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  • 1. Abreu, P C
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Odebrecht, C
    Kitzmann, D
    Proença, L A
    Resgalla Jr, C
    Effect of fish and mesozooplankton manipulation on the phytoplankton community in the Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil1994In: Estuaries, Vol. 17, p. 575-584Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Alder, V A
    et al.
    Cuzin-Roudy, J
    Fransz, G
    Granéli, Edna
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Lund .
    Larsen, J
    Rabbani, M M
    Thomsen, H
    Macro- and micrograzing effects on phytoplankton communities1989In: The expedition Antarktis VII/3 (EPOS LEG 2) of RV "Polarstern" in 1988/89 / [ed] I. Hempel, P.H. Schalk and V. Smetacek, Bremerhaven: Alfred- Wegener-Institut für Polar Meeresforschung , 1989, p. 123-130Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Barreiro, A
    et al.
    Guisande, C
    Maneiro, I
    Lien, T P
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tamminen, T
    Lehtinen, S
    Uronen, P
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Relative importance of the different negative effects of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum on Rhodomonas salina and Brachionus plicatilis2005In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the different processes/mechanisms by which the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum, cultured under different nutrient conditions, affects non-toxic phytoplankton competitors and microzooplankton grazers. P. parvum was cultured under steady-state growth in different nutrient conditions: nitrogen depleted (-N), phosphorus depleted (-P) and balanced nitrogen and phosphorus (+NP). Cells from each nutrient condition and culture cell-free filtrates, alone and combined with non-toxic prey (Rhodomonas salina), were used as food for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. An additional experiment was carried out to test the effect of P. parvum cells and culture cell-free filtrate on R. salina. The highest haemolytic activity values were achieved by -P F parvum cultures, followed by -N. However, the negative effect of R parvum on R. salina and rotifers did not correlate with haemolytic activity but with the number of P. parvum cells. -N-cultured P. parvum were the most toxic for both R. salina and rotifers, followed by +NP. Therefore, haemolytic activity is not a good indicator of the total potential toxicity of R parvum. The growth rate of R. salina was negatively affected by cell-free filtrates but the effect of P, parvum predation was greater. Rotifers fed on both toxic and non-toxic algae, indicating that they did not select against the toxic alga. The P. parvum cell-free filtrate had an effect on B. plicatilis, although this was weak, B, plicatilis was also indirectly affected by P. parvum due to the negative effects of the toxic alga on their prey (R. salina). However, the greatest negative effect of P. parvum on the rotifers was due to ingestion of the toxic cells. Therefore, the phytoplankton competitor R. salina is more affected by P. parvum predation and the grazer B. plicatilis is more affected by ingestion of the toxic cells, the effects of excreted compounds being secondary.

  • 4. Berger, Rita
    et al.
    Bergström, L.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Kautsky, Lena
    How does eutrophication affect different life stages of Baltic Fucus vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea? - a conceptual model2004In: Hydrobiologia, Vol. 514: 243-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Bowers, HA
    et al.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    F de Carvalho, Wanderson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Combining flow cytometry and real-time PCR methodology to demonstrate consumption in Prymnesium parvum2010In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 46, p. 133-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmful algal bloom species can persist in the environment, impacting aquatic life and human health. One of the mechanisms by which some harmful algal bloom species are able to persist is by consumption of organic particles. Methods to demonstrate and measure consumption can yield insight into how populations thrive. Here, we combine flow cytometry and real-time PCR to demonstrate consumption of a cryptophyte species (Rhodomonas sp.) by a toxic mixotrophic haptophyte (Prymnesium parvum). Using flow cytometry, the feeding frequency of a population of P. parvum cells was calculated using the phycoerythrin (PE) fluorescence signal from Rhodomonas sp. and the fluorescence of an acidotropic probe labeling the food vacuoles. Feeding frequency increased in the beginning of the experiment and then began to decline, reaching a maximum of 47.5% of the whole P. parvum population after 212 min. The maximum number of consumed Rhodomonas sp. cells was 0.8 per P. parvum cell, and occurred after 114 min corresponding to an ingestion rate of 0.4 Rhodomonas sp. cells/P. parvum/h. Cells from the feeding P. parvum population were sorted, washed, and subjected to a real-time PCR assay targeting the cryptophyte 18S locus. There was a correlation between cycle threshold (Ct) values and number of consumed prey cells calculated by fluorescence. Overall, this study shows that flow cytometric analysis, of the acidotropic probe and prey pigments, is an efficient and rapid tool in enumerating food vacuoles and the number of prey cells consumed. Furthermore, we suggest that real-time PCR can be applied to cells sorted by flow cytometry, thus allowing for the detection and potential quantification of the targeted prey cells.

  • 6.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Role of mixotrophy and light for growth and survival of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum2011In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 10, p. 388-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum was investigated using carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotopes. The experiment was performed in light and dark. In the dark treatment we expected that the mixotrophic P. parvum would rely solely on its prey and therefore reflect the prey isotopic signatures. In the light treatment P. parvum can perform photosynthesis as well as utilize its prey, thus we expect the isotopic signatures to be between the dark mixed cultures and the monocultures, depending on how much prey was utilized. In the light treatment, addition of the ciliate Myrionecta rubra resulted in higher P. parvum cell numbers compared to monocultures. During the experiment, cell numbers in the dark monocultures and the mixed dark cultures did not increase. P. parvum had 2.5-3 times higher cellular phosphorus and nitrogen content in the dark compared to the cultures in the light whereas no difference in carbon content between treatments could be observed. This suggests that P. parvum can utilize nitrogen and phosphorus but not carbon in the dark. It thus seems as if P. parvum relies on photosynthesis to meet the carbon and energy demand required for growth. The expected isotopic signatures “become what you eat…plus a few per mil” were not observed. In the dark treatment, the δ13C did not differ between monocultures and mixed cultures. In the light treatments P. parvum δ13C became less negative then the corresponding dark treatments indicating that P. parvum used CO2 rather than carbon from the added prey. No difference in δ15N between monocultures and mixed cultures could be observed during the experiment. We argue that light is necessary for P. parvum growth and that the ability to utilize nutrients originating from their prey may be important in bloom formation.

  • 7.
    Brutemark, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Carbon isotope signature variability among cultured microalgae: Influence of species, nutrients and growth2009In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 372, no 1-2, p. 98-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have investigated whether the carbon isotopic signature differs between different groups and species of marine phytoplankton depending on growth phase, nutrient conditions and salinity. The 15 investigated algal species, representing the Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae and Haptophyceae classes were grown in batch monocultures and analysed for delta(13)C in both exponential and stationary phase. For all the cultured species, delta(13)C signatures ranged from -23.5 parts per thousand (Imantonia sp.) to - 12.3 parts per thousand (Nodulania spumigena) in the exponential phase and from - 18.8 parts per thousand (Amphidinium carterae) to - 8.0 parts per thousand (Anabaena lemmermannii) in the stationary phase. Three species (Dunaliella tertiolecta, Rhodomonas sp.. Heterocapsa triquetra) were also grown under nutrient sufficient and nitrogen or phosphorus deficient conditions. Nitrogen limitation resulted in a more negative delta(13)C signature, whereas no effect could be observed during phosphorus limitation compared to nutrient sufficient conditions. Growth of Prymnesium parvum in two different salinities resulted in a more negative delta(13)C signature in the 26 parts per thousand-media compared to growth in 7 parts per thousand-media. Our results show that the carbon isotopic signature of phytoplankton may be affected by salinity, differ among different phytoplankton species, between exponential and stationary phase, as well as between nutrient treatments.

  • 8. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Availability of humic bound nitrogen for coastal phytoplankton1993In: Estuarine, coastal and shelf science, Vol. 36, p. 433-447Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Effects of N:P:Si ratios and zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton communities in the northern Adriatic Sea. II. Phytoplankton, species composition1999In: Aquatic microbial ecology, Vol. 18, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Utilization of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) by Phytoplankton Including Harmful Species1998In: Physiological ecology of harmful algal blooms: proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "The Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms", held at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Bermuda, USA, May 27 - June 6, 1996 / [ed] Donald Mark Anderson, Allan D. Cembella, Heidelberg: Springer, 1998, p. 509-524Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Finenko, G
    Maestrini, S Y
    Copepod grazing on a phytoplankton community containing the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata1995In: Journal of plankton research, Vol. 17, p. 1925-1938Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Lunds Universitet.
    Gonzalez Rodriguez, Eliane
    IEAPM, Arraial do Cabo, Brazil .
    Carvalho, Wanderson F
    IEAPM, Arraial do Cabo, Brazil .
    Brutemark, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Bacterial and phytoplankton nutrient limitation in tropical marine waters, and a coastal lake in Brazil2012In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 418-419, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioassay experiments were performed two times (with 2 years in between) in order to investigate if nitrogen(N, ammonium), phosphorus (P, phosphate) and carbon (C, glucose) additions would stimulate the growth ofbacteria and phytoplankton differently in three different tropical aquatic environments. The water and theirindigenous microbial communities were taken from a freshwater coastal lake (Cabiunas), a coastal (Anjos),and an offshore marine station (Sonar) in the Atlantic outside Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Ammonium,phosphate and glucose were added alone or in combination to triplicate bottles. In the lake, P seemedto be the primary limiting factor during the first experiment, since both bacterial production and phytoplanktongrowth was stimulated by the P addition. Two years later, however, addition of P inhibited phytoplanktongrowth. During both years, C was closely co-limiting for bacteria since CP additions increased the responseconsiderably. For both the coastal and offshore seawater stations, phytoplankton growth was clearly stimulatedby N addition in both years and the bacteria responded either to the P, N or C additions (alone or incombination). To conclude, the results from these tropical aquatic systems show that it is possible that phytoplanktonand bacteria may compete for a common resource (P) in lakes, but can be limited by different inorganicnutrients in marine waters as well as lakes, suggesting that phytoplankton and bacteria do notnecessarily compete for the same growth limiting nutrient in these environments.

  • 13. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    Department of Marine Ecology, University of Lund .
    Olsson, P
    Grazer elimination through poisoning: one of the mechanisms behind Chrysochromulina polylepis blooms?1990In: Toxic marine phytoplankton: proceedings of the fourth International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, held June 26-30 in Lund, Sweden / [ed] Edna Graneli, New York: Elsevier , 1990, p. 116-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Segatto, A Z
    Cycling of biologically available nitrogen in riverine humic substances between marine bacteria, a heterotrophic nanoflagellate and a photosynthetic dinoflagellate1999In: Aquatic microbial ecology, Vol. 18, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Tester, P
    Boni, L
    Influences of riverine humic substances on bacteria, protozoa, phytoplankton, and copepod in a coastal plankton community1995In: Marine ecology. Progress series, Vol. 127, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Carlsson, Per
    et al.
    Segatto, A Z
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Nitrogen bound to humic matter of terrestrial origin - a nitrogen pool for coastal phytoplankton?1993In: Marine ecology. Progress series, Vol. 97, p. 105-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Minnhagen, Susanna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae), more a predator than a producer?2008In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 174-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have proved that some Dinophysis species are capable of ingesting particulate organic matter besides of being photosynthetic, a form of nutrition termed mixotrophy. Phagotrophy may be an important aspect of the life history of the genus Dinophysis and the key to understand its ecology. We used modern techniques coupling flow cytometry and acidotropic probes to detect and score food vacuolated Dinophysis norvegica cells in natural samples. In addition, feeding experiments were conduced under controlled conditions to observe if D. norvegica would grow feeding on the cryptophyte Teleaulax amphioxeia. The results of the field observations showed a frequency of phagotrophy between 25 and 71% in a natural D. norvegica population from the Baltic Sea, which is higher than previous reports (1–20%). Although molecular methods have proved that the kleptoplastids of the D. norvegica from the Baltic Sea are from T. amphioxeia, the laboratory experiments showed that the presence of T. amphioxeia in the cultures did not enhance the survival rate of D. norvegica neither in phototrophic nor in heterotrophic conditions. We suggest that the D. norvegica Kleptoplats are obtained through a heterotrophic or mixotrophic protist, which have been feeding on cryptophytes, as it has recently been shown for Dinophysis acuminata. Our main conclusion is that D. norvegica, and probably all other species from the genus Dinophysis, is mainly phagotrophic and feeds on a larger prey than T. amphioxeia. Autotrophy through kleptoplastidy would be a secondary feature used as a complementary or short-term survival strategy. 

  • 18. Dahlmann, Jens
    et al.
    Rühl, A
    Hummert, Christian
    Liebezeit, G
    Carlsson, Per
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Different methods for toxin analysis in the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (Cyanophyceae)2001In: Toxicon, Vol. 39, p. 1183-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Dahlmann, Jens
    et al.
    Rühl, A
    Liebezeit, G
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Evaluation of a bioluminescence assay for detection of nodularin as an alternative to HPLC and protein phosphatase inhibition assay2001In: Harmful algal blooms 2000: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms Hobart, Australia, 7-l 1 February 2000 / [ed] Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff, Susan I. Blackburn, Christopher J. Bolch & Richard J. Lewis, Intergovernemental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO , 2001, p. 296-298Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20. Doblin, M.
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Hummert, Christian
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Hallegraeff, G.
    Uptake of humic substances by the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella2001In: Intergov. Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris 2001 336-339 / [ed] GM Hallegraeff, SI Blackburn, CJ Bolch, RJ Lewis, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Edler, L.
    et al.
    Aertebjerg, G
    Granéli, Edna
    Lunds Universitet.
    Exceptional plankton blooms in the entrance to the Baltic Sea - the Kattegat and Belt Sea area1982In: ICES C.M. (ICES Conference and Meeting (CM) Documents presented at ICES Annual Science Conferences), Vol. L. 20,Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Edler, L.
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sjöstedt, B
    Influence of the cooling water system on plankton at Barsebäck nuclear power plant, SW coast of Sweden1980In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 36, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Edler, L
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    Lund University.
    Sjöstedt, B
    Planktologiska undersökningar utanför Barsebäck Kärnkraftverk 1976-19771978Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    F de Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Acidotropic probes and flow cytometry: a powerful combination for detecting phagotrophy in mixotrophic and heterotrophic protists2006In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Vol. 44 (1), p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    F de Carvalho, Wanderson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Contribution of phagotrophy versus autotrophy to Prymnesium parvum growth under nitrogen and phosphorus sufficiency and deficiency2010In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 9, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sufficiency and deficiency on mixotrophy in Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyta). A parvum was grown with and without algal prey (Rhodomonas salina) and observed for 120 h. Detection and enumeration of cells containing food vacuoles with prey (i.e. phagotrophy) was based on flow cytometric detection of fluorescence of an acidotropic probe. Overall, the presence of R. salina increased phagotrophy in P. parvum suggesting that, at least in this strain of P. parvum, the presence of suitable prey can stimulate phagotrophic behavior in P. parvum. Feeding frequency (the percentage of A parvum cells containing food vacuoles in a given time) was significantly higher under N and P deficiency than in the nutrient-sufficient treatments. A nutrient budget constructed from the data indicated that ingestion of organic matter (OM) supplied with 78 +/- 7% of the N (3.9 +/- 0.3 mu M) incorporated by P. parvum in the N-deficient treatment, and 45 +/- 9% of the P (0.3 +/- 0 mu M) acquired in the P-deficient cultures. Even under nutrient sufficiency, ingestion of OM was estimated to have supplied 43 +/- 16% of the N and 48 +/- 16% of the P incorporated into P. parvum cells. Phagotrophy was observed even in the NP-sufficient cultures (non-axenic mixed and monocultures), although P. parvum cells did not lose their photosynthetic capability, suggesting that phagotrophy is probably a permanent nutritional adaptation to this species. The ingestion of organic nutrients played an important role in P. parvum growth, being a reliable source of nutrition for P. parvum inorganic nutrient limitation, and could explain its capabilities to form persistent blooms. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Fistarol, Giovana
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Allelopathic effect of Prymnesium parvum on a natural plankton community2003In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 255, p. 115-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allelopathic effect of Prymnesium parvum (Prymnesiophyta), which produces toxins with haemolytic, ichthyotoxic and cytotoxic properties, was investigated on a natural plankton community. Under controlled conditions, 3 laboratory bioassays were performed by adding cell-free filtrate from a P. parvum culture into different size fractions (<150, <100 and 20 to 150 mum) of a natural Baltic Sea plankton community. The effect of P. parvum cell-free filtrate was determined by measuring chlorophyll a, cell numbers (phytoplankton, ciliates, bacteria), carbon (C-14) uptake by phytoplankton and the incorporation of H-3-leucine by bacteria. P. parvum cell-free filtrate affected the whole phytoplankton community, resulting in a decrease in both chlorophyll a and carbon uptake. Furthermore, the plankton groups present in the community exhibited different sensitivity to the cell-free filtrate. While growth of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates was inhibited, that of diatoms and ciliates was not only completely suppressed, but no cells were present at the end of the experiment in the bottles with P. parvum filtrate. In all experiments, therefore, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates were the most resistant groups, which led to their dominance in the treatments with filtrate compared to controls. Bacterial production was also negatively affected by P. parvum filtrate. The results show that compounds released by P. parvum induce changes in the plankton community structure, killing other members of the marine food-web, especially other phytoplankton (allelopathy), and suggest that secreted compounds of P. parvum are inhibitory to potential grazers (ciliates). It is proposed that allelopathy is an important process in the ecology of P. parvum.

  • 27. Fistarol, Giovana
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Temporary cyst formation in phytoplankton: a response to allelopathic competitors?2004In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 791-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition among phytoplankton for limiting resources may involve direct or indirect interactions. A direct interaction of competitors is the release of chemicals that inhibit other species, a process known as allelopathy. Here, we investigated the allelopathic effect of three toxic microalgae species (Alexandrium tamarense, Karenia mikimotoi and Chrysochromulina polylepis) on a natural population of the dinoflagellate Scrippsiella trochoidea. Our major findings were that in addition to causing death of S. trochoidea cells, the allelopathic species also induced the formation of temporary cysts in S. trochoidea. Because cysts were not lysed, encystment may act as a defence mechanism for S. trochoidea to resist allelochemicals, especially when the allelopathic effect is moderate. By forming temporary cysts, S. trochoidea may be able to overcome the effect of allelochemicals, and thereby have an adaptive advantage over other organisms unable to do so.

  • 28. Fistarol, Giovana
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Selander, Erik
    Hummert, Christian
    Stolte, Willem
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Allelopathy in Alexandrium spp.: effect on a natural plankton community and on algal monocultures2004In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 45-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied allelopathy in the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium by testing the effect of A. tamarense on a natural plankton community from Hopavagen Bay, Trondheimsfjord, Norway, and the effect of toxic and non-toxic strains of A. tamarense and a toxic strain of A. minutum on algal monocultures. Also, a possible relation between the allelopathic effect and the production of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) toxin was investigated. A. tamarense affected the whole phytoplankton community by decreasing the growth rate and changing the community structure (relative abundance of each species, dominant species). A negative effect of A. tamarense was also observed on ciliates, but not on bacteria numbers, In the bioassay with algal monocultures, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii and the cryptophyte Rhodomonas sp. were exposed to the filtrate of Alexandrium spp. All tested Alexandrium strains negatively affected T weissflogii and Rhodomonas sp. cultures, independent of whether PSP toxins were produced. The compounds released by Alexandrium caused lysis of natural and cultured algal cells, suggesting that the allelopathic effect may be connected with previously described ichthyotoxic and haemolytic properties of Alexandrium. Furthermore, the observation that several components of the plankton community were affected by compounds released by A. tamarense emphasizes the importance of allelopathy for the ecology of this species.

  • 29. Fistarol, GO
    et al.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Allelopathic effect on a nutrient-limited phytoplankton species2005In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For aquatic systems, studies on allelopathic interactions among phytoplankton have increased over recent years, with the main focus on the role of the donor organism. In this study, we report on the response of a target organism to allelochemicals and whether this response was affected by stress conditions (nutrient limitation). We exposed the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, grown under different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) conditions (NP, -N, or -P), to single or daily additions of a cell-free filtrate of Prymnesium parvum (grown with no nutrient limitation). When we exposed T weissflogii to a single addition of filtrate, all 3 treatments were inhibited by P. parvum. However, T weissflogii NP was the most resistant, while T weissflogii -N showed the highest sensitivity to P. parvum filtrate, followed by T weissflogii -P. When T weissflogii was exposed. to daily additions of P. parvum, the degree of inhibition of all T weissflogii treatments was higher than when only 1 initial addition was made. In this case, even the treatment that had the highest resistance (T weissflogii NP) was not only inhibited by the filtrate, but also showed a decrease in cell numbers. Nevertheless, T weissflogii -N was still more sensitive than the other treatments. Therefore, nutrient-limiting conditions may increase allelopathic effects, by making the target more susceptive to allelopathic compounds. Under these conditions, allelopathy may play a strong role in phytoplankton competition, especially in natural environments where the allelochemicals are continuously released and, thus, the target species do not have time to recover.

  • 30.
    Flynn, Kevin J
    et al.
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Stoecker, Diane K
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Mitra, Aditee
    Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Raven, John A.
    University Of Dundee, Invergowrie, Dundee, UK.
    Glibert, Patricia M.
    University Of Maryland, Cambridge, MD, USA.
    Hansen, Per Juel
    University Of Copenhagen, Helsingør, Denmark.
    Granéli, Edna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Burkholder, Joann M.
    North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Misuse of the phytoplankton-zooplankton dichotomy: the need to assign organisms as mixotrophs within plankton functional types2013In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic portrayal of plankton is dominated by phytoplanktonic primary producersand zooplanktonic secondary producers. In reality, many if not most planktontraditionally labelled as phytoplankton or microzooplankton should be identifiedas mixotrophs, contributing to both primary and secondary production. Mixotrophicprotists (i.e. single-celled eukaryotes that perform photosynthesis and grazeon particles) do not represent a minor component of the plankton, as some formof inferior representatives of the past evolution of protists; they represent a majorcomponent of the extant protist plankton, and one which could become moredominant with climate change. The implications for this mistaken identification, ofthe incorrect labelling of mixotrophs as “phytoplankton” or “microzooplankton”,are great. It extends from the (mis)use of photopigments as indicators of primaryproduction performed by strict photoautotrophs rather than also (co)locating mixotrophicactivity, through to the inadequacy of plankton functional type descriptionsin models (noting that mixotrophic production in the individual organism is not asimple sum of phototrophy and heterotrophy). We propose that mixotrophy shouldbe recognized as a major contributor to plankton dynamics, with due effortexpended in field and laboratory studies, and should no longer be side-lined inconceptual food webs or in mathematical models.

  • 31. Galluzzi, Luca
    et al.
    Bertozzini, E
    Penna, A
    Perini, F
    Pigalarga, A
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Magnani, M
    Detection and quantification of Prymnesium parvum (Haptophyceae) by real-time PCR.2008In: Letters in Applied Microbiology, ISSN 0266-8254, E-ISSN 1472-765X, Vol. 46, p. 261-266Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Gisselson, Lasse
    et al.
    Carlsson, Per
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pallon, Jan
    Dinophysis blooms in the deep euphotic zone of the Baltic Sea: Do they grow in the dark?2002In: Harmful Algae, Vol. 1: 401-418Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Gisselson, Lasse
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Using cell cycle analysis to estimate in situ growth rate of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata: drawbacks of the DNA quantification method1999In: Marine ecology. Progress series, Vol. 184, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Gisselson, Lasse
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Pallon, Jan
    Variation in cellular nutrient status within a population of Dinophysis norvegica (Dinophyceae) growing in situ: single-cell elemental analysis by use of a Nuclear Microprobe2001In: Limnology and oceanography, Vol. 46(5), p. 1237-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Glibert, P M
    et al.
    M. Anderson, Donald
    Gentien, P
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Sellner, K G
    The global, complex phenomena of harmful algal blooms2005In: Oceanography, Vol. 18 (2), p. 130-141Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Glibert, PA
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Legrand, Catherine
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Salomon, Paulo
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    and, 55 co-authors
    Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks2008In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1049-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.

  • 37. Glibert, PM
    et al.
    Burkholder, JM
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Anderson, DM
    Advances and insights in the complex relationships between eutrophication and HABs: Preface to the special issue.2008In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 8, p. 1-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Glibert, PM
    et al.
    Burkholder, JMGranéli, EdnaUniversity of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.Anderson, DM
    HABs and Eutrophication.2008Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 39. Glibert, PM
    et al.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Anderson, DM
    Lipiatou, E
    and 43, others
    The EU- US Scientific Initiative on Harmful Algal Blooms: A report from a Workshop2003Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Algal assay of limiting nutrients for phytoplankton production in the Öresund1979In: Vatten, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 34, p. 117-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Granéli, Edna
    Department of Marine Botany, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Algal growth potential and limiting nutrients for phytoplankton production in Öresund water of Baltic and Kattegat origin1984In: Limnologica, ISSN 0075-9511, E-ISSN 1873-5851, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 563-569Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Begränsande ämnen för primärproduktionen av växtplankton i Laholmsbukten,: Kapitel 5:51986In: Eutrofieringsläget i Kattegatt / [ed] Rutger Rosenberg, Solna: Naturvårdsverket , 1986, , p. 96-104p. 96-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Granéli, Edna
    Lund University.
    Bioassay experiments in the Falsterbo Channel- Nutrients added daily1981In: Kieler Meeresforschung Sonderh, ISSN 0172-7893, Vol. 5, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Cyanobakterier – oundvikligt i Östersjön?2006In: Östersjön – hot och hopp / [ed] Johansson B, Stockholm: Formas, Series: Formas Fokuserar , 2006, p. 113-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Dinoflagellatblomningar Förekomst, orsaker och konsekvenser i marin miljö: en kunskapsöversikt1987Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Effects of nutrient discharges in coastal areas1983In: The environmental impact of aquaculture: report from the Working group on environmental effects to the Steering committee on aquaculture / [ed] Styrgruppen för vattenbruk. Arbetsgruppen för miljöfrågor, Stockholm: Swedish council for planning and coordination of research (Forskningsrådsnämnden, FRN) in coop. with the National marine resources commission [Delegationen för samordning av havsresursverksamheten] , 1983, , p. 35-42p. 35-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Esmålandia-Småland ur ett brasilianskt perspektiv2000In: Smålänningar med rötter i fjärran land, Vol. Svenska Emigrantinstitutets skriftserie nr 11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eutrophication and harmful algal blooms2005In: Drainage basin nutrient imputs and eutrophication: an integrated approach / [ed] Paul Wassmann and Kalle Olli, University of Tromsø , 2005, 1, p. 99-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Eutrophication mechanisms, eutrophication indicators and limiting nutrients - pelagic system2001Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Granéli, Edna
    University of Lund.
    Experimental investigations of limiting nutrients for phytoplankton production in the brackish-water Öresund, SW Sweden1981Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
12345 1 - 50 of 205
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