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  • 1.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    "Den nödvändiga grunden": underkännanden och erkännanden under lärarutbildningens verksamhetsförlagda delar2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis builds on how contemporary policy documents express an interest in gatekeeping and in controlling teacher competence, for instance in the form of aptitude tests before teacher education or during practicum in teacher education. The thesis is hence characterised by a general interest in teacher competence and what in the governmental official report SOU 2008:109 is referred to as “the essential basis” in terms of teacher competence – a metaphor that serves as a key notion in the thesis. By analysing interviews and surveys from teacher educators who have been involved in failing student teachers during practicum, the aim is to identify what is considered to be the content of this essential basis. The results indicate that the essential basis contains communicative and relational aspects of teaching, about the ability to take space (oneself) and make space (for others). The most fundamental part is however the ability to assume adult responsibility and maturity in relation to children/pupils in pre-school/school. This is described as an important initial value for teacher education and a desirable ”baseline” for those starting a teacher education. However, informants describe how it is possible within teacher education to work in multiple ways with students who need to learn how to distinctly take space (themselves), in order to then assume a more active role in teaching and in the interaction with children or adolescents. An approach based on a theory of recognition and the concept of social visibility (Heidegren, 2009) is used in this part of the analysis, in order to understand the informants’ description of what usually happens when student teachers develop this essential teacher ability. The interpretation is also backed by Polanyi’s theory on tacit knowledge (1962; 1966/2013). Moreover, findings indicate that the “gate” sometimes opens, even though teacher educators doubt whether the student teacher has developed an essential basis or not. An argument for this is that school is a workplace that ”cleans out rather briskly”, as one supervisor puts it, and school is ”not an easy environment to hold on to”. In brief, school itself is regarded to be an active gatekeeper after teacher education. This might explain the tendency to sometimes pass rather than to fail during teacher education. Therefore the thesis suggests and discusses that teacher education from the very beginning pursue what can be characterised as a “pedagogy of honesty”.

     

  • 2.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Does it make any difference? University teachers’ experiences of work-integrated teacher education.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Lärarkvalitetens nödvändiga grund2017In: Att bedöma lärarkvalitet: Skicklighet, lämplighet & kompetens / [ed] Per Gerrevall, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2017, 1, p. 77-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Room for productive failures? Gatekeeping versus learning during teacher education.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    To take space and to make space – basic teacher competencies?2015In: ECER 2015, Education and Transition: Network:10. Teacher Education Research, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To Take Space and to Make Space – Basic Teacher Competencies?

    In Sweden there have been some teaching reforms enabling teachers to improve their teaching competence and knowledge. A presumption within these reforms is that teaching is something that one always can improve and therefore never should be seen as something “completed”. Similar opinions are often articulated when teachers assess student teachers´ performances during their teaching practice.

    However there are as well policy texts that emphasize the importance of controlling teaching competence, suggesting that teaching isn´t something that everyone has the talent to do. As a consequence gatekeeping function should be highlighted enabling only the right persons to enter the profession.

    In total these different discourses of teaching competence could be related by suggesting an “essential base-competence” where gatekeeping should be more emphasized, and thereafter specific sub competencies focusing learning and development.

    But how can one understand such an “essential base - competence” in terms of content and in terms of gatekeeping strategies? One way to answer this question might be done by examining gatekeeping within teacher education and by asking teacher educators under what circumstances they will suggest a failure grade during student teachers´ teaching practice. The research questions in the thesis are:

    RQ 1: What do teachers, working as mentors during student teachers´ teaching practice, describe as an ”essential base-competence”, those aspects influencing whether to suggest a failure grade or not?

    RQ 2: What kind of experiences do mentors describe after working with student teachers doing their “second chance” in a new school? What, in the essential base, is seen as possible to develop, how might this be done, and what is seen as more difficult to develop, suggesting a failure grade once more?

    I have analyzed some initial pilot surveys (with a national sample) where different administrators have described what normally is seen as insufficiency in student teachers´ performances, suggesting for example that it seldom is a lack of content knowledge, but rather subtle interaction issues and relational aspects.

    As a theoretical statement I have tried to see children’s self-understanding as something growing from interaction situations where teachers´ (or student teachers´) contributions are of crucial importance. When children are able to see themselves through the eyes of a teacher, self-understanding processes are involved enabling further development and learning processes. This is a theoretical presumption of human development that has some roots in Hegels, Fichtes and Meads philosophies. A dialectical perspective of communication make it possible to emphasize the importance of teachers being able to understand childrens´/pupils’ perspectives and feelings without suppressing their own subjectivity in a classroom situation.

    Moreover, this intersubjective perspective of pedagogy might as well be fruitful when it comes to the second research question – that is, when it comes to the student teacher´s owns development and the mentor´s contribution in this sense.

     

    Method

    The research questions were primarily answered by interviewing teachers working as mentors during student teachers´ teaching practice. Thus one might emphasize that the thesis make it possible to understand what is seen as “essential base competence”. Therefore it is important to relate empirical findings to theoretical perspectives of teaching competence and findings from other research traditions addressing competence issues. The respondents (n=11) in this study are teachers working in Swedish schools or preschools, acting as mentors during student teachers´ teaching experience. In Swedish policy documents these mentors are suggested to get a more operative position when it comes to assessing future teacher generations. In that sense it might be valuable to use those mentors as respondents describing their opinions of essential teaching competence, and under what circumstances they would suggest a failure grade in a student teacher´s teaching practice. When it comes to research on teacher competence the design in this study has the potentiality to contribute in a specific way. Certain aspects of teacher competence could get a specific meaning when those aspects are seen to be absent. Studying failure practices might contribute in a way that studying good practices do not. The respondents (mentors) in this study had recently suggested a failure grade related to a teacher student´s performance in teaching practice. They were asked open ended, nonstandardized questions, and they answered by discussing what they felt was insufficient and why, what they felt was necessary in the teaching profession, but also other mentor experiences when expected learning occurred and how these different mentor experiences could be understood in relation to one another. After analysis the manifest content could be described in six different categories. A theoretical interpretation made it possible to identify some themes.

     

    Expected Outcomes

    The mentors described the importance of wanting and being able to initiate social contact (1), to set limits in a firm and determined way in a classroom setting (2), to understand and involve the other person´s (the pupil´s) perspective (3), to take responsibility as an adult (4), to balance social closeness and distance (5) and to show a degree of secure self-presentation (6). To summarize, essential base competence, articulated by mentors after a failure in teaching practice, contains of an ability to take space and an ability to make space. A theoretical interpretation makes it possible to see the ability to take space (yourself) as more fundamental, thereafter enabling an opportunity to make space (to others). However, in a follow up study (RQ 2), mentors describe several methods of how to help student teachers to take space (themselves), but also describing difficulties in how to work with student teachers who needs to learn to make space (to others). Tentative findings from RQ 2 also make it possible to frame the assessment situation by contextualizing it in relation to different mentors and different school-environments. The consequences, when it comes to gatekeeping strategies, are discussed during the presentation. This proposal is a part of a PhD-project.

     

    References

    Goodwin, A. L., & Oyler, C. (2008). Teacher educators as gatekeepers. Deciding who is ready to teach. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. J. McIntyre, & K. E. Demers. (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions in changing contexts, (p. 468-489). New York, NY: Routledge. Hegender, H. (2010). The assessment of student teachers’ academic and professional knowledge in school-based teacher education, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 54(2), 151-171. Knudsen, R. E., & Turley, S. (2000). University supervisors and at-risk student teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 29(2), 35-58. Nordänger, U-K. & Lindqvist, P. (2015). ”Det såg vi från början …” ? – Underkännanden i den svenska lärarutbildningens verksamhetsförlagda delar. In Press: Nordic Studies in Education. Polanyi, M. (1962) Personal Knowledge. Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL. Raths, J. & Lyman. F. (2003). Summative evaluation of student teachers. An enduring problem. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(3), 206-216. Uljens, M. (2001) Om hur människan blir människa bland människor - om pedagogik och intersubjektivitet. Utbildning & Demokrati, 10(3), 85-102.

     

  • 6.
    Gardesten, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Att hantera lärarbristen: Erfarenheter från skolor som anställt heltidsmentorer2019In: Educare - Vetenskapliga skrifter, ISSN 1653-1868, no 3, p. 34-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gardesten, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Hegender, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Examining student teachers’ failures in school-based teacher education2014In: Paper presented at the annual Conference of NERA (Nordic Educational Research Association), Lillehammer, Norway, March 5-7, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Gardesten, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Hegender, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Underkännanden inom verksamhetsförlagd lärarutbildning: Resultat från en forskningsexpedition i svårframkomlig terräng2015In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 68-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Gardesten, Jens
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Gör det någon skillnad? Universitetslärares erfarenheter av en verksamhetsintegrerad lärarutbildning.2018In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, some initial findings from a research project where the practice/theory relationship and collaboration between schools and universities in teacher education are studied. The purpose of the study is to highlight possible effects of a work-integrated teacher education. The empirical base are eight interviews where university teachers describe how the increased time spent in schools might influence student teachers´ performances in university courses. Are any dimensions of teacher competence developed? The answers from the university teachers are first categorized into three themes, namely knowledge of subject didactics, connections theory/practice and practice/practice and finally in relation to the student teachers as legitimate participants. The themes are thereafter related to the concepts of spectator-knowledge and participant-knowledge and to Biestas (2012) concepts: qualification, subjectification and socialization. In conclusion, findings indicate that the “work integrated profile” have potential to balance these purposes of education.

  • 10.
    Lindqvist, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Ackesjö, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Alleviation or obstruction?: Teachers, teacher assistants and negotiations on professional domains2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Herrlin, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Strandberg, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Bredmar, Anna-Carin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    En verksamhetsintegrerad lärarutbildning - möjligheter och utmaningar2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Nordänger, Ulla Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Hegender, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Gardesten, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science.
    Att skärpa den praktiska blicken. En modell för ökad kvalitet i handledning och bedömning av yrkeskunnande.2011In: Paper presenterat vid årliga VILÄR-konferensen (Verksamhetsintegrerat lärande), Skövde., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
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