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  • 1.
    Besèr, Aniella
    et al.
    Danderyds sjukhus.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wahlberg, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, Åke
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Construction and evaluation of a self rating scale for stress-induced exhaustion disorder, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged stress (≥ six months) may cause a condition which has been named exhaustion disorder (ED) with ICD-10 code F43.8. ED is characterised by exhaustion, cognitive problems, poor sleep and reduced tolerance to further stress. ED can cause long term disability and depressive symptoms may develop. The aim was to construct and evaluate a self-rating scale, the Karolinska Exhaustion Disorder Scale (KEDS), for the assessment of ED symptoms. A second aim was to examine the relationship between self-rated symptoms of ED, depression, and anxiety using KEDS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). Items were selected based on their correspondence to criteria for ED as formulated by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW), with seven response alternatives in a Likert-format. Self-ratings performed by 317 clinically assessed participants were used to analyse the scale's psychometric properties. KEDS consists of nine items with a scale range of 0-54. Receiver operating characteristics analysis demonstrated that a cut-off score of 19 was accompanied by high sensitivity and specificity (each above 95%) in the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with ED. Reliability was satisfactory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that ED, depression and anxiety are best regarded as different phenomena. KEDS may be a useful tool in the assessment of symptoms of Exhaustion Disorder in clinical as well as research settings. There is evidence that the symptom clusters of ED, anxiety and depression, respectively, reflect three different underlying dimensions.

  • 2.
    Djukanovic, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Group discussions with structured reminiscence and a problem-based method as an intervention to prevent depressive symptoms in older people2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 7-8, p. 992-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To evaluate the effect of group discussions, in which structured reminiscence and a problem-based method were used, on depressive symptoms, quality of life and self-rated health among older people. Background: Depressive symptoms in older people have a considerable impact on self-rated health and quality of life, with a high rate of co-morbidity and mortality. As the ageing population is growing, late-life depression is becoming an important public health problem and there is a need to find preventive interventions to avert unnecessary suffering. Design: The study was quasi-experimental, with a one-group pretest-post-test design and follow-up after one year. Methods: Initially, a questionnaire was sent to the total population of 55-80-year-old retirees in a community in the northeast of Sweden, (n=679). The questionnaire concerned demographics and covered areas such as health, depression and quality of life. The intervention consisted of group discussions where structured reminiscence and a problem-based method were used. The participants (n=18) met 10 times under the guidance of a group-leader, a registered nurse educated in the method. Each session had different themes with a focus on positive memories but also on the present situation and the future. Parametric, nonparametric tests and content analysis were used.Results: Participants evaluated the intervention positively, showed a decrease in depressive symptoms, an increase in self-rated health and experienced an increased autonomy. No long- lasting effect was seen. Conclusion: Group discussions where structured reminiscence and a problem-based method are used might be an option to prevent depressive symptoms in older people. Relevance to clinical practice: This method might provide an opportunity for older people with depressive symptoms to improve their quality of life, however, to maintain the positive outcome the intervention should probably be continuous.

  • 3.
    Djukanovic, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Reminiscence and problem-based method as an intervention to prevent depressive symptoms in elderly2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, p. 67-68Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Djukanovic, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Experiences of the transition intoretirement: An interview study2016In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 224-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement is one of the most important transitions in a person's life, which also might affect health and well-being. Adjustment to a life as retiree does not follow a uniform pattern, which emphasizes the importance of an individual perspective. This article uses transition theory as a theoretical perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 individuals newly retired, focusing on experiences from the last year of work and the time after retirement. Content analysis was used to analyze data. Two themes emerged: ‘become aware of’ and ‘become adapted to’. Nine subthemes describe the individual experiences reflecting positive expectations and outcomes but also feelings of grief and disconnectedness and fears about loss of social network and identity. Transition into retirement should receive more attention from a nursing perspective since experiences such as, for example, grief, disconnectedness and loss of identity if unaddressed could lead to an unhealthy transition.

  • 5.
    Djukanovic, Ingrid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sorjonen, Kimmo
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Association between depressive symptoms and age, sex, loneliness and treatment among older people in Sweden2015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 560-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of and the association between depressive symptoms and loneliness in relation to age and sex among older people (65–80 years) and to investigate to what extent those who report depressive symptoms had visited a health care professional and/or used antidepressant medication.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Swedish sample randomized from the total population in the age group 65–80 years (n = 6659). Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    Results: The data showed that 9.8% (n = 653) reported depressive symptoms and 27.5% reported feelings of loneliness. More men than women reported depressive symptoms, and the largest proportion was found among men in the age group 75–80 years. An association between the odds to have a depressive disorder and loneliness was found which, however, decreased with increasing age. Of those with depressive symptoms a low proportion had visited a psychologist (2.9%) or a welfare officer (4.2%), and one in four reported that they use antidepressant medication. Of those who reported depressive symptoms, 29% considered that they had needed medical care during the last three months but had refrained from seeking, and the most common reason for that was negative experience from previous visits.

    Conclusion: Contrary to findings in most of the studies, depressive symptoms were not more prevalent among women. The result highlights the importance of detecting depressive symptoms and loneliness in older people and to offer adequate treatment in order to increase their well-being.

  • 6.
    Holmberg, Karin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala universitet.
    A two-decade perspective on mothers’ experiences and feelings related to breastfeeding initiation in Sweden2014In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 125-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The purpose was to examine mothers’ experiences and feelings related to breastfeeding initiation from a two-decade perspective.

    Methods

    A repeated cross-sectional survey was conducted at a maternity ward before and after introduction of Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and in a follow-up survey. Women participated in 1992 (n = 83), 1993 (n = 74) and 2011 (n = 94).

    Results

    The duration of time at the first suckling differed; in 2011, the baby sucked 24.4 minutes compared to 12.7 minutes in 1992 (p < .001) and 13.6 minutes in 1993 (p < .001). In 1992, 34.6% of the women reported using supplementary formula compared with 5.9% in 1993 and 9.3% in 2011 (p < .001). The mothers’ contacts with the child or the father as well as their moods did not vary during the years. Mothers rated their feelings towards breastfeeding as being lower in 2011 than in 1992 and 1993 (p = .008). In 2011, mothers experienced breastfeeding as being more difficult and reported a higher degree of tension, insecurity and anxiety.

    Conclusions

    Supplementation was given to healthy newborn infants, which does not conform to BFHIs intentions. Routines and support in relation to breastfeeding initiation need to be continuously evaluated in order to strengthen and sustain the BFHI.

  • 7.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska institutet.
    Gruppsamtal på arbetsplatsen kan motverka utbrändhet2011In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 108, no 36, p. 1700-1702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anpassningsstörning och reaktion på svår stress är den näst vanligaste diagnosen vid pågående sjukskrivning.

    Deltagare i en reflekterande kollegial samtalsgrupp upplevde bättre hälsa, lägre grad av utmattning och mer delaktighet i arbetet än en kontrollgrupp.

    Reflekterande kollegiala samtalsgrupper med ett strukturerat arbetssätt kan vara en förhållandevis billig intervention för att förebygga/förhindra utveckling av stress och utmattning.

  • 8.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Stress and burnout in healthcare workers2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related stress (of which burnout might be an example) is one of the most common work-related health problems. Currently, psychiatric illness (particularly depression, anxiety disorders, and stress related conditions) is the most common cause for long-term sick-leave in Sweden for women, and the second largest for men. Finding adequate strategies to prevent stress and burnout therefore seems important. This thesis is based on a questionnaire survey among all employees in a Swedish County Council. The overall response rate was 65% (n = 3976). The aims of the thesis were to: (1) Investigate how four burnout categories (non-burnout, disengaged, exhausted, and burnout) are linked to constellations of work characteristics, including self-reported sickness absence, sickness presence and overtime. (2) Test the Job Demand-Resources model in a sample of Swedish healthcare workers. (3) Investigate how burnout relates to self-reported physical and mental health, sleep disturbance, memory and lifestyle factors. (4) Test the effect of participating in a reflecting peer-support group on self-reported health, burnout, and on perceived changes in work conditions. (5) Investigate the factorial structure of the Swedish translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and its predictive validity on future long-term sickness absence. Results revealed that burnout is associated with poorer self-rated health, more depression and anxiety, overtime work, and with future long-term sickness absence as measured by register data. Burnout as a possible pathway to an exhaustion disorder is discussed. Contrary to the general belief, that job demands make all the difference, results indicated that it was the access to/lack of adequate job resources that determined whether an employee was classified as burnt out or not. Additional support for the Job Demands-Resources model was found, insofar that job demands were more closely related to exhaustion, while lack of job resources was more associated with disengagement. Reflecting peer-support groups, using a problem-based method, was tested in a randomized controlled trial, and showed positive intervention effects in self-reported health, participation and development opportunities at work, support at work, and in work demands. Based on the result in this thesis, a fair and empowering leadership, a positive social climate at work, control of decision, and support from superiors, as well as a reasonable work load appear to be important factors in the prevention of burnout. Reflecting peer-support groups using a problem-based method could be a useful and comparatively inexpensive tool in alleviating work-related stress and burnout. Further research is needed, before any conclusions about the usefulness of the method for men can be drawn.

  • 9.
    Peterson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health, Social Work and Behavioural Sciences, School of Health and Caring Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Demerouti, Evangelia
    Utrecht University.
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, Åke
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Burnout levels and self-rated health prospectively predict future long-term sickness absence: a study among female health professionals.2011In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 788-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the predictive validity of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), and of three health indicators (depression, anxiety, and self-rated health), for long-term sickness absence (LTSA).

    METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to all employees in a Swedish County Council (N = 6118), and the overall response rate was 65% (N = 3976). As 82% were women, only women were included in the study. Certified LTSA data were collected.

    RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that high scores on exhaustion, depression, and poor self-rated health increased the risk of future LTSA (≥90 days). Support for the proposed two-factorial structure of the OLBI was found, including the dimensions of exhaustion and disengagement from work.

    CONCLUSION: Using burnout measures might be useful to identify those at risk for LTSA, and to enable preventive solutions in organizations.

  • 10.
    Peterson, Ulla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Insitutet.
    Samuelsson, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nygren, Åke
    Karolinska institutet.
    Reflecting peer-support groups in the prevention of stress and burnout: randomized controlled trial2008In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 506-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to test the effect of participating in a reflecting peer-support group on self-reported health, burnout and on perceived changes in work conditions.

    BACKGROUND: Stress-related conditions are one of the most common causes for long-term sick-leave. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of person-directed interventions aimed at reducing stress levels in healthcare workers. Prior research in the relationship between support and burnout show somewhat inconsistent results.

    METHOD: A randomized controlled trial with peer-support groups as the intervention was conducted with 660 healthcare workers scoring above the 75th percentile on the exhaustion dimension of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. One hundred and fifty-one (22.9%) agreed to participate. The intervention started in 2002 with 51 participants (96.1% were women), 80 of whom constituted the control group. Potential differences in outcome measures 12 months after the intervention were compared using ancova, and data collected was completed in 2004. Qualitative content analyses were used to analyse reported experiences from group participation.

    RESULTS: Statistically significant intervention effects were found for general health, perceived quantitative demands at work, participation and development opportunities at work and in support at work. Seven categories of experiences from participating were identified: talking to others in a similar situation, knowledge, sense of belonging, self-confidence, structure, relief of symptoms and behavioural change.

    CONCLUSION: Peer-support groups using a problem-based method could be a useful and comparatively inexpensive tool in alleviating work-related stress and burnout.

  • 11.
    Peterson, Ulla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Demerouti, E
    Gustavsson, JP
    Bergström, G
    Åsberg, M
    Nygren, Å
    Predictive validity of the Swedish translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory on long-term sickness absenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Peterson, Ulla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Demerouti, Evangelia
    Utrecht University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Samuelsson, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, Åke
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Burnout and physical and mental health among Swedish healthcare workers2008In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 84-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to investigate how burnout relates to self-reported physical and mental health, sleep disturbance, memory and lifestyle factors.

    BACKGROUND: Previous research on the possible relationship between lifestyle factors and burnout has yielded somewhat inconsistent results. Most of the previous research on possible health implications of burnout has focused on its negative impact on mental health. Exhaustion appears to be the most obvious manifestation of burnout, which also correlates positively with workload and with other stress-related outcomes.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted, using questionnaires sent to all employees in a Swedish County Council (N = 6118) in 2002. The overall response rate was 65% (n = 3719). A linear discriminant analysis was used to look for different patterns of health indicators and lifestyle factors in four burnout groups (non-burnout, disengaged, exhausted and burnout).

    RESULTS: Self-reported depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, memory impairment and neck- and back pain most clearly discriminated burnout and exhausted groups from disengaged and non-burnout groups. Self-reported physical exercise and alcohol consumption played a minor role in discriminating between burnout and non-burnout groups, while physical exercise discriminated the exhausted from the disengaged group.

    CONCLUSION: Employees with burnout had most symptoms, compared with those who experienced only exhaustion, disengagement from work or no burnout, and the result underlines the importance of actions taken to prevent and combat burnout.

  • 13.
    Peterson, Ulla
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Demerouti, Evangelia
    Utrecht University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, Åke
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Work characteristics and sickness absence in burnout and nonburnout groups: a study of Swedish health care workers2008In: International Journal of Stress Management, ISSN 1072-5245, E-ISSN 1573-3424, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 153-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to search for constellations of work characteristics that discriminate people who experience burnout from those who do not, and also from those who score high in exhaustion but not in disengagement, and vice versa. The study is based on data from 3,719 employees in a County Council in Sweden. Discriminant analysis revealed that four burnout categories (nonburnout, disengaged, exhausted, and burnout) related in different ways to self-reported work characteristics. The proportions of respondents with overtime, sickness absence, and sickness presence were higher in the burnout and the exhausted groups compared with the nonburnout group. The most common professions in the burnout group were, unexpectedly, dental nurses, secretaries, and service staff. 

  • 14.
    Peterson, Ulla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Danderyds sjukhus.
    Depression hos äldre: går det att förebygga?2014In: Äldres psykiska hälsa och ohälsa: prevention, förhållningssätt och arbetsmetoder / [ed] Susanne Rolfner Suvanto, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2014, 1, p. 212-223Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Petersson, Carina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Health and sexual behavior among exchange students2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 671-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The objective was to describe the exchange students’ health and sexual behaviour associated with their exchange studies, and examine the extent to which they had received preventive efforts against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and safer sex before departure. 

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a web survey with questions about sexual behaviour, self-esteem and psychological well-being. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. 

    Results: A total of 136 outgoing exchange students from a Swedish University participated. Most of the exchange students rated their health as good, had psychological well-being and rated their self-esteem as being high. Approximately half of the exchange students had sex with a new partner during the exchange semester, and 87% of them had sexually risky behaviour. More than half (61%) of the exchange students had received preventive efforts before departure. No statistically significant difference regarding preventive information was found between those who reported sexually risky behaviour and those who did not. The group that had sexually risky behaviour desired free condoms and access to clinics for sexual health. 

    Conclusions: Exchange students rated their health as good, and the majority of them participated in information sessions that addressed preventive efforts on HIV/STI and safer sex before departure. Sexually risky behaviour during exchange studies was reported and highlights the need for more effective preventive measures; for example, a recollection of reading STI information.

  • 16.
    Semark, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Brudin, Lars
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Self-rated health and educational level among elderly with depressive and physical disordersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Poor self-rated health (SRH) among elderly has been suggested to be more closely related to mental than to physical disorders. The aim was to investigate the association between SRH in elderly and depressive and physical disorders in relation to age, sex and educational level.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire sent to a randomised Swedish sample of individuals aged 65-80 years with a response rate of 67% (n= 6659). SRH in relation to age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, hypertension, diabetes and asthma was calculated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions analyses.

    Results: There was an association between good SRH and not feeling depressed (OR 9.4), to not having hypertension (OR 1.6), diabetes (OR 2.8), or asthma (OR 2.1). SRH was rated as less good with higher age. SRH was rated as better with higher educational levels and men rated their health as better than women did. The association to depressive symptoms, hypertension, diabetes and asthma were lower with higher educational level and varied with sex.

    Conclusion: Poor SRH in elderly was associated with depressive symptoms, hypertension, diabetes and asthma with the strongest association to depressive symptoms. Thus, SRH might serve as a valuable complement to other diagnostic methods in the health care of the elderly, as it also can provide health information beyond classical risk factors or medical history.

  • 17.
    Wännström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, Åke
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gustavsson, J. Petter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Can scales assessing psychological and social factors at work be used across different occupations?2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To assess the psychometric properties of a comprehensive tool for assessing psychosocial work characteristics(the QPSNordic), focusing on measurement invariance (MI) across occupations.

    METHODS: QPSNordic consists of 26 scales covering task, individual, and organizational aspects of work. Multiple group confirmatory factor analyses were performed in order to elucidate MI across a variety of occupational groups.

    SUBJECTS: Private sector employees and health care workers from the public sector participated. Equal size (n = 500) groups from six different occupations were drawn and entered in multiple group confirmatory factor analyses for assessment of MI.

    RESULTS: Nine of the 24 analysed scales functioned well across all occupational groups and could thus be used for valid comparisons across professions. The majority of the remaining scales showed MI at least across some groups.

    CONCLUSION: With some exceptions, the QPSNordic has good psychometric properties. Scales measuring organizational aspects of work could also be used across professional groups, enabling valid comparisons between differing workplaces and occupations.

  • 18.
    Wännström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Peterson, Ulla
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nygren, Åke
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Gustavsson, J. Petter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Psychometric properties of scales in the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPSNordic): confirmatory factor analysis and prediction of certified long-term sickness absence2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 231-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychometric properties, particularly predictive validity, of scales in the General Nordic Questionnaire for Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPSNordic) were assessed. The analysis is confined to the scales in the QPSNordic, and 24 of the 26 scales are included. A large group of Swedish county council employees (n= 3,976; response rate = 65%) participated in a study and were given the QPSNordic. Register data for long-term sick leave (>90 days), with diagnosis, were used for predictive analysis. The following main results were obtained: Reliability was generally satisfactory, confirmatory factor analysis indicated good fit, concurrent validity was good, some less often investigated organizational variables predicted sickness absence, and scales were differentially associated with absence due to psychiatric and musculoskeletal disorders. In conclusion, the psychometric testing of the QPSNordic so far suggests that it is a good instrument for assessing health-related factors at work.

  • 19. Åsberg, Marie
    et al.
    Nygren, Åke
    Leopardi, Rosario
    Rylander, Gunnar
    Peterson, Ulla
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wilczek, Lukas
    Källmén, Håkan
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Lekander, Mats
    Ekman, Rolf
    Novel biochemical markers of psychosocial stress in women2009In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 1, p. e3590-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Prolonged psychosocial stress is a condition assessed through self-reports. Here we aimed to identify biochemical markers for screening and early intervention in women.

    METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL) 1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total tri-iodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), prolactin, and testosterone were measured in: 195 women on long-term sick-leave for a stress-related affective disorder, 45 women at risk for professional burnout, and 84 healthy women.

    RESULTS: We found significantly increased levels of MCP-1, VEGF and EGF in women exposed to prolonged psychosocial stress. Statistical analysis indicates that they independently associate with a significant risk for being classified as ill.

    CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1, EGF, and VEGF are potential markers for screening and early intervention in women under prolonged psychosocial stress.

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