter) of 1.45 Ga granite (the Gotemar granite) with high to very high F concentrations (0.38-0.54 wt%). Eighteen <1 to 5 m thick profiles were sampled both upon and in the vicinity of the Gotemar granite. The F concentrations in the Quaternary deposits were considerably lower than in the underlying fresh bedrock, with the overall highest concentrations in glacial clay having values up to 660 ppm. A contributing factor to the low F concentrations in the till, as compared to the fresh rock, is release and leaching of fluoride (F-) during alteration of biotite and amphiboles to secondary minerals. Sequential chemical extractions showed that the F in the Quaternary deposits exists mainly in the residual fraction, and also to a substantial extent in phases extractable with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the till and in phases extractable with Na pyrophosphate in the organic-rich soil types. These features indicate that after release via alteration of primary minerals, F- has to a significant extent been scavenged by Fe/Al (and perhaps Mn) oxyhydroxides in the till and by labile organic matter in the organic soil types. The high F- concentrations previously reported for stream waters and regolith groundwaters in the area are due to weathering and leaching of the Quaternary deposits and discharge of fluoride-rich waters from underlying bedrock fractures. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Berger, Tobias
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    High fluoride concentrations in surface water: example from a catchment in SE Sweden2010In: Abstract Volume of COST Action 637- METEAU 4th International Conference. Kristianstad, Sweden, October 13-15, 2010. / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Sandhi, A. and Rosborg, I., Stockholm: Department of Land and Water Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology , 2010, p. 80-81Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Brun, Christian
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Spatial distribution of major, trace and ultra trace elements in three Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in boreal forests, Forsmark, Sweden2010In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 159, no 3-4, p. 252-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial distribution of 49 major, trace and ultra trace elements within a Norway spruce system was examined in three sites within the Forsmark area in central Sweden. The system included stemwood, roots, fresh green shoots, litterbags, humus, mineral soil, rhizosphere soil and moss. Based on Principal Component Analysis and manual plots the elements were grouped according to their distribution within the different compartments. One large group of elements occurring abundantly in the soil, and in much lower concentrations in the biota and litter was distinguished, containing mainly elements typically associated with soil minerals. A similar pattern was found for a second group of elements, but with higher concentrations in the biological samples and/or litter. In contrast, there was also one group of elements with high concentrations in biological samples and/or litter and low content in soil. This was mainly nutrients, but also the highly toxic Cd, Hg and Sb. This study is part of the site investigation programme, carried out by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), in order to locate a suitable area for a deep repository for nuclear fuel waste.

  • 10.
    Brun, Christian
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements in the Environment: Environmental Protection, Remediation and Human Health.2007In: Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements in the Environment: Environmental Protection, Remediation and Human Health., Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements in the Environment / [ed] Yongguan Zhu, Nicholas Lepp and Ravi Naidu, Beijing: Tsinghua University Press , 2007, p. 588-589Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Brun, Christian
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Patterns in major and trace element dynamics during long-term decomposition of boreal forest litters2007In: GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA 71 (15), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Brun, Christian
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Trends in major and trace elements in decomposing needle litters during a long-term experiment in Swedish forests2008In: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Plant and Soil, Vol. 306Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Exposure to contaminated sediments during recreational activities at a public bathing place2009In: Presentation vid SRA Europe annual meeting i Karlstad, 28 juni-1 juli 2009., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Filipsson, Monika
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Öberg, Tomas
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Exposure to contaminated sediments during recreational activities at a public bathing place2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 171, no 1-3, p. 200-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more time is spent on recreational activities, but few risk assessments focus specifically on these situations and exposure factor data are often scarce. To assess exposure to contaminants at a public bathing place in an urban environment, we have compiled literature data, conducted observation studies, and analyzed water and sediment samples. The levels of anthropogenic contaminants are high in urban environments and traffic frequently plays an important role. In this study, to characterize variability and uncertainty, the deterministic exposure calculations for metal pollutants were supplemented by a probability bounds analysis for the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The results from these calculations show that oral intake is the major exposure route for metals, while skin absorption, with present assumptions, is more important for the PAH. The presently measured levels of contaminants, at this public bathing place, cannot be anticipated to cause any significant adverse influence on public health.

  • 15. Fältmarsch, R
    et al.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Raitio, H
    Abundance, correlations and spatial patterns of nutrients and metals in till, humus, moss and pine needles in a boreal forest, western Finland2007In: Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, ISSN 1467-7873, E-ISSN 2041-4943, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Maskenskaya, Olga M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Geochemical variation of fracturecarbonates in crystalline bedrock2011In: Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2011. Mineralogical Magazine, Mineralogical Society , 2011, p. 1421-1421Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Mathurin, Frédéric A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tullborg, Eva-Lena
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Berger, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Kalinowski, Birgitta E.
    Swedish Nucl Fuel & Waste Management Co.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals2014In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 132, p. 187-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 mu g L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 degrees C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydro-chemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Aspo HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Aspo HRL: 4.1 mu g L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 mu g L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Aspo HRL: 4.2 mu g L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the groundwater of marine origin are, in contrast, explained by relatively fast cation exchange reactions. As indicated by the field data and predicted by 1D solute transport modeling, alkali cations with low-energy hydration carried by intruding marine water are capable of (NH4+ in particular and K+ to some extent) replacing Cs+ on frayed edge (FES) sites on illite in the fracture coatings. The result is a rapid and persistent (at least in the order of decades) buildup of dissolved Cs concentrations in fractures where marine water flows downward. The identification of high Cs concentrations in young groundwater of marine origin and the predicted capacity of NH4+ to displace Cs from fracture solids are of particular relevance in the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18. Nordmyr, Linda
    et al.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Metal pollution of estuarine sediments caused by leaching of acid sulphate soils2008In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 141-152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Provtagning av vatten och sediment för analys av organiska och ickeorganiska miljögifter vid sjön Trekanten, Liljeholmen, Stockholm2006Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Brun, Christian
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tomilina, Olga
    High K/Rb ratios in stream waters - Exploring plant litter decay, ground water and lithology as potential controlling mechanisms2008In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 257, no 1-2, p. 92-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Virtasalo, Joonas
    Öberg, Tomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Geochemistry of surface sediments in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland: a multiparameter and multivariate study2011In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 725-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the geochemistry of soft, organic-rich brackish-water surface sediments in the Archipelago Sea (SW Finland). The area is one of the world’s largest archipelagos, and, although it is scarcely populated, frequent ship and boat traffic along with fish farming occurs. From 76 sites, 47 chemical elements were determined after aqua regia digestion. Other parameters determined were grain size, water, organic and nitrogen contents. At sampling, the sediments were visually classified into groups representing oxic, anoxic and fluctuating (intermediate) oxic seafloor conditions. The results show that the element concentrations are quite similar to other studies in the region but with clear signs of lower anthropogenic loading. Point source pollution was identified in one sample taken nearby a fish farm and a cable ferry. This site was strongly enriched in Cu, Zn and Sn derived from chemicals used in either, or both, activities at the site. Overall, the sediments can be divided into two groups that separate chemically and geographically. One group contains more fine-grained sediments that occur near shore, while the other group contains more anoxic, organic and sulfur-rich sediments occurring more offshore. The second group is interpreted to reflect material reworked from previous deposits as a result of shoaling of the area due to glacio-isostatic land uplift. The visual classes were included in both partial least squares regression (PLSR) and PLS discriminant analysis. These analyses showed that the oxic and anoxic seafloor sediments can be predicted from the chemical variables and grain-size distribution.

  • 22.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Can boron and boron isotopes be used as a sedimentary marker for fire events? A case study from a historic urban fire event in W Finland”2006In: Applied geochemistry, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 941-948Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Can boron isotopes be used as a sedimentary marker for fire events?: a case study from a historic urban fire event in W Finland2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 941-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to seek the origin of a B peak found in two sediment profiles from a small lake close to a small-sized town in Finland. The peak was found by chance when an environmental multielement study was performed. Altogether 51 chemical elements were determined with ICP-MS, after aqua regia digestion. None of the other determined elements were enriched or depleted in the B rich layer, including elements derived from sea-salt inclusions (Na and Sr) and anthropogenic sources (Pb, Cu, Cd, Hg, etc.). Boron stable isotopes, dating of the sediment cores, and the B concentrations found in possible source materials suggest that the B rich layer is the result of leaching of wood ash produced in a fire that destroyed half of the nearby wooden town in the early 19th century. The results imply that the concentrations and isotopic signatures of B in lacustrine environments (sediments) can be used to detect historic fires

  • 24.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    Concentations and leachability of chemical elements in estuarine sulfur-rich sediments, W. Finland2002In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 284, no 1-3, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations, distributions and mobility of chemical elements were investigated in reduced sulfur-rich estuarine sediments located in western Finland. The main objective was to determine the possible extent of metal leaching when dredged masses of these sulfur-rich sediments are dumped on the land and thus exposed to air. When dredged, the reduced sulfur in the sediments oxidises resulting in a lowering of pH, which in turn is expected to leach metals. The study area is an artificial lake claimed from the Botnian sea in 1962. In this lake, several mass-kills of fish have occurred, believed partly to be due to dredging. Two sediment samples (0–50 and 50–100 cm) were taken from 39 sampling points in the lake. These samples were leached in aqua regia (2:2:2 HNO3/HCl/H2O) and analysed for Fe, Al, Mg, Ca, K, P, Na, Mn, Zn, Ba, V, Sr, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, As, Pb, B, Mo and Cd with ICP-AES. Sulfur and organic carbon were analysed with Leco. In a controlled laboratory experiment, the sediments were allowed to oxidise for 1 year while moisturised with deionised water every month. The pH and conductivity were determined in the beginning of the experiment (reduced state) and in the end (oxidised state). In the supernatants in the oxidised states the amount of leached metals (Na, Al, Mn, Zn, Sr, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, U, Li, Rb and As) were determined with ICP-MS. The sediments were found to contain low levels of toxic metals but, as expected, high concentrations of sulfur. In the experiment, pH was lowered (down to 3.0) and the conductivity increased in all samples due to oxidation and release of metal ions. The extent of leaching varied between 0.03% for As and 12.3% for Na. Critical pH values, at which high amounts of metals begin to leach, were obtained graphically. These values varied between 4.8 (Ni) and 3.3 (Cr). Not all elements were controlled by pH, e.g. Mn correlated well with its aqua regia leachable concentration. In a planned dredging operation in the area some 23 300 t (10 500 m3) (dry wt.) of sediments will be dredged. The amounts of metals likely to be leached, according to the results from this study, are as follows (kg): Al (1710), Mn (1230), Zn (59), Sr (39), Co (13), Ni (12), Cu (2) and less than 1 kg of Cd–Cr–As–Pb.

  • 25.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Concentrations and leachability of chemical elements in estuarine sulphur-rich sediments, W. Finland2002In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 284, p. 109-122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Urban geochemistry: a multimedia and multielement survey of a northern small-town urban area2003In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 397-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and distributions of chemical elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La,Mg,Mn,Mo, Na,Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Te, Th, Ti, Tl,U, V, Wand Zn) were studied in till, humus and urban soil in Jakobstad, a small town (20,000 inhabitants)in W. Finland. The analyses were performed with ICP-MS after aqua regia leaching of till (n = 37), urban topsoil (n = 32) and subsoil (n = 32), and HNO3 leaching of humus (n = 37). The till and humus samples, collected at the same sites, were divided into urban and rural samples. The urban till was not significantly enriched in metals. In contrast, a majority of the elements occurred in higher concentrations in the urban than the rural humus samples. Statistical and spatial interpretations of the humus data revealed that traffic (Pb, V and Ni), metal industry (Pb, Zn, Bi, Sb and Cr), an abandoned shooting range (Pb and Sb) and other sources contribute to higher metal levels in the urban humus. The urban soil samples were collected at parks, yards, abandoned industrial sites, roadsides, etc. The topsoil samples were enriched in most elements, also by elements not enriched in the urban humus (e.g. Cd). At several sites, the concentrations far exceeded the limit concentrations for contaminatedsoils in Finland. A large variety of sources were identified or indicated. 

  • 27.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Urban geochemistry: a multimedia and multielement survey of a small town in northern Europe2003In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, Vol. 25, p. 397-419Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Peltola, Pasi
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Virtasalo, Joonas
    Kotilainen, Aarno
    Salminen, Reijo
    Tracking mobile niobium in the boreal environment with a "multi-survey" approach2007In: GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA 71 (15), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Lavergren, Ulf
    County Administrative Board of Gotland, Sweden.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Retention and transport of arsenic, uranium and nickel in a black shale setting revealed by a long-term humidity cell test and sequential chemica extractions2014In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 363, p. 134-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dispersion of acidic solutions with high levels of metals/metalloids, as a result of oxidative weathering of pyritic geomaterials, is a major environmental problem in areas where these materials are widely distributed and/or were historically mined. In this study, four types of materials encountered in an old black-shale mining area (unweathered black shale, weathered black shale, burnt black shale, and lime-mixed burnt black shale) were subjected to a long-term (up to 137 weeks) humidity cell test (HCT) combined with sequential chemical extractions (SCE), with the aim of examining geochemical controls on the release of Ni, U and As in this kind of pyritic settings. By combining the results of HCT and SCE as well as previously collected groundwater data, it is clearly shown that the degree of pyrite oxidation is the only major factor controlling the release of Ni, resulting in its highly elevated concentrations in acidic groundwaters. Although U followed a similar leaching pattern as observed for Ni and occurred abundantly in acidic groundwaters, a major decrease in the chemical fraction targeting exchangeable and carbonate phases, and a correlation of U concentrations with redox potential in groundwaters collectively suggest that the release of U was largely controlled by the solubilization of sorbed/carbonate U phases by oxidation to the highly soluble form (UO22+). As compared to the HCT, the SCE procedures used in this study delivered equally good estimates of Ni, U and S cumulatively leached, suggesting the strength of the SCE in terms of quantification of these elements during the weathering of pyritic geomaterials. Arsenic X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy shows that during the HCT (oxidation and leaching) of unweathered black shale, As was oxidized from its reduced form (having the oxidation state of -1 and most probably occurs as arsenian pyrite) to As(+5). Compared to the two cationic metals, As was released to a very limited extent and was not detectable in the leachates having pH between 6 and 3. This is because As was speciated exclusively as negatively-charged oxyanions in these leachates as predicted by MINTEQ modeling, thus was effectively attenuated by concurrently formed iron minerals. These minerals include mainly schwertmannite and K-jarosite as observed by SEM-EDS and also predicted by MINTEQ modeling. Elevated levels of As exclusively occurred in the groundwaters from one tube strongly impacted by seawater intrusion. This was regarded as a reflection of loosely-sorbed As oxyanions reliberated through ion exchange with seawater chloride. In this context, sea-level rise on a global scale as a potential driver for arsenic remobilization in low-lying coastal areas deserves further attention.

  • 30.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Nystrand, Miriam I.
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Virtasalo, Joonas J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Ojala, Antti E. K.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Högmalm, Johan K.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Arsenic removal from contaminated brackish sea water by sorption onto Al hydroxides and Fe phases mobilized by land-use2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 542, p. 923-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of arsenic (As) in solid and aqueous materials along the mixing zone of an estuary, located in the south-eastern part of the Bothnian Bay and fed by a creek running through an acid sulfate (AS) soil landscape. The concentrations of As in solution form (<1 kDa) increase steadily from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, suggesting that inflowing seawater, rather than AS soil, is the major As source in the estuary. In sediments at the outer estuary, As was accumulated and diagenetically cycled in the surficial layers, as throughout much of the Bothnian Bay. In contrast, in sediments in the inner estuary, As concentrations and accumulation rates showed systematical peaks at greater depths. These peaks were overall consistent with the temporal trend of past As discharges from the Ronnskar smelter and the accompanied As concentrations in past sea-water of the Bothnian Bay, pointing to a connection between the historical smelter activities and the sediment-bound As in the inner estuary. However, the concentrations and accumulation rates of As peaked at depths where the smelter activities had already declined, but a large increase in the deposition of Al hydroxides and Fe phases occurred in response to intensified land-use in the mid 1960's and early 1970's. This correspondence suggests that, apart from the inflowing As-contaminated seawater, capture by Al hydroxides, Fe hydroxides and Fe-organic complexes is another important factor for As deposition in the inner estuary. After accumulating in the sediment, the solid-phase As was partly remobilized, as reflected by increased pore-water As concentrations, a process favored by As(V) reduction and high concentrations of dissolved organic matter. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peng, Bo
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Xiaoyan Tang, Tang
    Shurong, Xie
    Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China2012In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 375-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EFbedrock (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health.

  • 32.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Virtasalo, Joonas J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Umea Univ.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Osterholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Burton, Edward D.
    So Cross Univ, Australia.
    Arppe, Laura
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Hogmalm, Johan K.
    Univ Gothenburg.
    Ojala, Antti E. K.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland..
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Iron behavior in a northern estuary: Large pools of non-sulfidized Fe(II) associated with organic matter2015In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 413, p. 73-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The estuaries of the Northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia) receive an abundance of diagenetically reactive catchment-derived Fe, which is to a large degree complexed with organicmatter or present as Fe (hydr-) oxides. However, our understanding of sedimentary Fe diagenesis in these estuaries is limited. To address this limitation, the present study examines Fe geochemistry in a 3.5-m-thick estuarine benthic mud layer and three samples of suspended particulate matter of a catchment on the eastern Gulf of Bothnia. The age-depth model of the mud, constructed on the basis of sedimentary features as well as Cs-137 and aquatic plant C-14 determinations, revealed a high average rate of sedimentation (5 cm . yr(-1)) for the upper mud unit (0-182.5 cm, corresponding to 1973-2011), in response to intensive land-use (ditching) in the catchment since the 1960s and 1970s. The intensive land-use has resulted in a strong increase in the Fe accumulation rates, but has not caused a recognizable impact on the diagenetic processes of Fe including features such as degree of sulfidization and solid-phase partitioning. Iron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicated that in the suspended particulate matter, large proportions (47-58%) of Fe occur as Fe(III)-organic complexes and 2-line ferrihydrite. In the mud, the former is completely reduced, and reactive Fe (defined via extraction with 1 MHCl) was high throughout (52-68%, median = 61%) and strongly dominated by Fe(II). This reactive Fe(II) pool was sulfidized to only a limited extent (degree of reactive sulfidization = 11-26%, median = 17%). This phenomenon is attributed to the brackish-water conditions (i.e. low in sulfate) and the abundant input of reactive Fe(III) from the catchment, leading to a surplus of dissolved Fe2+ over dissolved sulfide in the sediment. The low availability of dissolved sulfide, in combination with the high average sedimentation rate, limits the formation of intermediate reduced sulfur compounds at the water-sediment interface, thereby retarding the conversion of FeS into pyrite (ratios of pyrite-S to AVS = 0.17-1.73, median = 0.37; degree of pyritization = 1-17%, median = 3%). Iron XAS, in combination with wavelet transform analysis, of representative sediment segments from the upper and lower mud units suggests that the non-sulfidized Fe(II) pool is dominantly complexed by organic matter, with the remaining Fe(II) occurring as mackinawite. This has implications for the understanding of early Fe diagenesis in settings with a high input of organic matter and relatively low supply of sulfate. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Virtasalo, Joonas J.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Burton, Edward D.
    Southern Cross Univ, Australia.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Ojala, Antti E. K.
    Geol Survey Finland GTK, Finland.
    Högmalm, Johan K.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Manganese accumulation and solid-phase speciation in a 3.5 m thick mud sequence from the estuary of an acidic and Mn-rich creek, northern Baltic Sea2016In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 437, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sediments, manganese (Mn) is typically enriched in the form of authigenic Mn hydroxides at the water-sediment interface where intensive redox cycling of Mn occurs. Here we show, based on existing hydrochemical and geochemical (sediment core) data and new detailed chemical and mineralogical characterization of a 3.5 m long sediment core from a Boreal estuary, that the behavior of Mn can be profoundly different and more complex in estuarine settings receiving an abundance of terrestrial Mn. The most notable feature in the 3.5 m long sediment core is two depth intervals (60-155 cm and 181-230 cm) where there are strong fine-scale variations in Mn concentrations with peaks episodically reaching up to 10-25 g kg(-1) and 6.7-12 g kg(-1), respectively. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and sequential chemical extraction show that Mn occurs mainly as authigenic rhodochrosite at these two depth intervals and is mainly surface-sorbed in other sections with relatively low and stable Mn concentrations. The data suggests that the strong fine-scale variations in Mn concentrations are a reflection of the extent of formation and settling of Mn hydroxides, the precursors of the authigenic rhodochrosite (and also of the surface-sorbed Mn), rather than Mn input to the estuary or redox-related Mn translocation within the sediment. There was agreement between the results of linear combination fitting of extended X-ray absorption fine structure data and a 7-step sequential chemical extraction (SCE) in terms of quantification of surface-sorbed Mn species, whereas the SCE experiment failed to fractionate a majority of rhodochrosite into SCE step-2 (1M NH4-acetate at pH 6), which is frequently employed to dissolve carbonate. We ascribe this discrepancy to only partial dissolution of rhodochrosite in the weakly acidic (pH = 6) NH4-acetate leach. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Yu, Changxun
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Drake, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Oxidative weathering of black shale: A long-term humidity cell test2011In: Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts, Mineralogical Society , 2011, p. 2231-2231Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Åström, Mats E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nystrand, Miriam
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    Österholm, Peter
    Nordmyr, Linda
    Reynolds, Jason
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lanthanoid behaviour in an acidic landscape2010In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 829-845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lanthanoids were studied in a boreal landscape where an abundance of acid sulfate soils and Histosols provide a unique opportunity to increase the understanding of flow these metals behave in acidic soils and waters and interact with soil and aqueous organic matter. In the acid sulfate soils lanthanoids are mobile as reflected in high to very high concentrations in soil water and runoff (typically a few mg 1(-1) but Lip to 12 mg 1(-1)) and abundant release by several relatively weak extractants (ammonium acetate EDTA, sodium pyrophosphate, hydroxylamine hydrochloride) applied on bulk soil. Normalisation with the lanthanoid pool in the underlying parent materials (sulphide-bearing sediments deposited in brackish-water) and soil water showed that the extensive release/retention in the acidic soil was accompanied by large, and variable, fractionation trends across the lanthanoid series. In low-order streams draining these soils, the lanthanoid concentrations were high and, as indicated by frontal ultrafiltration and geochemical modelling, largely dissolved (<1 kDa) in the form of the species LnSO(4)(+) and Ln(3+). In other moderately acidic stream waters (pH 4.3-4.6), organic complexation was predicted to be important in the <1 kDa fraction (especially for the heavy lanthanoids) and strongly dominating in the colloidal phase (1 kDa-0.45 mu m). Along the main stem of a stream in focus (catchment area of 223 km(2)), lanthanoid concentrations increased downstream, in particular during high flows, caused by a downstream increase in the proportion of acid sulfate soils which are extensively flushed during wet periods. The geochemical models applied to the colloidal Ln-organic phase were not successful in predicting the measured fractionation patterns.

  • 36.
    Åström, Mats E.
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Rönnback, Pernilla
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lavergren, Ulf
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Bergbäck, Bo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tarvainen, Timo
    Backman, Birgitta
    Salminen, Reijo
    Uranium in surface and ground waters in Boreal Europe2009In: Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, ISSN 1467-7873, E-ISSN 2041-4943, Vol. 9, p. 51-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on uranium (U) in surface and groundwaters in Boreal Europe (Sweden, Finland, Russia). Data from recently completed regional hydrogeochemical surveys and from site-specific studies were combined, in order to enhance the current understanding of U behaviour in the catchments and water bodies of these northerly latitudes. Over Precambrian areas (dominated by igneous and metamorphic rocks) the aqueous U concentrations in general increased in a downward direction, i.e. from stream waters to overburden groundwaters to bedrock groundwaters, and they were correlated with the U abundance in the surrounding overburden (mainly glacial till). Over Phanerozoic areas (dominated by terrigene deposits containing or composed of limestone) the aqueous U concentrations were, in contrast, unrelated to overburden U concentrations and strongly correlated with dissolved Ca and HCO(3) concentrations. There is thus an overall geochemical and hydrochemical control, respectively, related to the underlying lithology. At geologically specific and local sites there is a range of correlations and control mechanisms of aqueous U. From acid sulphate soils, occurring abundantly on coastal plains, runoff below pH 4.0 is enriched in U (up to 55 mu g/l) most likely due to oxidation of U(IV) minerals followed by subsequent limited sorption of U(VI) in the acidic environment. In a studied black shale setting, characterized by high U concentrations (LIP to > 200 ppm), U levels increased in groundwater (up to 200 mu g/l) and surface water (up to 80 mu g/l) as the conditions changed from reducing to oxidizing. In an unmineralized granitic setting, proposed as a repository for spent nuclear fuel, elevated U concentrations in surface waters (up to 25 mu g/l) reflect a regional stream-hydrochemical anomaly and in bedrock groundwaters (up to > 100 mu g/l), most likely mobilization of uranyl from U-rich fracture coatings. In the Baltic Sea, which has unique brackish water, the ratio of U to Cl is similar to that in the oceans but contrasting near-coastal U trends exist, characterized by all inverse relationship between IT and Cl concentrations. These coastal-water anomalies are most likely caused by high U levels in inflowing streams, and possibly to some extent submarine discharge of U-enriched waters.

  • 37.
    Åström, Mats E.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Österholm, Peter
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Nystrand, Miriam
    Peltola, Pasi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Nordmyr, Linda
    Boman, Anton
    Attenuation of rare earth elements in a boreal estuary2012In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 96, p. 105-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on attenuation of rare earth elements (REE) when a boreal creek, acidified and loaded with REE and other metals as a result of wetland drainage, empties into a brackish-water estuary (salinity < 6 parts per thousand). Surface water was collected in a transect from the creek mouth to the outer estuary, and settling (particulate) material in sediment traps moored at selected locations in the estuary. Ultrafiltration, high-resolution ICP-MS and modeling were applied on the waters, and a variety of chemical reagents were used to extract metals from the settling material. Aluminium, Fe and REE transported by the acidic creek were extensively removed in the inner/central estuary where the acidic water was neutralised, whereas Mn was relatively persistent in solution and thus redistributed to particles and deposited further down the estuary. The REE removal was caused by several contemporary mechanisms: co-precipitation with oxyhydroxides (mainly Al but also Fe), complexation with flocculating humic substances and sorption to suspended particles. Down estuary the dissolved REE pool, remaining after removal, was fractionated: the < 1 kDa pool became depleted in the middle REE and the colloidal (0.45 mu m-1 kDa) pool depleted in the middle and heavy REE. This fractionation was controlled by the removal process, such that those REE with highest affinity for the settling particles became most depleted in the remaining dissolved pool. Modeling, based on Visual MINTEQ version 3.0 and the Stockholm Humic Model after revision and updating, predicted that the dissolved (< 0.45 mu m) REE pool in the estuary is bound almost entirely to humic substances. Acid sulphate soils, the source of the REE and other metals in the creek water, are widespread on coastal plains worldwide and therefore the REE attenuation patterns and mechanisms identified in the studied estuary are relevant for recognition of similar geochemical processes and conditions in a variety of coastal locations. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Åström, Mats
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Virtasalo, J
    Kotilainen, A
    Salminen, R
    Niobium in boreal stream waters and brackish-water sediments2008In: Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, ISSN 1467-7873, E-ISSN 2041-4943, Vol. 8, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Deposition of persistent organic pollutants under a high voltage power line2009In: Posterpresentation vid NOSA Aerosol Symposium i Lund, 12-13 november, 2009., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Öberg, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Peltola, Pasi
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high voltage power line2009In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, no 39, p. 6168-6174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations

1 - 40 of 40
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