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  • 1.
    Anderson, Helén
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Berndt, Adele
    Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Animals and brand association in advertising2013Ingår i: NFF 2013: On Practice and Knowledge Eruptions. ISSN 2298-3112, Nordic Academy of Management, University of Iceland , 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Advertising fulfils a number of functions for a brand, such as informing, persuading and reminding consumers of the brand. Advertising helps create and sustain brand associations in the mind of the consumer. Selecting the most appropriate symbols for a brand is part of the crea-tion of positive associations. Consumers are active in the creation process when they construct a comprehensive set of brand associations, which help them make infer-ences about the product or service and construct a brand image. A brand association is defined as “anything that is linked in memory to a brand”.We have observed more animals in advertising and assume that the animal is expected to benefit the organi-sation by creating positive brand associations. The pur-pose is to investigate the use of animals in advertising and conceptualize how the animals support the associa-tion process.Recent advertising shown in the Swedish media (dur-ing 2012) which featured animals was identified and analysed. Use was made of an analysis guide for coding purposes. In the advertising, the specific animal, the product (or service or brand), the way in which the ani-mal was shown as well as the specific associations were examined.Preliminary findings suggest that animals are used in a rational way when examining the product category (e.g. dairy products and cows, cat food and cats). But the use of animals can also convey a somewhat subtle mes-sage like the lifestyle of a person portrayed with no direct connection to the functionality of the product (e.g. dogs in advertisements for cars).

  • 2.
    Biswas, Dipayan
    et al.
    University of South Florida, USA.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Szocs, Courtney
    Portland State University, USA.
    Ambient Music and Food Choices: Can Music Volume Level Nudge Healthier Choices?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient music is ubiquitous in almost all restaurant and retail settings. We examine how the ambient music influences food choices.The results of three experiments (one field study and two lab studies) show that low volume (vs. high volume or no) ambient musicnudges consumers towards more healthful food choices.

  • 3.
    Biswas, Dipayan
    et al.
    University of South Florida, USA.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Szocs, Courtney
    Portland State University, USA.
    Effects of retail ambient music volume levels on food purchases: implications for retail atmospheric strategies and consumer wellbeing2018Ingår i: 2018 AMA Winter Academic Conference: Integrating Paradigms in a World Where Marketing Is Everywhere, February 23-25, 2018, New Orleans, LA: proceedings / [ed] Jacob Goldenberg, Juliano Laran & Andrew Stephen, American Marketing Association, 2018, Vol. 29, artikel-id C-2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Question

    While different music volume levels are being used for different strategic reasons across stores/restaurants, in this research, we examine whether manipulating music (and noise) volume might also influence consumers’ food purchases in retail and restaurant settings. We address the following research question: Could low (vs. high) volume ambient music influence consumers’ choice and purchase behavior related to healthy versus unhealthy foods? In one of our experiments (study 3), we also examine the effects of ambient noise.

    Method and Data

    Study 1 was a field experiment conducted at a café conducted in collaboration with the café management. The study had two manipulated conditions corresponding to low (55dB) versus high volume (70 dB) ambient music. As predicted, a higher percentage of healthy items were sold when the ambient music loudness level was low (vs. high) (42.92% vs. 32.49%; χ2 = 4.79, p < .05). Then studies 2a and 2b replicated these findings in lab settings. Study 3 was a 2 (noise volume: low vs. high) ¥ 2 (prime: relaxation vs. control) between subjects experiment. The results showed that the effects of high versus low volume ambient music on food choice persisted in the control condition but got attenuated for the “relaxation primed” condition. Study 4 was conducted as a field experiment at a major supermarket, in collaboration with the store management. The experiment had two manipulated conditions (low vs. high volume ambient music). Consistent with our hypothesis, low (vs. high) volume ambient music led to higher degree of purchases of healthy items as a proportion of total food purchases (Proportion low-volume = 44.16% vs. Proportion high-volume = 42.92%; χ2 = 73.75, p < .001).

    Summary of Findings

    The results of two field experiments and three lab experiments demonstrated that high (vs. low) volume ambient music leads to greater degree of unhealthy food purchases.

    Key Contributions

    While there is extant research on factors that influence purchase of healthy versus unhealthy foods, this is the first research to demonstrate the effects of ambient music on food purchase behavior. In other words, the results of our experiments show that consumers tend to have higher preference for healthier options when ambient music or sounds is of low volume versus when it is at high volume or absent. Relaxation induced by music/sound volume levels seems to be the underlying process for these effects. Our findings have implications for shedding insights into the cross-modal influences of auditory cues on food choices. The findings also have strong implications for consumer health and wellbeing along with relevance for retail atmospheric strategies.

  • 4.
    Biswas, Dipayan
    et al.
    University of South Florida, USA.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Szocs, Courtney
    Louisiana State University, USA;Portland State Univ, USA.
    Sounds like a Healthy Retail Atmospheric Strategy: Effects of Ambient Music and Noise on Food Sales2019Ingår i: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, ISSN 0092-0703, E-ISSN 1552-7824, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 37-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retail atmospherics is becoming an increasingly important strategic tool for stores and restaurants. Ambient music and background noise are especially important atmospheric elements given their ubiquity in retail settings. However, there is high variation in the volume of ambient music and background noise, with some stores/restaurants having very loud ambience and others having very quiet ambience. Given the variation in loudness levels at stores/restaurants, and the managerial ease of adjusting volume level, we investigate the consequences of ambient music (and background noise) volume on food choices and sales. A pilot study, two field experiments, and five lab studies show that low (vs. high or no) volume music/noise leads to increased sales of healthy foods due to induced relaxation. In contrast, high volume music/noise tends to enhance excitement levels, which in turn leads to unhealthy food choices.

  • 5.
    Biswas, Dipayan
    et al.
    University of South Florida, USA.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Szocs, Courtney
    Portland State University, USA.
    The effects of retail ambient music and noise on food purchases: an abstract2018Ingår i: Boundary Blurred: A Seamless Customer Experience in Virtual and Real Spaces. AMSAC 2018: Developments in Marketing Science: Proceedings of the Academy of Marketing Science / [ed] Krey N. & Rossi P., Springer, 2018, s. 83-83Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient sound, which includes both ambient music and noise, is present in nearly all retail stores and restaurants. Yet, there is great variation in the volume of this ambient sound. Specifically, some restaurants have very high levels of sound and others have very low levels of sound. This research examines how the volume of ambient music and noise influences consumers’ food choices. A series of field and laboratory studies show that low (vs. high)-volume ambient music and noise lead to healthier food choices. Process evidence suggests that the effects of ambient sound on food choices are driven by greater relaxation induced with low-volume ambient sound. The findings of this research suggest that restaurant, cafeteria, and supermarket managers wanting to nudge healthier food choices might simply need to adjust the volume on ambient sound systems.

  • 6.
    Lueth, Annika K.
    et al.
    University of South Florida, USA.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Biswas, Dipayan
    University of South Florida, USA.
    How food-related scents influence consumers' choices for fresh products2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Brand personality vs retail brand personality: an action figure or the customer in the store?2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Change in meaning of brand personality characteristics2014Ingår i: ANZMAC Annual Conference 2014: proceedings / [ed] Sharyn Rundle-Thiele, Krzysztof Kubacki and Denni Arli, Brisbane: ANZMAC , 2014, s. 192-192Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brand personality has become an increasingly important concept within brand theory, and factor-based methods constitute the standard measure in brand personality research. However, questions have been raised about the validity of current factor-based models. This research explores how brand personality characteristics that are salient in verbal and visual advertising content change over time as the brand is extended into multiple product categories. The empirical data are based on a case study of four subbrands of the personal and skin care brand Nivea and include an advertising analysis, in-depth interviews with executives, and a document analysis. The results show that the meanings of words that represent brand personality characteristics in advertising content shift across different product categories. The study emphasises the problems related to the use of a generalised brand personality scale and develops an alternative methodological approach for brand personality research.

  • 9.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Change in Meaning of Brand Personality Characteristics: An Advertising Analysis2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Brand personality has become an increasingly important concept within brand theory and factor-based methods constitute the standard measure in brand personality research. However, questions have been raised about the validity of current factor-based models. This research explores how brand personality characteristics that are salient in verbal and visual advertising content change over time as the brand is extended into multiple product categories. The empirical data are based on a case study of four sub-brands of the personal and skin care brand Nivea and include an advertising analysis, in-depth interviews with executives, and a document analysis. The results show that the meanings of words that represent brand personality characteristics in advertising content shift across different product categories. The study emphasises the problems related to the use of a generalised brand personality scale and develops an alternative methodological approach for brand personality research.

  • 10.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Ekonomihögskolan (FEH), Institutionen för marknadsföring (MF).
    Transfer of brand associations over time: the brand extension of Nivea2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Lund, Kaisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för ekonomi och design, Ekonomihögskolan, ELNU.
    Transfer of brand associations over time: the brand extension of Nivea2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Brand extension has been the source of strategic growth for many firms during recent decades. Introducing new products under existing brand names is one way to use the image of a brand name to enter new markets. Previous research has shown that the success of a brand extension depends on the transfer of the parent brand associations to the extended product. Although the transfer of brand associations from the parent brand to the extension is recognised as crucial for the success of brand extension, surprisingly little research has been conducted on how brand associations actually are transferred. In the present research, I argue for expanding the view on brand extension to include market communication of product introductions. Explanations are provided on how brand associations are transferred in multiple brand extension from an advertising perspective.

    The empirical data are based on a case study of the personal and skin care brand Nivea and include an advertising analysis that spans a time period of 72 years, interviews with executives, and a document analysis. The interpretation of the case is guided by a review of the literature on brand extension, brand associations, and brand personality. Insights into how brand associations are transferred in multiple brand extension are advanced in the conclusion, emphasising that brand associations are transferred not only from parent brand to extended product but also from one extension to another. The results also show that the brand associations change due to contextual changes as a consequence of the transfer to a new product. The context refers to the intended user or usage situation. Furthermore, the study suggests that corporate associations reinforce brand associations of extended products. Finally, I propose that future research should include the organisation as part of the brand extension process. The study is intended to contribute to an increased understanding of brand extension, facilitating the creation of new hypotheses, research designs, and methods in the research area.

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