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  • 1.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Luleå University of Technology.
    Bio-based adhesives for the wood industry: an opportunity for the future?2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the use of some of the new technologies that may be implemented in bio-based adhesives, e.g. carbohydrate polymers, proteins, tannins, lignins, and vegetable oils.

    In order to take a part of the market share, an adhesive should have low production costs, fulfil the environmental and health standards and give better properties than conventional synthetic adhesives. For large-volume wood products such as chipboard, it is essential to develop adhesives that enable the product to be cost competitive. Bio-based adhesives that are available and affordable for the wood industry suffer from three main problems: low moisture resistance, low reactivity and poor adhesive properties, and in several cases they are expensive compared to synthetic adhesives.

  • 2.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Lignin: an adhesive raw material of the future or waste of research energy?2013In: Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Proceedings of the 9th meeting, September 11-12, 2013, Hannover, Germany / [ed] Brischke, Christian & Meyer, Linda, Hannover: Leibniz Universität , 2013, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin has been studied as an adhesive for more than 100 years, but there are only a few industrial applications. The reason for the current interest is the high availability and low price of lignin. Lignin is the main by-product of paper pulping processes and is typically burned as fuel. Being the natural glue in plants and having a phenolic nature makes lignins an attractive replacement for wood adhesives.

     

    An adhesive system for wood composites consisting mainly of lignin has yet to be developed. Lignin has less reactive sites in the aromatic ring than phenols, and the steric effects caused by the macromolecular structure further hinder its reactivity. The low reactivity leads to slow curing and causes problems in applications where the curing speed is a critical parameter. Modifications such as phenolation, methylolation, and demethylation have been shown to have a positive impact on the reactivity of lignin.

     

    This paper presents properties of particle boards produced using unmodified and oxidized Kraft lignin adhesives. The paper also describes recent research relating to lignin as a base for wood adhesive and discusses the possibilities for future research.

     

    The boards produced with unmodified and modified lignin adhesives under equivalent pressing conditions performed poorly compared to the reference board made with standard UMF adhesive. Oxidation at the correct pH level improved the adhesion of the boards compared with those based on unmodified lignin. Efforts to produce an industrially viable lignin-based adhesive system will continue, and promising combinations of modifications and alternative hardeners are being studied.

  • 3.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Vasiri, Mojgan
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Ohman, Micael
    Luleå Univ Technol.
    The role of the wood mechanical industry in the Swedish forest industry cluster2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 352-359Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest and forest products form one of the most important basis for the transfer to a bio-based economy in Sweden. About 75% of the area covered by forest in Sweden is used industrially to produce raw material for the wood-refining industries. Every year, this cluster uses 75 million m(3) of roundwood and has an export value of (sic)12 billion. This review paper is devoted to the wood mechanical industry, i.e. the industry which turns the forest into sawn timber, packaging, construction wood, furniture and interior fittings. The sawmills consume about half of the volume of softwood which is felled, and about two-thirds of the sawn timber go to export without any further refining within the country. Nevertheless, in spite of the relatively low degree of refinement in the sawmill and the fact that the sawmills in general over time have a very low profitability, they are responsible for 70-80% of the forest owners' profits on the sale of timber. An increased upgrading of the sawn timber within the country is desirable from a national economic viewpoint increased employment opportunities, increased export income, etc. It should then in the first place be for products with a higher added value, such as furniture and fittings. Today, the refinement value is 15-20 times higher for products from joinery and furniture industries compared to that of the sawn timber, and the added value of the wood within the building industry is only about 1.5 times.

  • 4.
    Trischler, Johann
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Strategic raw material supply for the particleboard-producing industry in Europe: Problems and challenges2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Particleboard was invented to increase the utilization of wood and it soon became an important core material for furniture production. Nowadays, other industries such as the pulp and papermaking industry and the thermal energy recovery industry claim the same type of raw material. This leads to increasing competition and higher prices than in the past when that kind of wood raw material was widely available and of low price. The particleboard-producing industry is therefore seeking opportunities to reduce the competition and ensure the future supply of lignocellulosic raw material for their products.

    The purpose of the work summarised in this thesis was to investigate the strategic supply of lignocellulosic raw materials for particleboard production and to evaluate alternatives for the supply of lignocellulosic raw material for particleboard production.

    To encompass the complex field of strategic raw material supply, several publications have considered different stages along the supply chain. These papers range from empirical studies to practical tests on a laboratory scale. In this thesis, some of the papers are linked together, building the base for the overall results.

    The results show that the task of increasing the supply of lignocellulosic raw material as primary raw material source is limited by several factors, but that improved product design coupled with a suitable recycling concept can greatly increase the availability of lignocellulosic raw material as a secondary source. Alternatively, the use of non-wood plants might be an opportunity to substitute wood as raw material but there are still some problems relating to the particle properties which must be overcome first.

  • 5.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Hemmilä, Venla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Challenges using annual plants as substitution for wood in particle-board production: Modification of reed canary grass2013In: Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Proceedings of the 9th meeting, September 11-12, 2013, Hannover, Germany / [ed] Brischke, Christian & Meyer, Lidia, Hannover: Leibniz Universität Hannover , 2013, p. 104-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forecasts show that, already in 2020, the European consumption of wood and wood fibre raw material can be as large as Europe’s combined forest growth increment. An increasing proportion of the forest raw material is expected to be used as fuel for heating, as propellant fuel or to generate electricity. This means an increasingly tight competition for wood between the board industry and the energy-conversion industry and a need for the board industry to find new raw material sources.

     

    High productivity in the boreal regions makes reed canary grass interesting as a raw material for several applications where wood is today the main raw material. One possible application is in board manufacture, e.g. as a substitute for wood in the core of multi-layer particleboards. The properties of reed canary grass must, however be modified to meet the industrial standards for particleboard production and for the mechanical properties of the boards. Alternatively, different adhesives can be chosen.

    The purpose of this paper is to present some pre-treatments and adhesives suitable for use when reed canary grass is used as core material in industrial particleboard production.  An overview of different methods for pre-treatment and optional adhesives that can be used to increase the bonding properties of annual plants in the context of particleboard production is also presented.

     

    The bonding properties have been studied through mechanical tests and through light microscopy studies. Untreated and NaOH-pre-treated reed canary grass in combination with MUF, PVAc, Lignin, and PUR adhesives have been used in the tests.

    The results show that an adhesion suitable for particleboard production can be achieved with a NaOH-pre-treatment of the grass together with melamine urea formaldehyde (MUF), and especially PVAc and PUR adhesive. The adhesive system must, however, be optimized for industrial conditions.

  • 6.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Reed canary grass as light-weight core in particleboards2013In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 469-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Particle boards are an important material for furniture production. In this sector, two tasks have had priority during recent years: to reduce the weight of the panels and to reduce the formaldehyde emission. As the production methods have been more or less the same for decades, these tasks have to be tackled by reducing or replacing the raw material in the board production.

     

    In this study, the possibility of replacing wood with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) to obtain a light-weight particle board has been studied. The boards studied were three-layered with a core of wood/reed canary grass particles and a surface of 100 % wood particles. A protein-based adhesive was tested as an alternative to a UMF adhesive to reduce the formaldehyde emission. Different combinations of densities between 250 and 450 kg/m3 were included in the study and no additional treatments were made to the raw materials.

     

    The results showed poor mechanical and swelling properties of all the tested boards regardless of the design. The main explanation of the poor properties is the poor wetting of the reed canary grass surface by the adhesives. A pre-treatment of the reed canary grass particles with steam, lipase enzyme or alkali is suggested to increase the wettability.

  • 7.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. johann.trischler@lnu.se.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Anaerobic digestion of monocotyledons in particleboard production: a concept of process integration to increase substitution of wood raw material2015In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 154-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this conceptual study was to introduce a possibility of integrating a surface treatment of monocotyledons by enzymes into particleboard production to provide a substitute raw material to replace wood particles. Because of the greater competition for wood as a raw material for particleboard production, there is increasing interest in monocotyledons as a substitute for wood. Monocotyledons, such as grass or cereal straw, differ from wood mostly in that they have a surface layer of waxes and embedded silica. If particles of monocotyledons are to be used in combination with wood in particleboards they must be modified. Using the concept of anaerobic digestion, it is possible to modify the surface of monocotyledon particles, having methane as a side product and to achieve a process, which leads to greater product diversity. A SWOT analysis was used to evaluate the process.

  • 8.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Monocotyledons in Particleboard Production: Adhesives, Additives, and Surface Modification of Reed Canary Grass2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 3919-3938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a supplier to the furniture industry, the particleboard industry is searching for opportunities to reduce costs, weight, and formaldehyde emissions. One such opportunity is to use monocotyledons such as straw and hemp, as well as grasses like reed canary grass. A major problem when using reed canary grass or other monocotyledons in combination with wood is the difference in their surface properties, leading to poor reactivity and wettability with adhesives such as melamine urea formaldehyde. To this end, either the surface of the particles must be modified in some way, or different adhesives must be used. The purpose of this paper is to present adhesives, surfactants, coupling agents, and pre-treatment methods that can be used in combination with monocotyledons to improve compatibility with wood. Some of the methods have been tested on reed canary grass. The results show a wide range of strength values for the joint between wood and untreated or pre-treated reed canary grass glued with different adhesives, with and without a surfactant and a coupling agent. Isocyanate-based adhesives provided relatively strong bonds, and polyvinyl acetate, acryl, and epoxy adhesives were also effective. The most effective method was pre-treatment followed by adhesives in combination with a coupling agent.

  • 9.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    The application of Steinmann’s and Schreyögg’s concept of competitive strategies to wood production in Europe: a conceptual studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wheat protein as adhesive for wood products for interior use2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 246-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein is one of the most researched and widely used natural adhesives. Before the break through of synthetic adhesives in the wood industry, proteins were commonly used in furniture production. Today, proteins in the form of industrial by-products e.g. soy protein, blood and wheat protein are on the market, and these proteins can in general be used as a base for wood-products adhesives. Proteins are in general denatured by a change in pH, heat or organic solvents before they can be used as adhesives. In this study, a cold-dissolution of wheat protein (gluten) was tested with regard to its usability for the production of particleboards and laminated veneer products. The bonding was evaluated by testing the internal bond strength, thickness swelling, tensile strength and tensile shear strength. The results showed that the strength of the bond-line was in some cases as high as the strength of the wood material, but also that there were in some cases problems with the penetration of the adhesive into the wood and this lowered the bond-line strength considerably. The main conclusion is that cold-dissolved gluten adhesives are a good alternative to commercial synthetic adhesives for interior use, but that there are still challenges with the poor moisture resistance of the adhesive. 

  • 11.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Effect of temperature during vital gluten adhesive preparation and application on shear-bond strength2018In: Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, ISSN 0169-4243, E-ISSN 1568-5616, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If protein-based adhesives are to become a competitive bio-based alternative to synthetic adhesives, the preparation and application methods have to be considerable improved to reduce process time and thereby improve the economy of the adhesive system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the temperature during preparation and application on the shear-bond strength of an adhesive based on vital gluten for use in wood applications. Vital gluten was used in its natural form and mixed with water of different temperatures (preparation temperature 0 °C or 20 °C), and applied on beech veneer at different temperature (application temperature –10, 20, 60 and 100 °C). Tensile shear-bond strength samples were prepared and tested according to EN 205. The results showed that an increase in veneer temperature during application of the adhesive led to a decrease in the shear-bond strength, but that the preparation temperature of the adhesive had no influence on the strength.

  • 12.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Vital gluten for particleboard production: effect of wood-particle moisture on board properties2018In: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 127-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing environmental awareness is leading to an increased interest in the use of bio-based adhesives and proteins such as vital gluten. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the wood-particle moisture content, water application and press time on the internal bond strength, thickness expansion and thickness swelling of particleboards glued with vital gluten. Green and dried wood particles with similar moisture contents were achieved through drying or water addition and were blended with vital gluten powder and pressed for 1 to 3 minutes. The results show that not only the pressing time and moisture content, but also the way of achieving the moisture content has a strong impact on the performance of the boards. At comparable moisture content, never-dried (green) particles with high moisture content in combination with a dry adhesive application produced boards which performed better than boards made of dry particles with water addition to simulate liquid adhesive application.

  • 13.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nuszkowski, Kalle
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    The use of gluten adhesive and removable surface finishes in rebyblable furniture panels2015In: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 613-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general problem in the recycling of furniture is that different materials and components are included within a single piece of furniture. Not only is the furniture built of components such as wood, leather, textiles, foams, steel and others but the wood component is also very often a composite made of wood, adhesives and functional additives such as water repellents or chemical substances as surface treatments. Sometimes these additives make cost-effective recycling of the composite wood difficult because of problems related to the separation of the components. The purpose of this study was to present an alternative product design for wood-based panels i.e. particleboards, which reduces or avoids many of the problems in the recycling of wood-based panels used in furniture. The results show that it is possible to produce wood-based panels in a way that facilitates the recycling of these panels although there are still some challenges which have to be dealt with. The concept as such seems to be promising. 

  • 14.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    An approach to estimate the productivity of various species on sites in Sweden by choosing individual climate and productivity values and the MIAMI-model with modifications.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature contains a large variety of bioclimate, climate, biometric models for estimating the production of different species or stands under specific conditions for a defined site, or general models giving a worldwide overview of a single species. Depending on the model used, the amount of input-data varies considerable and is often related to a large investment in time and money.

    The purpose of this study was to create a model to estimate the productivity of various species of interest for biomass production using only easy available input data defining the site conditions. Further, if the site-specific input-data is the same for all species, the model allows a comparison of different species on a single site. For this approach, the MIAMI-model of Lieth et al. was used as basic model with some modifications.

    This modified model differs from recently developed models regarding the combination of species-unspecific site data and the species-specific productivity data. As the site data change with geographical location, easy handling data are profitable. The species-specific data require more extensive investigation, but once established as a database they can be used for all sites without changes. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were chosen as site-defining data and the mean annual temperature of the native distribution area of each species in combination with the highest biomass production found in the literature were chosen as the species-specific data. This combination makes this model very efficient to estimate the productivity of various species on different sites once the database is established.

    This first version of the model is restricted to sites in Sweden where changes in soil and groundwater level are relatively small. Vegetation is then mainly controlled by energy input expressed for example as temperature or irradiation. As the maximum biomass production is estimated, lower nutrient and water supplies in the soil lead primary to a decrease in biomass production, but this negative impact can be influenced by culture and treatment such as fertilising which is common in conventional agriculture. When extended to other regions with a more Mediterranean climate, for example, the impact of soil, water-storage and distribution of precipitation has to be evaluated first and if necessary included in the model formulation.

    A validation of this model with data from the literature on the one hand and data estimated by another model on the other hand showed that it seems to be possible to use the model for purposed suggested here.

  • 15.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Estimating the Annual Above-Ground Biomass Production of Various Species on Sites in Sweden on the Basis of Individual Climate and Productivity Values2014In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 2521-2541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The literature contains a large number of bioclimate, climate and biometric models for estimating the production of different species or stands under specific conditions on a defined site or models giving the distribution of a single species. Depending on the model used, the amount of input data required varies considerably and often involves a large investment in time and money. The purpose of this study was to create a model to estimate the annual above-ground biomass production of various species from site conditions defined by mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation. For this approach, the Miami model of Lieth was used as a base model with some modifications. This first version of the modified model was restricted to sites in Sweden, where changes in the soil and groundwater level were relatively small, and where the growth of land vegetation was mostly dependent on temperature. A validation of this model has shown that it seems possible to use the Miami model to estimate the annual above-ground biomass production of various species, and that it was possible to compare the annual above-ground biomass production of different species on one site, as well as the annual above-ground biomass production of different species on different sites using the modeled data.

  • 16.
    Trischler, Johann
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå Univeristy of Technology, Sweden.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Evaluating the Competition of Lignocellulose Raw Materials for their Use in Particleboard Production, Thermal Energy Recovery, and Pulp- and Papermaking2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 6591-6613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing competition for raw materials between particleboard production, thermal energy recovery, and pulp-and papermaking. According to different scenarios, the consumption of lignocellulosic raw materials is increasing, which means that the competition is increasing. The primary production of lignocellulosic raw material in some regions may therefore reach the limit of sustainability; i.e., the lignocellulosic raw material must be used more efficiently to reduce the risk of a shortage. The physical and chemical properties of the lignocellulosic raw material of selected species have therefore been surveyed, and the raw material properties that are important for each of the three competitors have been defined. The aim of the study is to characterise the lignocellulosic raw materials according to the three competing users and to show whether they are high or low in competition. As methods, a relative ranking of the species regarding their raw material properties and regarding the requirements of the competitors as well as cluster analysis were chosen. The results show that the most favourable raw materials are from coniferous species, while monocotyledon species show an opposite trend.

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