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  • 1.
    Evertsson, Kim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Protein expression and modifications in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic skeletal muscle2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle comprises about 45% of the total body weight. It is the largest tissue in the body, vital for maintaining posture, produce locomotion, breathing but also functions as a large reservoir of proteins. Regulation and maintenance of muscle mass is a delicate process and is determined by the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Most muscles start to lose weight due to the inactivity caused by denervation and become atrophic, whereas the hemidiaphragm initially increases in weight the first 6-10 days and becomes hypertrophic, followed by a decrease in weight. The aim of this thesis was to examine the expression and phosphorylation of factors potentially involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in denervated atrophic hind-limb muscles and in denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm muscles in mice. Another aim was to identify markers that could be linked to lysosomal and autophagic activities in denervated muscle.Factors of the Akt/mTOR pathway were studied and results indicative of increased protein synthesis were obtained in both denervated atrophic and hypertrophic muscles. This suggests that skeletal muscle atrophy following denervation is more likely to depend on increased protein degradation rather than an overall decrease in protein synthesis (paper I). A differential response of MK2 Thr317 phosphorylation in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic muscles was confirmed, without corresponding changes in phosphorylation of p38, indicating that other factors than p38 are responsible for this differential response, possibly Hsp70. Factors other than MK2 may be responsible for the phosphorylation of Hsp25, since increased levels of phosphorylated Hsp25 were seen in all denervated muscles studied (paper II). Results also suggested FoxO1 and MuRF1 to have potential roles in tissue remodeling that occurs after denervation (paper III). Immunoreactivity for the lysosomal marker Lamp1 and for the autophagic marker protein Lc3 was observed in characteristic ring-like structures in transverse sections of denervated muscle fibers (paper IV).  

  • 2.
    Evertsson, Kim
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Fjällström, Ann-Kristin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Norrby, Marlene
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) signaling in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated mouse skeletal muscle2014Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Signaling, ISSN 1750-2187, E-ISSN 1750-2187, Vol. 9, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase has been implicated in both skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. T317 phosphorylation of the p38 substrate mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) correlates with muscle weight in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated muscle and may influence the nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution of p38 and/or MK2. The present study investigates expression and phosphorylation of p38, MK2 and related proteins in cytosolic and nuclear fractions from atrophic and hypertrophic 6-days denervated skeletal muscles compared to innervated controls.

    METHODS: Expression and phosphorylation of p38, MK2, Hsp25 (heat shock protein25rodent/27human, Hsp25/27) and Hsp70 protein expression were studied semi-quantitatively using Western blots with separated nuclear and cytosolic fractions from innervated and denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm and atrophic anterior tibial muscles. Unfractionated innervated and denervated atrophic pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were also studied.

    RESULTS: No support was obtained for a differential nuclear/cytosolic localization of p38 or MK2 in denervated hypertrophic and atrophic muscle. The differential effect of denervation on T317 phosphorylation of MK2 in denervated hypertrophic and atrophic muscle was not reflected in p38 phosphorylation nor in the phosphorylation of the MK2 substrate Hsp25. Hsp25 phosphorylation increased 3-30-fold in all denervated muscles studied. The expression of Hsp70 increased 3-5-fold only in denervated hypertrophic muscles.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms a differential response of MK2 T317 phosphorylation in denervated hypertrophic and atrophic muscles and suggests that Hsp70 may be important for this. Increased Hsp25 phosphorylation in all denervated muscles studied indicates a role for factors other than MK2 in the regulation of this phosphorylation.

  • 3.
    Fjällström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Evertsson, Kim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Norrby, Marlene
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Forkhead box O1 and muscle RING finger 1protein expression in atrophic and hypertrophicdenervated mouse skeletal muscle2014Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Signaling, ISSN 1750-2187, E-ISSN 1750-2187, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors and E3 ubiquitin ligases such as Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) are believed to participate in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The function of FoxO transcription factors is regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and acetylation. In the present study FoxO1 protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation as well as MuRF1 protein expression, were examined in atrophic and hypertrophic denervated skeletal muscle. Methods: Protein expression, phosphorylation and acetylation were studied semi-quantitatively using Western blots. Muscles studied were 6-days denervated mouse hind-limb muscles (anterior tibial as well as pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, all atrophic), 6-days denervated mouse hemidiaphragm muscles (hypertrophic) and innervated control muscles. Total muscle homogenates were used as well as separated nuclear and cytosolic fractions of innervated and 6-days denervated anterior tibial and hemidiaphragm muscles. Results: Expression of FoxO1 and MuRF1 proteins increased 0.3-3.7-fold in all 6-days denervated muscles studied, atrophic as well as hypertrophic. Phosphorylation of FoxO1 at S256 increased about 0.8-1-fold after denervation in pooled gastrocnemius and soleus muscles and in hemidiaphragm but not in unfractionated anterior tibial muscle. A small (0.2-fold) but statistically significant increase in FoxO1 phosphorylation was, however, observed in cytosolic fractions of denervated anterior tibial muscle. A statistically significant increase in FoxO1 acetylation (0.8-fold) was observed only in denervated anterior tibial muscle. Increases in total FoxO1 and in phosphorylated FoxO1 were only seen in cytosolic fractions of denervated atrophic anterior tibial muscle whereas in denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm both total FoxO1 and phosphorylated FoxO1 increased in cytosolic as well as in nuclear fractions. MuRF1 protein expression increased in cytosolic as well as in nuclear fractions of both denervated atrophic anterior tibial muscle and denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm muscle. Conclusions: Increased expression of FoxO1 and MuRF1 in denervated muscles (atrophic as well as hypertrophic) suggests that these proteins participate in the tissue remodelling occurring after denervation. The effect of denervation on the level of phosphorylated and acetylated FoxO1 differed in the muscles studied and may be related to differences in fiber type composition of the muscles.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Nina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Sävneby, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Gullberg, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Evertsson, Kim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Klingel, Karin
    University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Lindberg, A. Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för kemi och biomedicin (KOB).
    Efficient replication of recombinant Enterovirus B types, carrying different P1 genes in the coxsackievirus B5 replicative backbone2015Inngår i: Virus genes, ISSN 0920-8569, E-ISSN 1572-994X, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 351-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recombination is an important feature in theevolution of the Enterovirus genus. Phylogenetic studies ofenteroviruses have revealed that the capsid genomic region(P1) is type specific, while the parts of the genome codingfor the non-structural proteins (P2–P3) are species specific.Hence, the genome may be regarded as consisting of twomodules that evolve independently. In this study, it wasinvestigated whether the non-structural coding part of thegenome in one type could support replication of a virus witha P1 region from another type of the same species. A cas-sette vector (pCas) containing a full-length cDNA copy ofcoxsackievirus B5 (CVB5) was used as a replicative back-bone. The P1 region of pCas was replaced with the corre-sponding part from coxsackievirus B3Nancy(CVB3N),coxsackievirus B6Schmitt(CVB6S), and echovirus 7Wal-lace(E7W), all members of theEnterovirus Bspecies. Thereplication efficiency after transfection with clone-derivedin vitro transcribed RNA was studied and compared withthat of pCas. All the recombinant viruses replicated with similar efficiencies and showed threshold cycle (Ct) values,tissue culture infectivity dose 50 %, and plaque-forming unittiters comparable to viruses generated from the pCas con-struct. In addition to this, a clone without the P1 region wasalso constructed, and Western Blot and immunofluorescencestaining analysis showed that the viral genome could betranslated and replicated despite the lack of the structuralprotein-coding region. To conclude, the replicative back-bone of the CVB5 cassette vector supports replication ofintraspecies constructs with P1 regions derived from othermembers of theEnterovirus Bspecies. In addition to this,the replicative backbone can be both translated and repli-cated without the presence of a P1 region.

  • 5.
    Norrby, Marlene
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Evertsson, Kim
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Fjällström, Ann-Kristin
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Svensson, Anna
    Tågerud, Sven
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Akt (protein kinase B) isoform phosphorylation and signaling downstream of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) in denervated atrophic and hypertrophic mouse skeletal muscle.2012Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Signaling, ISSN 1750-2187, E-ISSN 1750-2187, Vol. 7, nr June, s. Article ID: 7-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The present study examines the hypothesis that Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling is increased in hypertrophic and decreased in atrophic denervated muscle. Protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt1, Akt2, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), 70 kD ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K1) and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) were examined in six-days denervated mouse anterior tibial (atrophic) and hemidiaphragm (hypertrophic) muscles. RESULTS: In denervated hypertrophic muscle expression of total Akt1, Akt2, GSK-3beta, p70S6K1 and rpS6 proteins increased 2-10 fold whereas total 4EBP1 protein remained unaltered. In denervated atrophic muscle Akt1 and Akt2 total protein increased 2-16 fold. A small increase in expression of total rpS6 protein was also observed with no apparent changes in levels of total GSK-3beta, 4EBP1 or p70S6K1 proteins. The level of phosphorylated proteins increased 3-13 fold for all the proteins in hypertrophic denervated muscle. No significant changes in phosphorylated Akt1 or GSK-3beta were detected in atrophic denervated muscle. The phosphorylation levels of Akt2, 4EBP1, p70S6K1 and rpS6 were increased 2-18 fold in atrophic denervated muscle. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with increased Akt/mTOR signaling in hypertrophic skeletal muscle. Decreased levels of phosphorylated Akt (S473/S474) were not observed in denervated atrophic muscle and results downstream of mTOR indicate increased protein synthesis in denervated atrophic anterior tibial muscle as well as in denervated hypertrophic hemidiaphragm muscle. Increased protein degradation, rather than decreased protein synthesis, is likely to be responsible for the loss of muscle mass in denervated atrophic muscles.

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