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  • 1.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Implicit obesity bias predicts real hiring discrimination in the labor market2011In: Annual meeting of The Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Agerström, Jens
    Lund University, Department of Psychology.
    Temporal Distance and Morality: Moral Concerns Loom Larger in the Distant Future2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2014In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 52, p. 35-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows the existence of a height premium in the workplace with tall individuals receiving more benefits across several domains (e.g., earnings) relative to short people. The current study probes deeper into the height premium by focusing on the specific favorable traits, attributes, and abilities tall individuals are presumed to have, ultimately giving these individuals an advantage in hiring. In an experiment, we made a male job applicant taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by professional recruiters. We find that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, specific job competency (including employability), and physical health, whereas warmth and physical attractiveness seem to matter less. Interestingly, physical height predicted recruiters' hiring intentions even when statistically controlling for competence, warmth, health, and attractiveness.

  • 4.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andréll, Cecilia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    All else equal: Examining treatment bias and stereotypes based on patient ethnicity and socioeconomic status using in-hospital cardiac arrest clinical vignettes2024In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 63, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundResearch on ethnic and socioeconomic treatment differences following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) largely draws on register data. Due to the correlational nature of such data, it cannot be concluded whether detected differences reflect treatment bias/discrimination – whereby otherwise identical patients are treated differently solely due to sociodemographic factors. To be able to establish discrimination, experimental research is needed.ObjectiveThe primary aim of this experimental study was to examine whether simulated IHCA patients receive different treatment recommendations based on ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), holding all other factors (e.g., health status) constant. Another aim was to examine health care professionals’ (HCP) stereotypical beliefs about these groups.MethodsHCP (N = 235) working in acute care made anonymous treatment recommendations while reading IHCA clinical vignettes wherein the patient's ethnicity (Swedish vs. Middle Eastern) and SES had been manipulated. Afterwards they estimated to what extent hospital staff associate these patient groups with certain traits (stereotypes).ResultsNo significant differences in treatment recommendations for Swedish versus Middle Eastern or high versus low SES patients were found. Reported stereotypes about Middle Eastern patients were uniformly negative. SES-related stereotypes, however, were mixed. High SES patients were believed to be more competent (e.g., respected), but less warm (e.g., friendly) than low SES patients.ConclusionsSwedish HCP do not seem to discriminate against patients with Middle Eastern or low SES backgrounds when recommending treatment for simulated IHCA cases, despite the existence of negative stereotypes about these groups. Implications for health care equality and quality are discussed.

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  • 5.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Moral concerns are greater for temporally distant events and are moderated by value strength2009In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 261-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present research examines the impact of temporal distance on moral concerns in situations where selfish motives clash with altruistic considerations. Drawing upon Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003) which posits that abstract, high-level features of events and social values take on more weight with greater temporal distance, we hypothesized that moral concerns should be higher for temporally distant situations. The results from five experiments supported this conjecture. People indicated they would be more likely to choose altruistic over selfish behaviors, reported they would feel more guilty about engaging in selfish behavior, thought acting selfishly would be more immoral, and were more likely to commit to altruistic behavior when thinking about distant versus near future events. Moreover, as predicted, temporal distance primarily enhanced moral concerns among individuals with high moral value strength. Support was also obtained in favor of the assumption that value salience was responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral concerns. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  • 6.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Temporal construal and moral motivation2013In: Handbook of Moral Motivation: Theories, Models, Applications / [ed] K. Heinrichs, F. Oser & T Lovat, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2013, p. 181-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Temporal Distance and Moral Concerns: Future Morally Questionable Behavior is Perceived as More Wrong and Evokes Stronger Prosocial Intentions2009In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research on temporal construal has shown that core values become more salient when people think about distant- as compared to near-future events. The present research shows that greater temporal distance of an event also results in greater moral concern. More specifically, it was found that people make harsher moral judgments of others' distant-future morally questionable behavior than near-future morally questionable behavior. Moreover, it was shown that people increasingly attribute distant vs. near future behavior to abstract dispositional relative to concrete situational causes, and that this attribution bias is partially responsible for the temporal distance effect on moral judgments.

  • 8.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Temporal distance increases moral blame: The meditational role of attribution bias2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Why people with an eye toward the future are more moral: The role of abstract thinking2013In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do future-oriented people show greater moral concern than present-oriented people? Consistent with construal level theory (CLT; Trope & Liberman, 2003), we find that future-oriented people construe morally relevant actions at a higher level of abstraction, which clarifies their larger implications. Moreover, we show that level of construal partially explains the relationship between individual differences in temporal orientation and moral judgments. These findings support CLT and contribute to our understanding of moral psychology, as they are the first to show how individual differences pertaining to psychological distance relate to abstract thinking and moral judgments.

  • 10.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lunds universitet.
    The Effects of Time and Abstraction on Moral Concerns2009Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 12.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    The influence of temporal distance on moral judgment and reasoning2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Emotions in time: Moral emotions appear more intense with temporal distance2012In: Social cognition, ISSN 0278-016X, E-ISSN 1943-2798, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 181-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Kristianstad University.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University.
    Gender differences in implicit moral orientation associations: The justice and care debate revisited2011In: Current Research in Social Psychology, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 17, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing new measures (Implicit Association Test) to study the classic issue of moralorientations, we predicted and found gender differences in implicit associations to the conceptsof justice and care. Specifically, we found that men more strongly associate justice vs. care withimportance and with themselves than women. However, participants’ explicit ratings did notreveal any clear patterns of gender differences, which is consistent with previous studies.Implications for social psychological theory and research on morality are discussed.

  • 15.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Look at yourself!: Visual perspective influences moral judgment by level of mental construal2013In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 42-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research (Libby, Shaeffer, & Eibach, 2009) has established that a third-person (external) visual perspective elicitsmore abstract processing than a first-person (inner) perspective. Because many moral principles constitute abstract psychological constructs,we predicted that they should weigh more heavily when people adopt a third-person visual perspective. In two experiments weshow that a third- (vs. first-) person visual perspective leads to harsher judgments of one’s own morally questionable actions. Moreover,we demonstrate that this effect can be partially explained by level of mental construal. The present research suggests that simple visualperspective techniques may be used to promote moral behavior.

  • 16.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold and Incompetent Eric: A harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and competent Hassan = Cold and incompetent Eric: A Harsh equation of real-life hiring discrimination2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how individuating information about job applicants influences ethnic discrimination. In the present field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Furthermore, conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. In conclusion, the results show that Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

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  • 18.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lunds universitet.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lunds universitet.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Warm and Competent Hassan = Cold And Incompetent Eric: The Harsh Equation of Real-life Hiring Discrimination2012In: Basic and Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0197-3533, E-ISSN 1532-4834, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we sent out 5,636 job applications varying how Swedish (in-group) and Arab (out-group) applicants presented themselves in terms of two fundamental dimensions of social judgment: warmth and competence. Results indicate substantial discrimination where Arab applicants receive fewer invitations to job interviews. Conveying a warmer or more competent personality increases invitations. However, appearing both warm and competent seems to be especially important for Arab applicants. Arab applicants need to appear warmer and more competent than Swedish applicants to be invited equally often. The practical importance of signaling warmth and competence in labor market contexts is discussed.

  • 19.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Discriminatory cardiac arrest care?: Patients with low socioeconomic status receive delayed cardiopulmonary resuscitation and are less likely to survive an in-hospital cardiac arrest2021In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 861-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) face widespread prejudice in society. Whether SES disparities exist in treatment and survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is unclear. The aim of the current retrospective registry study was to examine SES disparities in IHCA treatment and survival, assessing SES at the patient level, and adjusting for major demographic, clinical, and contextual factors.

    Methods and results: In total, 24 217 IHCAs from the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation were analysed. Education and income constituted SES proxies. Controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, comorbidity, heart rhythm, aetiology, hospital, and year, primary analyses showed that high (vs. low) SES patients were significantly less likely to receive delayed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (highly educated: OR = 0.89, and high income: OR = 0.98). Furthermore, patients with high SES were significantly more likely to survive CPR (high income: OR = 1.02), to survive to hospital discharge with good neurological outcome (highly educated: OR = 1.27; high income: OR = 1.06), and to survive to 30 days (highly educated: OR = 1.21; and high income: OR = 1.05). Secondary analyses showed that patients with high SES were also significantly more likely to receive prophylactic heart rhythm monitoring (highly educated: OR = 1.16; high income: OR = 1.02), and this seems to partially explain the observed SES differences in CPR delay.

    Conclusion: There are clear SES differences in IHCA treatment and survival, even when controlling for major sociodemographic, clinical, and contextual factors. This suggests that patients with low SES could be subject to discrimination when suffering IHCA.

  • 20.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Treatment and survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest: does patient ethnicity matter?2022In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 341-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims 

    Previous research on racial/ethnic disparities in relation to cardiac arrest has mainly focused on black vs. white disparities in the USA. The great majority of these studies concerns out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The current nationwide registry study aims to explore whether there are ethnic differences in treatment and survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA), examining possible disparities towards Middle Eastern and African minorities in a European context.

    Methods and results

    In this retrospective registry study, 24 217 patients from the IHCA part of the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation were included. Data on patient ethnicity were obtained from Statistics Sweden. Regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of ethnicity on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delay, CPR duration, survival immediately after CPR, and the medical team’s reported satisfaction with the treatment. Middle Eastern and African patients were not treated significantly different compared to Nordic patients when controlling for hospital, year, age, sex, socioeconomic status, comorbidity, aetiology, and initial heart rhythm. Interestingly, we find that Middle Eastern patients were more likely to survive than Nordic patients (odds ratio = 1.52).

    Conclusion

    Overall, hospital staff do not appear to treat IHCA patients differently based on their ethnicity. Nevertheless, Middle Eastern patients are more likely to survive IHCA.

  • 21.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Erenel, Asuman
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    The effect of social gender norms on parental leave uptake intentions: Evidence from two survey experiments on prospective fathers and mothers2023In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 55, no 53, p. 6277-6293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how social gender norms influence parental leave uptake intentions by conducting two separate survey experiments on prospective fathers (N = 877) and mothers (N = 882) in the UK. In a between-subjects design, we manipulate social gender norms by varying information on the average number of days that other fathers and mothers stay at home to take care of a child during the first year after childbirth. We find that when prospective parents (both genders) are exposed to the low staying-home-with-children norm, they plan less parental leave uptake compared to the control (no norm) group. When exposed to the high staying-home-with-children norm, men (but not women) plan more parental leave uptake compared to the control group. We discuss policy implications and suggest directions for future studies.

  • 22.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Strinic, Andrea
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intersected groups and discriminatory everyday behavior: Evidence from a lost email experiment2021In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 351-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    De-racialization research suggests that depicting members of ethnic minority groups as gay leads to less stereotypic perceptions oftheir ethnic group. However, whether the consequences of de-racialization translate into real-world behavior is unclear. In a large “lost letter” field experiment (N = 6,654) where an email was ostensibly sent to the wrong recipient by mistake, we investigate whether the relative impact of signaling gayness (vs. heterosexuality) differs for Arab (minority) versus Swedish (majority) senders. The results show clear evidence of ethnic discrimination where Arab (minority) senders receive fewer replies (prosocial response) than Swedish (majority) senders. However, there is no evidence indicating that Arab senders would receive a lower penalty for revealing gayness. Implications for multiple categorization research are discussed.

  • 23.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Why does height matter in hiring?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has established that physical height matters in hiring contexts, it is less clear through which channels height exerts its effect. The current research examines several potential components of the height premium: warmth, competence, job competency for a leadership position, physical health, and attractiveness. We made target individuals taller or shorter by digitally manipulating photographs, and attached these to job applications that were evaluated by real recruiters. The results show that in the context of hiring a project leader, the height premium consists of increased perceptions of the candidate's general competence, job competency, and health, whereas warmth and attractiveness seem to matter less.

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  • 24.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Descriptive social norms and charitable giving: the power of local norms2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By conducting a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., “this is what most people do”) leads to more charitable giving compared to industry standard appeals. Moreover, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one’s immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one’s local environment. University students received a charity organization’s information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimental descriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable giving than conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

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  • 25.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nicklasson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Using descriptive social norms to increase charitable giving: The power of local norms2016In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 52, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a field experiment, we examined whether conveying descriptive social norms (e.g., "this is what most people do") increases charitable giving. Additionally, we examined whether people are more likely to conform to the local norms of one's immediate environment than to more global norms extending beyond one's local environment. University students received a charity organization's information brochure and were asked for a monetary contribution. An experimentaldescriptive norm manipulation was embedded in the brochure. We found that providing people with descriptive norms increased charitable giving substantially compared with industry standard altruistic appeals (control condition). Moreover, conveying local norms were more effective in increasing charitable givingthan conveying global norms. Practical implications for charity organizations and marketing are proposed.

  • 26.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Etnicitet och övervikt: implicita arbetsrelaterade fördomar i Sverige2007Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Does physical pain impair abstract thinking?2017In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 748-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to think abstractly constitutes a fundamental dimension of human cognition. Although abstraction has been extensively studied, its emotional and affective antecedents have been largely overlooked. One experiment was conducted to examine whether physical pain affects abstraction. Drawing on Construal Level Theory [Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review117, 440–463] and Loewenstein’s [(1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes65, 272–292] visceral factors theory, we hypothesised that pain impairs abstraction because pain constricts people’s mental horizons and lead to a concrete, inward-focus toward oneself in the here and now. Physical pain was manipulated between subjects (N = 150). The participants either kept their left hand immersed in cold (painful) water or neutral (painless) water while we measured abstract versus concrete behaviour identification, categorisation, and perceptual processing. Bayesian statistical analyses indicate substantial evidence against the hypothesis that pain impairs abstraction. In contrast to many other previously studied cognitive outcomes (e.g. attention), abstraction appears to be largely immune to acute, experimentally induced pain.

  • 28.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, Baltic Business School.
    Möller, Kristiina
    Archer, Trevor
    Moral reasoning:: The influence of affective personality, dilemma content and gender2006In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 1259-1276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the influence of affective personality, perfectionism, gender, arousal and dilemma content on moral reasoning. 264 participants were presented with moral dilemmas to which they had to provide a solution that reflected various degrees of justice and care. The results indicated that a) affective personality had an effect on moral reasoning, b) female participants reported higher levels of care morality than did male participants, c) gender interacted with perfectionism in the production of moral standpoints, d) dilemma content exerted a strong effect on the participants' use of moral strategy. It was concluded that although moral reasoning appears to be governed primarily by the dilemma content at hand, an individual's moral solutions are influenced by gender and affective state.

  • 29.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Business, Economics and Design, Linnaeus School of Business and Economics.
    The role of automatic obesity stereotypes in real hiring discrimination2011In: Journal of Applied Psychology, ISSN 0021-9010, E-ISSN 1939-1854, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 790-805Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stening, Kent
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Axman, Olof
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pain here and now: physical pain impairs transcendence of psychological distance2019In: Journal of Pain Research, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 12, p. 961-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to traverse psychological distance by going beyond the experienced reality of the self, here and now, is fundamental for effective human functioning. Yet, little is known about how physical pain affects transcendence of psychological distance. Using a construal level theory framework of psychological distance, the current research examines the hypothesis that pain impairs people's ability to traverse any kind of psychological distance whether it be temporal, social, and spatial distance, or the hypothetical. Methods: Using the cold pressor test, 151 participants participated in an experiment where they were either induced with acute pain (treatment group) or no pain (control group) while completing a battery of questions measuring to what extent their current thoughts were transcending psychological distance. Results: The results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Relative to the control group, pain induced participants showed significantly less transcendence of past temporal distance, social distance, spatial distance, and the hypothetical. Furthermore, greater self-reported pain intensity was significantly associated with less transcendence of temporal (past and future), social, and spatial distance. Conclusion: Physical pain impairs the ability to traverse psychological distance. The research has practical implications for the pain clinic and for pain-afflicted individuals in everyday life.

  • 31.
    Al-Dury, Nooraldeen
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rawshani, Araz
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden;Linköping university, Sweden.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Västerås, Sweden.
    Aune, Solveig
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ravn-Fischer, Annica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden;Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden;University of Borås, Sweden.
    Characteristics and outcome among 14,933 adult cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest: A nationwide study with the emphasis on gender and age.2017In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 1839-1844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate characteristics and outcome among patients suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) with the emphasis on gender and age.

    METHODS: Using the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, we analyzed associations between gender, age and co-morbidities, etiology, management, 30-day survival and cerebral function among survivors in 14,933 cases of IHCA. Age was divided into three ordered categories: young (18-49years), middle-aged (50-64years) and older (65years and above). Comparisons between men and women were age adjusted.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 72.7years and women were significantly older than men. Renal dysfunction was the most prevalent co-morbidity. Myocardial infarction/ischemia was the most common condition preceding IHCA, with men having 27% higher odds of having MI as the underlying etiology. A shockable rhythm was found in 31.8% of patients, with men having 52% higher odds of being found in VT/VF. After adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients. Increasing age was associated with lower 30-day survival but not with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

    CONCLUSION: When adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients, despite a lower chance of survival. Higher age was, however, not associated with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

  • 32.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the IAT (Implicit Association Test, Greenwald et al., 1998) predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue. The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we switched the focus from the predictor to the criterion, by taking a closer look at the discrimination outcomes. We discovered that many of these outcomes were not actually operationalizations of discrimination, but rather of other related, but distinct, concepts, such as brain activity and voting preferences. When we meta-analyzed the main effects of discrimination among the remaining discrimination outcomes, the overall effect was close to zero and highly inconsistent across studies. Taken together, it is doubtful whether the amalgamation of these outcomes is relevant criteria for assessing the IAT's predictive validity of discrimination. Accordingly, there is also little evidence that the IAT can meaningfully predict discrimination, and we thus strongly caution against any practical applications of the IAT that rest on this assumption. However, provided that the application is thoroughly informed by the current state of the literature, we believe the IAT can still be a useful tool for researchers, educators, managers, and students who are interested in attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination.

  • 33.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the IAT predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue.The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we took a closer look at the discrimination outcomes, and found that many of the outcomes were unsuitable operationalizations of discrimination. Furthermore, we found virtually no overall discrimination for the IAT to predict. Hence, the IAT has not yet been given a chance to prove its true worth. Indeed, evaluating the predictive validity of the IAT against these outcomes is similar to evaluating raincoats on sunny days; we should not besurprised if the raincoats receive a bad score, but this does not invalidate their usefulness in rainy weather. Given the current state of affairs, it would thus be premature if researchers, educators, and managers simply were to remove the IAT from their toolbox.

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  • 34.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Methodological issues in predicting discrimination from attitudes, prejudices, and stereotypes2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A central question for social psychologists is to what extent attitudes, prejudice, and stereotypes are precursors of ethnic and racial discrimination. Operationalized, this question can be framed as the extent measures of such constructs predict differential treatment of individuals from one group compared to a comparison group. Yet, in the literature, it is common to substitute this operationalization for a simpler one: measures predicting behavior toward a single group. We argue that this simpler operationalization lacks validity and yields uninformative effect sizes. We provide several suggestions on how to include, and make most use of, comparison groups, when predicting discrimination.

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  • 35.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men asagentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001)suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive genderstereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails therisk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive genderstereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs whenapplying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender,agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labormarket. The dependent variable was whether the applicationresulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do notoffer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in therecruitment process.

  • 36.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Testing for Backlash in Hiring: A Field Experiment on Agency, Communion, and Gender2014In: Journal of Personnel Psychology, ISSN 1866-5888, E-ISSN 2190-5150, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 204-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men as agentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001) suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive gender stereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails the risk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive gender stereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs when applying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of 5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labor market. The dependent variable was whether the application resulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do not offer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in the recruitment process.

  • 37.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Testing for backlash in hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion,and gender2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that women (men) who appear agentic (communal) when applying for jobs suffer a backlash in the form of reduced chances of being hired. However, the evidence of backlash is mainly restricted to simulated hiring decisions with undergraduates as participants. To examine whether backlash occurs when men and women apply for real jobs in the labor market, we conducted a field experiment. Gender, agentic and communal traits were manipulated in the applications. Whether or not the applications resulted in a job interview invitation constituted the dependent variable. We find no evidence of backlash, suggesting that women are not punished for presenting themselves as agentic in their job applications, nor are men punished for appearing communal.

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  • 38.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Williams, Donald
    Univ Calif Davis, USA.
    Burns, Gary N.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Florida Inst Technol, USA.
    A Primer on the benefits of differential treatment analysis when predicting discriminatory behavior2018In: The Quantitative Methods for Psychology, E-ISSN 2292-1354, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central question in social psychology is to what extent individual differences in attitudes, prejudices, and stereotypes can predict discriminatory behavior. This is often studied by simply regressing a measure of behavior toward a single group (e.g., behavior toward Black people only) onto the predictors (e.g., attitude measures). In the present paper, we remind researchers that an analysis focusing on predicting the differential treatment (e.g., behavior towards Black people vs. White people) has a higher conceptual validity and will result in more informative effect sizes. The paper is concluded with a list of suggestions for future research on the link between attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes and discrimination.

  • 39.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sinclair, Samantha
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Role of Prototypes and Same-Gender Bias in Attributions to Gender Discrimination in Hiring2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 40.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Helsa Vårdcentral Osby, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Clinical pain, abstraction, and self-control: being in pain makes it harder to see the forest for the trees and is associated with lower self-control2018In: Journal of Pain Research, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 11, p. 1105-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Although abstract thinking is a fundamental dimension of human cognition, it has received scant attention in research on pain and cognition. We hypothesized that physical pain impairs abstraction, because when people experience pain at high intensity levels, attention becomes concretely focused on the self in the here and now, where little else matters than finding relief for the pain they are currently experiencing. We also examined the relationship between pain and self-control, predicting that pain would debilitate self-control. Patients and methods: Abstraction and self-reported self-control were assessed in 109 patients with musculoskeletal pain. The influence of specific pain qualities, such as pain intensity, pain interference with daily activities, pain duration, and pain persistence, was examined. Furthermore, we assessed other factors (e.g., anxiety, depression, and fatigue) that could be assumed to play a role in the pain experience and in cognitive performance. Results: Higher pain intensity and persistence were associated with less abstract thinking. Furthermore, self-control decreased with greater pain intensity, persistence, and self-reported pain interference with daily activities. Self-reported depressive symptoms mediated the overall relationship between pain and self-control. Conclusion: Abstraction is compromised in patients reporting higher pain intensity and persistence. Different dimensions of pain also predict lower self-control although depression seems to account for the relationship between overall pain and self-control. The current study is the first to report an association between clinical musculoskeletal pain and abstraction. The results suggest that pain patients may suffer from a broader range of cognitive disadvantages than previously believed.

  • 41.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is clinical, musculoskeletal pain associated with poorer logical reasoning?2021In: Pain Reports, E-ISSN 2471-2531, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It has been hypothesized that pain disrupts system 2 processes (eg, working memory) presumed to underlie logicalreasoning. A recent study examining the impact of experimentally induced pain on logical reasoning found no evidence of an effect.Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine whether clinical pain, which is qualitatively different from experimental pain, wouldlower the ability to reason logically.Methods: Ninety-six participants completed a questionnaire containing 3 different logical reasoning tasks (the cognitive reflectiontest, the belief bias syllogisms task, and the conditional inference task), questions about pain variables (present pain intensity, painintensity during the last 24 hours, the influence of pain on daily activities, pain duration, and pain persistence), questions about otherpain-related states (anxiety, depression, and fatigue), and pain-relieving medication. Correlations between the logical reasoningtasks and the pain variables were calculated.Results: For 2 of the 3 logical reasoning tasks (the cognitive reflection test and the belief bias syllogisms task), clinical pain wasunrelated to logical reasoning. Performance on context-free logical reasoning showed a significant negative correlation with presentpain intensity, but not with the other pain variables.Conclusion: This finding that logical reasoning ability is largely unrelated to clinical pain is highly consistent with previous researchon experimentally induced pain. Pain should probably not constitute a significant barrier to logical reasoning in everyday life.

  • 42.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Helsa Vårdcentral Osby, Sweden.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pain and social cognition: Does pain lead to more stereotyped judgments based on ethnicity and age?2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 611-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Previous research on pain and cognition has largely focused on non-social cognitive outcomes (e.g., attention, problem solving). This study examines the relationship between pain and stereotyping, which constitutes a fundamental dimension of social cognition. Drawing on dual process theories of cognition, it was hypothesized that higher levels of pain would increase stereotyped judgments based on ethnicity and age. The hypothesis was tested in conjunction with experimentally induced pain (Study 1) and clinical pain (Study 2).

    Methods: In Study 1, experimental pain was induced with the cold pressor method on a between-subjects basis. Participants (N=151) completed a judgment task that assessed to what extent they relied on stereotypes (ethnic and age) when estimating other people’s cognitive performance.  In Study 2, 109 participants with clinical, musculoskeletal pain completed the same stereotype judgment task. Correlations between stereotyped judgments and various pain qualities (intensity, interference with daily activities, duration, and persistence) were performed.

    Results: In Study 1, pain induced participants did not form significantly more stereotyped judgments compared to pain-free participants. However, higher reported pain intensity was associated with more ethnically stereotyped judgments. In study 2, there were no significant correlations between different aspects of clinical pain and stereotyped judgments.

    Conclusion: The results provide little support for the hypothesis that pain increases stereotyped judgments. This was the case for both experimentally induced pain and clinical pain. The present study is the first to investigate the link between pain and stereotyping, suggesting that stereotypical judgments may be a social cognitive outcome that is relatively unaffected by pain.

    Practical implications: The results have practical implications for the clinic, for example, where chronic pain patients may not have greater difficulties interacting with health care professionals that are members of a stereotyped social group (e.g., ethnic).

     

  • 43.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thinking abstractly about one’s physical pain: can abstraction reduce sensitivity to painful stimuli?2023In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether people think less abstractly when they experience physical pain has been examined in previous research. However, the reverse causal possibility—that abstraction reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli—does not appear to have been empirically tested. The aim of this study was to investigate whether abstraction reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli. Using the cold pressor method, university students (N = 205) were exposed to experimental pain. Participants were randomly assigned to an abstract mindset, concrete mindset, cognitive distraction (control task), or no task (control) condition. As a manipulation of abstraction, participants focused on why they felt pain (abstract condition) versus how they felt pain (concrete condition). Pain endurance and pain intensity were evaluated. The abstract mindset condition did not show significantly lower pain sensitivity compared with the other experimental conditions. We found no evidence suggesting that abstract thinking would reduce pain sensitivity. The effectiveness of other techniques that induce abstraction, such as third-person (versus first-person) self-talk should be examined in future research. Since experimentally induced pain in healthy participants differs from clinical pain, whether abstract thinking may reduce pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients should also be examined.

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  • 44.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Neron HSU AB, Osby.
    Grahn, Birgitta
    Lund University ; Reg Skåne ; Reg Kronoberg.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impaired psychomotor ability and attention in patients with persistent pain: a cross-sectional comparative study2016In: Journal of Pain Research, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 9, p. 825-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Patients with pain have shown cognitive impairment across various domains. Although the pain qualities vary among patients, research has overlooked how cognitive performance is affected by the duration and persistence of pain. The current study sought to fill this gap by examining how qualitatively different pain states relate to the following cognitive functions: sustained attention, cognitive control, and psychomotor ability. Patients and methods: Patients with musculoskeletal pain in primary care were divided into three pain groups: acute pain (duration <3 months), regularly recurrent pain (duration >3 months), and persistent pain (duration >3 months). These groups were then compared with healthy controls. The MapCog Spectra Test, the Color Word Test, and the Grooved Pegboard Test were used to measure sustained attention, cognitive control, and psychomotor ability, respectively. Results: Patients with persistent pain showed significantly worse sustained attention and psychomotor ability compared with healthy controls. The acute pain group showed a significant decrease in psychomotor ability, and the regularly recurrent pain group showed a significant decrease in sustained attention. These results remained unchanged when age, education, and medication were taken into account. Conclusion: Persistent musculoskeletal pain seems to impair performance on a wider range of cognitive tasks than acute or regularly recurrent pain, using pain-free individuals as a benchmark. However, there is some evidence of impairment in psychomotor ability among patients with acute pain and some impairment in sustained attention among patients with regularly recurrent pain.

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  • 45.
    Gunnarsson, Helena E. M.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. Hälsoringen, Neron HSU AB, Osby.
    Grahn, Birgitta
    Lund University ; Region Skåne ; Region Kronoberg.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology. jens.agerstrom@lnu.se.
    Increased deep pain sensitivity in persistent musculoskeletal pain but not in other musculoskeletal pain states2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 13, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in a non-painful body area are known to be affected in some chronic pain states. The aim of this study is to investigate PPTs in a pain-free body part in relation to pain persistence and intensity in patients with musculoskeletal pain. MethodsPatients with musculoskeletal pain were divided into three different pain groups: acute pain (pain duration < 3 months, n = 38), regularly recurrent pain (regularly recurrent pain duration > 3 months, n = 56), persistent pain (persistent pain duration > 3 months, n = 52) and a healthy control group (n = 51). PPT measures were conducted over the tibialis anterior muscle on the right leg in all groups. ResultsThe persistent pain group showed significantly lower PPTs over the tibialis anterior muscle compared to controls. No significant differences were found between the acute and regularly recurrent pain groups compared to healthy controls. Significant correlations, albeit small, were found between pain intensity and PPTs. ConclusionsIncreased deep pain sensitivity was found in patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain, but not in regularly recurrent pain or in acute pain. Yet, a limitation of the study is that it did not have sufficient power to detect small levels of increased deep pain sensitivity among the latter groups when compared to healthy controls. Implications: Knowledge about increased general hypersensitivity in persistent musculoskeletal pain could be important in clinical treatment.

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  • 46.
    Heath, Amanda J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Don’t fear the data: The impact of equality data collection and diversity statements in job advertisements – a field study on Swedish public sector job applicants.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Heath, Amanda J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Is employer collection of diversity data attractive to potential job seekers? Ethnicity and sex differences and a UK-Sweden comparison2023In: Personnel review, ISSN 0048-3486, E-ISSN 1758-6933, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1900-1915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Many organisations monitor statistics on the background of job applicants to inform diversity management, a practice known as equality monitoring (EM). The study examines perceptions of EM and employers that use it. Additionally, it aims to assess potentially salient group differences in attitudes towards EM, focussing on perceived history of employment discrimination, ethnicity, sex, and a comparison between the UK and Sweden - two countries which differ extensively in EM prevalence. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional self-report survey assessed attitudes toward EM, attraction to employers using it, pro-equality and diversity attitudes, perceived history of employment discrimination and background characteristics (e.g. ethnicity and sex), and compared a UK and Sweden sample (N = 925). Findings The results reveal positive perceptions of EM overall. Although no differences were observed between UK ethnic majority and minority respondents, White British men rate employers using EM as less attractive with increasing levels of perceived past discrimination. Women have more positive perceptions than men. Finally, the UK sample rated EM more positively than the Sweden sample. Originality/value Despite EM being widespread, the study is the first to investigate detailed perceptions of it, making group and country comparisons. Results support the use of EM in HRM but highlight the need for clear communication to avoid confusion with positive discrimination, which is perceived negatively in some majority group members, and to allay fears of data misuse. Recommendations are made for future implementation.

  • 48.
    Heath, Amanda J.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics (NS).
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What adds to job ads? The impact of equality and diversity information on organizational attraction in minority and majority ethnic groups2023In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, E-ISSN 2044-8325, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 872-896Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research suggests that job search activities of underrepresented groups are sensitive to diversity cues in recruitment materials, but less is known about the impact of different types of cues. Despite widespread use, employment equality monitoring (EM), or data collection on legally protected characteristics (like gender or ethnic background), has received scant empirical attention. Two experiments used fictitious job advertisements to examine the effects of a strong equality/diversity/inclusion (EDI) value statement and descriptions of EM use by employers. In Study 1, we found that advertisements containing an EDI statement and a statement of EM together produced the highest ratings of organizational prestige, and, in minority respondents, stronger job-pursuit intentions. Study 2 examined various framing conditions of EM using a between-subjects design. The inclusion of any EDI information was positively received, but minority ethnicity respondents were less positive when an EM statement was provided without an explanation for why it is done. The practical implications are that both value statements and EM information together could help increase attraction among jobseekers from underrepresented groups, with potential to contribute to diversity branding. However, minority groups are still sceptical of employer EDI credibility and employers must do more than talk the talk.

  • 49.
    Israelsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A more conservative test of sex differences in the treatment and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest2023In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 58, p. 191-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies investigating sex disparities related to treatment and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) have produced divergent findings and have typically been unable to adjust for outstanding confounding variables.

    Objectives: The aim was to examine sex differences in treatment and survival following IHCA, using a comprehensive set of control variables including e.g., age, comorbidity, and patient-level socioeconomic status. Methods: This retrospective study was based on data from the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Statistics Sweden. In the primary analyses, logistic regression models and ordinary least square regressions were estimated.

    Results: The study included 24,217 patients and the majority (70.4%) were men. In the unadjusted analyses, women had a lower chance of survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempt, at hospital discharge (with good neurological function) and at 30 days (p<0.01). In the adjusted regression models, female sex was associated with a higher chance of survival after the CPR attempt (B = 1.09, p<0.01) and at 30-days (B = 1.09, p<0.05). In contrast, there was no significant association between sex and survival to discharge with good neurological outcome. Except for treatment duration (B=-0.07, p<0.01), no significant associations between sex and treatment were identified.

    Conclusions: No signs of treatment disparities or discrimination related to sex were identified. However, women had a better chance of surviving IHCA compared to men. The finding that women went from having a survival disadvantage (unadjusted analysis) to a survival advantage (adjusted analysis) attests to the importance of including a comprehensive set of control variables, when examining sex differences.

  • 50.
    Lindersson, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Guntell, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving2019In: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, ISSN 1465-4520, E-ISSN 1479-103X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-6, article id e1617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usefulness of conveying descriptive norms (“this is what most people do”) for prosocial purposes such as environmental conservation and charitable giving has recently been called into question. Two experiments (N = 748) evaluated the hypothesis that descriptive norms increase people's intentions to donate to charity. Overall, the results supported this hypothesis. Another aim was to examine the robustness of the local norm superiority effect that proposes that the local norms of one's immediate environment are superior to other descriptive norms (global and social identity norms). This hypothesis was not supported. The results suggest that differences between different types of norms are likely to be small.

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