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  • 1.
    Andersson Burnett, Linda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Höglund, JohanLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Exploring Nordic Colonialisms: Special Issue for Scandinavian Studies2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Gregersdotter, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Hållén, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of York, UK.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    A History of Animal Horror Cinema2015In: Animal Horror Cinema: Genre, History and Criticism / [ed] Johan Höglund, Katarina Gregersdotter, Nicklas Hållén, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 19-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter outlines the history of Animal Horror Cinema and highlights important periods and discursive developments within the genre. The chapter also discusses this type of cinema in relation to other kinds of horror films and observes that the focus on the relation between animality and humanity makes films like Jaws (1975), The Birds (1963) and Cujo (1983) different in theoretically significant ways from supernatural horror narratives and from ‘eco-horror’ films. Economic and technical restrictions often mean that animal horror films are not realist in a strict sense. The size of animals is often exaggerated and they are given human traits. Even so, human characters’ encounters with animals in animal horror cinema is more ‘real’ than the kind of encounters with the invisible, supernatural forces from beyond the realm of reality that have dominated the history of horror cinema.

  • 3.
    Gregersdotter, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hållén, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of York, UK.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Introduction2015In: Animal Horror Cinema: Genre, History and Criticism / [ed] Johan Höglund, Katarina Gregersdotter, Nicklas Hållén, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction to this volume is intended as a tool for future study of Animal Horror Cinema. It first defines this type of Cinema as films that describe how a particular animal or an animal species commit a transgression against humanity and then recounts the punishment the animal must suffer as a consequence. The introductory chapter then discusses how Animal Horror Cinema both cements and complicates the basic conceptual separation of the human and non-human animal and how it raises crucial questions concerning human and animal ethics and the Anthropocene; the present era when humanity itself has become a destructive geological force. This chapter also discusses how the study of Animal Horror Cinema frequently explores matters of colonialism and postcolonialism, and how the genre interrogates gender and sexuality through the animal.

  • 4.
    Gregersdotter, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Höglund, JohanLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.Hållén, NicklasLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages. University of York, UK.
    Animal Horror Cinema: Genre, History and Criticism2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first academic study of the genre of animal horror cinema is essential for cinema and animal studies scholars as well as for fans of horror film. It defines this popular sub-genre, outlines its history and studies recent films as well as cult classics from a variety of perspectives. A central idea in the book is that animal horror cinema mirrors socially entrenched fears of and attitudes toward animals. Thus, animal horror cinema reveals attitudes toward the fabric of social life, the fragility of the eco-system and a deep uncertainty about what makes humans different from animals. The book contains chapters by scholars with different national and disciplinary backgrounds, and therefore offers a wide range of interpretations on the significance of the animal in modern horror film.

  • 5.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    American Empire and Biological Apocalypse2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While writing from two very different historical and political vantage points, Niall Ferguson and Julian Go have both suggested that US society appears to be facing many of the same financial and geo-political problems that Britain did a century ago. From this perspective, it is interesting to note that contemporary American popular culture often negotiates many of the concerns that structured British Imperial culture. One such concern is the risk of degeneration and the possibility of a biological apocalypse. During the late-Victorian period, Charles Darwin’s cousin Fredric Galton suggested that, surrounded by the many comforts of modern society, the British subject may circumvent the evolutionary process. In addition, the confrontation with non-European peoples during colonisation was frequently imagined as a racial struggle. Thus, the decline of the British Empire could be cast as an evolutionary event. As Daniel Pick has observed, these ideas had a profound impact on the British culture and society of the nineteenth century and the novel of the period became increasingly obsessed with the notion of biological apocalypse.

     

    Pointing to crucial political and cultural parallels between Victorian British society and the present-day US, this paper discusses how contemporary American popular culture dramatizes the possibility of a biological global crisis. In Hollywood blockbusters such as Outbreak (1995), Resident Evil (2002-2010) and Contagion (2011) aggressive viral infections threaten to wipe out modern civilisation. In the Alien (1979-2007) and Species (1995-2004) series, humans face new, primitive and competitive species that threaten to crowd them out in the universal struggle for survival. In Justin Cronin’s best selling novel The Passage (2010) a South American virus is manipulated by the military, turning the infected humans into primitive and supremely violent agents of the apocalypse.

     

    This paper makes the observation that these narratives, just like their British counterparts, must be understood in relation to modernity and empire. These films and novels biologize geopolitical relations in general and the popular notion that America is in decline in particular. Furthermore, the viral invasion that popular culture imagines often has its origin in America’s increasingly competitive backyards China and South America. In this way, popular culture taps into what Stephen B. Arata has termed the “anxiety of reverse colonisation” and suggests that America must be prepared to quickly mobilize the military and medical resources of modernity to counter the threat from the primitive Other and to prevent degeneration of its own species. However, some narratives also make room for a concurrent counter discourse that describes the biological apocalypse as a having been engineered by the market state and/or the military-industrial complex. 

  • 6.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    American Military Imperial Horror2017In: Imperial Cultures of the United States, University of Warwick, 5 May 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830–1914 (1988), Patrick Brantlinger influentially suggests that one of the most important vehicles of British imperialism before WWI was the Imperial Gothic. This subgenre made extensive use of gothic tropes to tell extrovert stories of British colonial expansion, but also rehearsed xenophobic narratives of reverse invasion of the empire. Thus, the Oriental Other of the British novel was given the monstrous form of vampire or African warlock, heightening the sense of urgency and anxiety that arguably saturated the British Empire at its zenith.

    Building on Julian Go’s analysis in Patterns of Empire (2011) of the US as ‘an aging empire watching dreadfully as rivals threaten to take their slice of the pie’ (167), and on my own work in The American Imperial Gothic (2014), this paper positions US horror as responding to a historical moment very similar to that which produced the British Imperial Gothic. From this vantage point, the paper explores one of the most recent US horror genres termed military horror. This genre combines supernatural horror stories with a paradigm established by documentary military narratives such as Black Hawk Down (1999), Lone Survivor (2006), No Easy Day (2012), and American Sniper (2012), texts that celebrate the exploits of Special Forces in the Middle East and other parts of the world. This combination results in narratives such as SEAL TEAM 666 (2012), a novel in which various challenges to US global hegemony – including Islamic fundamentalism and Chinese imperialism – take monstrous and supernatural forms that must then be combatted by US Special Forces teams.

    The military horror genre can thus be viewed as the most recent evolution of a tradition of imperial Anglo writing that goes back to the turn of the previous century. However, the paper also notes crucial differences between the British imperial gothic and US imperial horror in that the ending of the latter genre is rarely the final collapse of the hostile entity and a return to a peaceful, democratic world order. Rather, military imperial horror takes place in a continuous, clandestine and perpetual global war between the US and various apocalyptic forces of darkness. This metaphorical context further blurs political relationships already obscured in the documentary military narrative. At the same time, it encourages an understanding of military violence as the only meaningful form of political agency.

  • 7.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    ”American neo-imperialism and the anxiety of reverse colonization”2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Apocalyptic London: the Construction and Destruction of the Heart of the Empire2007In: The Literary London Journal, ISSN 1744-0807, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    As invited speaker: Rediscovering Empire: America in Neoconservative History2005Other (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Black Englishness and the Concurrent Voices of Richard Marsh in The Surprising Husband2013In: English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920, ISSN 0013-8339, E-ISSN 1559-2715, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 275-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A concern that virtually all late-Victorian and early-Edwardian writers had to negotiate, explicitly or implicitly, is the nature of Englishness. In the face of intense colonisation, sexual anarchy and class upheaval, the turn-of-the-century writer is often assumed to either resist all challenges to sexual, racial or social hybridity by insisting that Englishness is firmly male, white and upper-middle-class or allow a certain, often gothic or colonial, manipulation of this category. For example, in the novels of Rudyard Kipling and Joseph Conrad there is a sense that Englishness can be either benevolently adapted or catastrophically altered through its confrontation with the native. Similarly, in the writing of Oscar Wilde or Virginia Woolf, English sexual identity is directly or furtively dislocated, allowing a limited transformation of the category of Englishness. From this perspective, it is tempting to view British writers as either mapping hybridity or conservatively resisting all forms of cultural transformation. However, as this article seeks to demonstrate through a reading of Richard Marsh's provocative novel The Surprising Husband (1908), some British writers negotiated these two positions without resolving either.

  • 11.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Bodies of Mystery: Hereditary Criminality and Degeneracy in the Fiction of Richard Marsh2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Boxcar Politics: The Hobo in US Culture and Literature 1869-19562016In: American Studies in Scandinavia, ISSN 0044-8060, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 107-109Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Can the Subaltern Speak Under Duress?: Voice, Agency, and Corporal Discipline in Zero Dark Thirty2017In: Concurrent Imaginaries, Postcolonial Worlds: Towards Revised Histories / [ed] Diana Brydon, Peter Forsgren, Gunlög Fur, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2017, p. 281-301Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Catastrophic Transculturation and Gothic Modernity in Dracula and The Historian2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In his 1980 novel Waiting for the Barbarians, J. M. Coetzee discusses the symbiotic relationship between the generic Empire that stands as the focal point of the novel and what may be assumed to be a form of apocalyptic, gothic narrative. Empires, it is argued, are preoccupied by one thought only: “how not to end, how not to die, how to prolong its era. By day it pursues its enemies. It is cunning and ruthless, it sends its bloodhounds everywhere. By night it feeds on images of disaster: the sack of cities, the rape of populations, pyramids of bones, acres of desolation.”[1] This relationship is easily be perceived through a study of the gothic novel and the imperial context within which it typically exists and communicates. One of the most often explored examples of this is Bram Stoker’s Dracula, commonly perceived as a form of “imperial gothic”, to use a phrase coined by Paul Brantlinger. [2] In this novel, the vampiric apocalypse that Dracula initiates threatens to turn London, and thereby the entire empire, into a realm of the undead through the symbolic rape and transformation of its innocent women. Furthermore, in most readings of Stoker’s colonial novel, Dracula is perceived as a representative of the Oriental other, an entity that needs to be finally dealt with through (paramilitary) violence.[3]

     

    Dracula is one of the most frequently retold stories that came out of the colonial era. Countless films, television series, cartoons, graphic novels, short stories and full novels have retold Stoker’s tale (itself largely inspired by both historical texts and previous gothic tales). One of the most recent and most interesting versions is Elisabeth Kostova’s The Historian which situates Stokers novel within a culturally and historically much more dynamic world. Refusing many of the cultural, ethnic and sexual pitfalls of previous reiterations, The Historian is perhaps best described as a novel that seems to refuse the simple apocalypse that the imperial gothic insisted on retelling. In fact, Kostova’s novel takes place in a world where cultures not only collide but, in great contrast to the original text, are actually able to interact. It may even be argued that Kostova’s novel deals extensively with the process of (failed and successful) European transculturation during the 1950s and 1970s.

     

    At the same time, Dracula remains a culturally diverse and ambiguous creature in Kostova’s novel. While disassociated with the Oriental evil of Stoker’s narrative, Dracula is still a monster that threatens a type of (epistemological) apocalypse that must be finally addressed through habitual gun violence. With this in mind, this paper discusses how the traditional and postcolonial gothic novel negotiates racial, ethnic and sexual barriers and how the genre in itself may perhaps be used not only to, as Teresa Goddu has suggested, “unveil the ideology of official discourse,” [4] but also to challenge the apparently rigid imperial boundaries often inherent in the Gothic. Kostova’s transhistorical and transcultural narrative may seem to break out of the boundaries established by the genre, but, as result of the generic trappings of the gothic, its “transformative power”, [5] is perhaps limited.

    [1] J. M. Coetzee, Waiting for the Barbarians (1980. London: Vintage, 2000), p. 140.

    [2] See Paul Brantlinger, The Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830-1914 (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988), p. 227.

    [3] See, for instance, Stephen D. Arata,  “The Occidental Tourist: Dracula and the Anxiety of Reverse Colonisation,” Victorian Studies 33.4 (1990), pp. 621–645

    [4] Theresa Goddu, Gothic America: Narrative, History and Nation, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p. 2.

    [5] Ibid

  • 15.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Catastrophic Transculturation in Dracula, The Strain and The Historian2012In: Transnational Literature, ISSN 1836-4845, E-ISSN 1836-4845, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article notes that what Paul Brantlinger has referred to as the Imperial Gothic insists that the encounter between cultures results not in a transcultural merger, but in an apocalyptic struggle for survival. As this struggle is often tied to past and present-day imperial sentiment, the article suggests that both late-Victorian and contemporary fiction can effectively be discussed with the help of Marie Louise Pratt’s concept transculturation. Through a reading of three vampire narratives, Stokers’s Dracula (1897), Del Toro and Hogan’s The Strain (2009) and Kostova’s The Historian (2005), the article demonstrates how past and present imperial gothic texts describe the derailment of European modernity and insists that cultural encounter produce monstrous hybrids that threaten to cause an ontological and/or epistemological apocalypse. In this way, the cultural encounter that these gothic novels imagine results in catastrophic transculturation and the article argues that this is a common way of understanding the transnational meeting in American neo-imperial discourse.

  • 16.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Cell, Stephen King and the Imperial Gothic2015In: Gothic Studies, ISSN 1362-7937, E-ISSN 2050-456X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 69-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay argues that Stephen King's 2006 novel Cell explores the age of terror with the aid of two concurrent Gothic discourses. The first such discourse belongs to the tradition that Patrick Brantlinger has termed Imperial Gothic. As such, it imagines with the War on Terror that the threat that the (Gothic) Other constitutes is most usefully managed with the help of massive, military violence. The other, and more traditional, Gothic discourse radically imagines such violence as instead a War of Terror. The essay then argues that Cell does not attempt to reconcile these opposed positions to terror. Instead, the novel employs the two Gothic discourses to describe the epistemological rift that terror inevitably creates.

  • 17.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Censorship, the US Department of Defense and the Popular War Film2018In: La fabrique des imaginaires : Censure contre-discours et société technicienne: Manufacturing Imaginaries : Censorship, Counter-discourses and the Technical Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network (2001) James Der Derian argues that, at least since the first Gulf War in 1990-1, the US Department of Defense has invested heavily in the mediation of war as a clinical and virtuous exercise with minimum civilian casualties. Unlike during the much criticised Vietnam War, media is kept outside the zones of battle as much as possible and depend on the DoD’s own media outlets for information. In addition to controlling news media’s reports from war zones, the DoD also seeks to actively produce the way that the entertainment industry – in particular Hollywood cinema, television shows, and computer games – represent the armed forces. As David L Robb describes in Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon Shapes and Censors the Movies (2004), the DoD regularly funds block buster film. In exchange for extras, advisors, guns, helicopters and other tools of war, the DoD has been allowed to edit and censor film scripts. As Der Derian shows, the DoD has demanded that directors keep US military operations “virtuous” and movie directors thus incise, in particular, civilian carnage, producing an image of war as the surgical obliteration of enemy forces. Movies that have asked for DoD funding but refused to toe this line have not been given this funding. Thus, Ford Francis Coppola did not receive funding for Apocalypse Now (19XX), while Jerry Bruckheimer’s Top Gun (1986) were made with considerable aid from the DoD.

    However, this formula begins to change with the film Black Hawk Down (2001), a film that shows extensive bloodletting, and civilian death but still received funding.  In recent years, DoD funded films such as Zero Dark Thirty (2014) and American Sniper (2016) show American soldiers and military personnel torturing civilians and shooting children. This paper explores this dramatic shift in the censorship of the visual representation of violence and considers what is still untold by DoD funded cinema.

    Der Derian, James. Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network. Boulder: Westview Press, 2001

    Robb, David L. Operation Hollywood: How the Pentagon Shapes and Censors the Movies. New York: Prometheus Books, 2004

  • 18.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Christina Larsdotter and the Swedish Postcolonial Novel2019In: Scandinavian Studies, ISSN 0036-5637, E-ISSN 2163-8195, Vol. 91, no 1-2, p. 238-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Consuming the Tropics : The Tropical Zombie Re-eviscerated in Dead Island2016In: Tropical Gothic in Literature and Culture: the Americas / [ed] Justin D. Edwards, Sandra G. T. Vasconcelos, Oxon: Routledge, 2016, p. 87-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the computer game Dead Island as a game about tourism in the tropics but also as a virtual tourism space in itself. The analysis makes use of John Urry’s influential observation that places are intimately related to consumption. Urry proposes that tourist sites in particular are understood as places that can be consumed in various ways. At the same time, they are also places that can consume you. With Urry’s thesis in mind, it can be argued that Dead Island invites the gamer to consume the tropics as a feminine, primitive, eroticized and violent space, as a territory that must be consumed or it will consume you. This article thus argues that the gamer consumes the tropics partly through the exercise of an overtly male and colonial gaze and partly through consumptive violence. This suggests that the game operates as an updated form of what Patrick Brantlinger has termed Imperial Gothic. However, this article further argues that the game never gets comfortable with the sexual and racist politics it arguably endorses. While the tropical space and the bodies that inhabit it allow the gamer to engage in a form of virtual gothic colonialism, the complex narrative attempts to sabotage the Manichean categories that seemingly inform the game’s virtual geography and the semiotics of violence on which the game relies.

  • 20.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Digital Humanities and Games Research Across the Disciplines2016In: International Symposium on Digital Humanities: Växjö 7-8 November 2016 : Book of Abstracts, Växjö: Linnaeus University , 2016, p. 35-36Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of violent computer games on individuals and on society has been the object of a great number of studies reaching across different disciplines, including traditional Humanities, International Relations Studies, and Psychology. Unfortunately, studies conducted within one discipline pay very limited attention to research conducted in other fields. Thus, important research data is rarely shared. The reasons for this lack of cross-disciplinary consideration can be attributed to many different factors. Humanities oriented research is often published in journals other than IR studies, or psychological studies. The various fields engaged in this type of research also employ different methodologies that highlight different aspect while obscuring others. Finally, the research is funded by different agencies, with different agendas. 

    This presentation first describes the current situation through studies belonging to the Humanities, International Relations Studies and Psychology. These studies share an interest in the computer game genre commonly known as the First Person Shooter (FPS), a violent game genre where the gamer controls an armed avatar and observes the game world through a first-person perspective. The presentation discusses how the general research context (funding body, audience, problem formulation), the theoretical framework, and the methodologies of the different studies inform the research. Here, it is noted that Humanities research is often state-sponsored and conducted within Humanities departments or by one of few DH research centres that exist globally. Since the late 1990s, Humanities research has either focussed on discussing how participatory digital games function differently from other forms of culture such as literature or film (see Juul 2005, Malliet 2007), or it has conducted an often Foucauldian or Baudrillardian interrogation of the games, discussing them as deeply ideological spaces (Wark 2007). The methodological tools employed by this research are virtually always qualitative and hermeneutic. International Relations research also comes out of state-sponsored or private universities, but is sometimes connected to organisations such as the Institute of World Politics. Following the cultural turn of IR during the last two decades (Van Veeren 2009), this research has become increasingly attentive to the way that military games engage with global politics and future military conflict. The focus of game studies conducted within the confines of IR studies is thus the way in which the FPS imagines future global conflict. This research is often qualitative and does discuss the narratives and discourses of the games, but it also employs interviews and quantitative methods to investigate how gamers’s ideas about global relations are affected by the games (Zamaróczy 2016). Finally, psychological research into violent games comes from a large number of funding bodies, from state-run universities to private foundations, the health care sector, and the US Department of Defence (DoD) (Höglund 2008). The research produced by these various agencies focuses primarily on to what extent violent games produce violent behaviour or not (Anderson et al., 2002), but it also includes studies on how games can train soldiers before combat or help treat veterans suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (Rizzo et al 2006). The link between violent computer games and aggressive behaviour is notoriously difficult to study in laboratory experiments, and a few alternative ways of assessing the relationship have been suggested (Sauer and Nova 2015). Even so, this research is firmly quantitative and often disregards the qualitative aspect.

    The question that the presentation will address in relation to these studies is how these different fields may benefit from cross-disciplinary exchange. The presentation suggests that by considering results gained in psychological studies, and by making some use of the quantitative and laboratory methods common in this discipline, the humanities or IR researcher would be in a considerably better position to discuss the effect that the FPS has on the individual. In other words, broadening the disciplinary perspective would make it possible to consider not only the ideological, political and aesthetic content of the material, but also how gamers actually respond to the material. Similarly, humanities and IR related research could help researchers working in the field of psychology to ask more relevant and precise questions that take into consideration the qualitative content of a particular game before examining its effects in a laboratory setting. In other words, by considering humanities and IR research, the simple question if games encourage aggression in gamers may be rephrased into the more complex question if games encourage aggression against particular groups in society, or support state aggression against certain nationalities. This discussion may be of interest to scholars conducting research on digital games, but it may also be of general interest to Digital Humanities since the formation of games research takes place in the crossroads of several different disciplines. 

    REFERENCES

    Anderson, C. A, B. J. Bushman. (2002) Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28.12): 1679-1686.

    Höglund, J. (2008). Electronic Empire: Orientalism Revisited in the Military Shooter. Game Studies. 8.1. http://gamestudies.org/0801/articles/hoeglund

    Juul, J. (2005). Half-Real: Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds, Cambridge: The MIT Press,

    Malliet, Steven. (2007).  Adapting the Principles of Ludology to the Method of Video Game Content Analysis. Game Studies 7.1. http://gamestudies.org/0701/articles/malliet

    Rizzo. A, J, et al. (2006). A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Military Personnel with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Training to Toy to Treatment. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Novel Approaches to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. IOS Press, Washington D.C., 235-250

    Sauer, J. D, A Drummond, and N. Nova. (2015). Violent video games: The effects of narrative context and reward structure on in-game and postgame aggression. Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied. 21.3. 205-214.

    Van Veeren, Es. (2009). The ‘Cultural Turn’ in International Relations: Making Sense of World Politics.  E-International Relations. May 10. http://www.e-ir.info/2009/05/10/the-‘cultural-turn’-in-international-relations-making-sense-of-world-politics/. 

    Wark, M. (2007). Gamer Theory. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

    Zamaróczy, N de. (2016). Are We What We Play? Global Politics in Historical Strategy Computer Games. International Studies Perspectives. 0.1, 1–20.

  • 21.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Eat the Rich: Pandemic Horror Cinema2017In: Transtext(e)s Transcultures 跨文本跨文化: Journal of Global Cultural Studies, ISSN 2105-2549, Vol. 12, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay posits that pandemic horror cinema speeds up the slow violence of the pandemic so that political stakes become apparent. Thus, pandemic horror cinema enables an eloquent conversation on the relation between the imagined diseases of the Other and modernity as an engine of middle-class preservation. The essay traces the tradition of the gothic and horror pandemic narrative from its nineteenth-century origins to the present moment in time when it has proliferated into a number of different nations, languages and ideological positions. The article then explores these positions through a discussion of the films Dawn of the Dead (2004), I am Legend (2007), World War Z (2013), and Train to Busan (2016). Focussing on religion, race, ethnicity, and class, the essay describes how the pandemic horror cinema helps project different understandings of self and Other through the image of violent pandemic disease.

  • 22.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Editing the Internet: Teacher Compiled Electronic Anthologies2004In: Conference proceedings of the Ninth Nordic Conference for English Studies, Aarhus, Denmark, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Electronic Anthologies and the Public Domain2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Electronic Empire: Orientalism Revisited in the Military Shooter2008In: Game Studies, ISSN 1604-7982, E-ISSN 1604-7982, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Electronic Empires: A New Virtual Orient in Cyberspace2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Eugenics2018In: Companion to Victorian Popular Fiction / [ed] Kevin A. Morrison, Jefferson: McFarland, 2018, p. 78-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Future Americas: Proleptic War in Call of Duty: Modern Weapons 2 and Homefront2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Gamer Theory (2007), McKenzie Wark argues that gaming is no longer just an innocent pastime, but rather a problematic condition closely connected to the political fears and desires of the society we live in. While video games may pose as entertainment, they in fact also serve to explain the ongoing “war on terror”, recruit young men to military service, train in-service soldiers and even treat soldiers suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Thus, to engage with video games and simulation is partly to exist in a political territory shaped by the needs and fears of American society. Because of their close connection to current political and material issues, the virtual Americas and its adversaries produced by these digital media deserve attention.

     

    From this perspective, this paper examines the virtual geography of the immensely popular military shooter Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. The aim is to investigate how this game configures the needs and purposes of US society by producing both the Middle East and the US as apocalyptic battlegrounds. The focus of the paper will thus be on the virtual geography and the implicit narrative of this military computer game, arguing that while the game places great emphasis on a realistic gaming experience, the virtual geography and the narrative as such reproduces a set of political beliefs that have little to do with the physical world but a great deal to do with the concerns of the post-9/11 political landscape in the US.

  • 28.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Gothic Haunting Empire2005In: Memory, Haunting, Discourse, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2005, p. 233-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Henty, G. A. [George Alfred Henty]2018In: Companion to Victorian Popular Fiction / [ed] Kevin A. Morrison, Jefferson: McFarland, 2018, p. 111-111Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Hollywood and the Imperial Gothic2010In: Foundation: The International Review of Science Fiction, ISSN 0306-4964, no 106Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Imagining Future Ruin: The Decline and Fall of the British Empire in Late Victorian Narrative2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Imperial Adventure2018In: Companion to Victorian Popular Fiction / [ed] Kevin A. Morrison, Jefferson: McFarland, 2018, p. 121-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Imperial Horror and Terrorism2018In: The Palgrave Handbook to Horror Literature / [ed] Kevin Corstorphine, Laura R. Kremmel, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 327-337Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Imperial Nostalgia in Post-9/11 US2017In: Nostalgia in Contemporary European Culture, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a study of British historical writing during the last decades of the nineteenth century, and of US historical and political writing after the 9/11 terror attacks, this paper proposes that Empire tends to become visible to the imperial metropolis in moments of imperial crisis. While Empire is always apparent to the colonized, it appears in the metropolis primarily as a resource described through economic language, and it is not necessarily made visible as a global political institution. When Empire is threatened, however, it does become visible as something also political and historical. It is when the barbarians are understood to be standing at the door, that Empire becomes so important that the metropole begins to theorize it. In doing so, nostalgia becomes an important tool to Empire, a plea to the citizens of the metropole to imagine the past of the Empire as idyllic, and to think of themselves as deeply vested in this idyllic past. Such an emotional engagement with an imagined past is useful, the paper concludes, if a society is to send their young men and women to war, to forgo civil liberties, and to accept the dismantling of welfare structures.

  • 35.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Introduction2009In: A Spoiler of Men / [ed] Johan Höglund, Kansas City: Valancourt Books , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Kipling, Joseph Rudyard2018In: Companion to Victorian Popular Fiction / [ed] Kevin A. Morrison, Jefferson: McFarland, 2018, p. 134-135Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Le gaming néo-colonial: géographie virtuelle et politique de l'espace dans Call of Duty 42009In: POLI: Politique de l'image, Vol. 1, no June, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Le Queux, William Tufnell2018In: Companion to Victorian Popular Fiction / [ed] Kevin A. Morrison, Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2018, p. 139-140Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Magic Nodes and Proleptic Warfare in the Multiplayer Component of Battlefield 32014In: Game Studies, ISSN 1604-7982, E-ISSN 1604-7982, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the multiplayer environment that has become a central part of most competitive First Person Military Shooter (FMPS) franchises, including Battlefield and Call of Duty. While framed by a narrative, multiplayer games involve most directly a repeated negotiation of a particular space informed by certain rules. When narrative fades into the background the way that space is imagined and produced in the game becomes crucial. The ideological import of the game now relies on the nature of the ludic space where the gamer is placed and which he or she interacts with. With this in mind, the article explores the Battlefield 3 multiplayer map Grand Bazaar. Like some other Battlefield 3 maps, Grand Bazaar exists also as an actual place and is thus not only an imaginary ludic territory. To discuss the connection between this map, the real place and the way that the Middle East is often imagined in Western discourse, the investigation will make use of Sybille Lammes’ notion of “magic nodes” (Lammes, 2008) - a concept that stresses the ways in which ludic spaces are connected to the social and actual world - and Josh Smicker’s contention that First Person Military Shooter games increasingly produce “proleptic” or anticipatory warfare scenarios. The conclusion of the article is that the map Grand Bazaar is imagined as a permanent battleground and that the creation of such a ludic space is part of the “combat against futurity” that this genre of games often engages in.

  • 40.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Mesmerism and Hypnotism2018In: Companion to Victorian Popular Fiction / [ed] Kevin A. Morrison, Jefferson: McFarland, 2018, p. 157-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Microbial Gothic in the Anthropocene2018In: The 14th International Gothic Association Conference Hosted by the Manchester Centre for Gothic Studies Manchester, July 31st-August 3rd, 2018: Gothic Hybridities : Interdisciplinary, Multimodal and Transhistorical Approaches, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent article, postcolonial critic Dipesh Chakrabarty interrogates Kantian anthropocentrism by noting that human existence – the ecosystem as well as the human species as such – originates from microbial life. Microbes are in fact still the planet’s dominant life form, outnumbering and even outweighing, in the words of Martin J Blaser, “all the mice, whales, humans, birds, insects, worms, and trees combined—indeed all the visible life-forms we are familiar with on Earth” (13). As such, microbes are absolutely essential to the survival of the planet, but also the most vulnerable to human ecological intervention in the form of pollution, global warming, or the introduction of antibiotics into the ecosystem. Yet, viruses, bacteria and microscopic fungi are, to the extent that they are discussed and represented at all, almost invariably perceived as a threat to human existence. Chakraberty thus asks “Could we ever be in a position to value the existence of viruses and bacteria hostile to us, except insofar as they influence—negatively or positively—our lives?” (390).

    This paper seeks to answer this crucial question in relation to Gothic and Horror representations of the encounter between humanity and microbial life. The paper first notes that Gothic and Horror typically tell stories where microbes transform humans into raging, undead carnivores. The paper then investigates a series of narratives that make use of this trope but that employ it to enable a different understanding of microbial existence and agency. With particular focus on J M Carey’s The Girl with all the Gifts (2014) and its sequel The Boy on the Bridge (2017), the paper argues that Gothic is in fact capable of critiquing the anthropocentric perspective to value even the existence of microbial life seemingly hostile to humanity.

  • 42.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Language and Literature.
    Militarizing the Vampire: Underworld and the Desire of the Military Entertainment Complex2012In: Transnational and Postcolonial Vampires: Dark Blood / [ed] Johan Höglund, Tabish Khair, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, p. 173-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the double nature of the vampire through a reading of the film Underworld, one of many contemporary narratives that picture the vampire as militarized and inherently Western. The chapter is especially concerned with the ways that the vampire as Western champion has been appropriated by what has been theorized as the Military Entertainment Complex (Lenoir) or the Military-Industrial-Media-Entertainment Network (MIME-NET) (Der Derian). The military entertainment complex can be understood as a coming together of what Eisenhower termed the military-industrial complex and the entertainment industry, fuelled by the revolution in information technology and by US neo-imperial ambitions. In this way, the chapter seeks to explore the relationship between the dual nature of the vampire, the military entertainment industry, US foreign policy after 9/11 and what is perhaps best described as the technological/imperial desire that informs so much American popular culture today.

  • 43.
    Höglund, Johan
    Uppsala, English.
    Mobilising the Novel: The Literature of Imperialism and the First World War1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Mrs Musgrave’s Stain of Madness: Marsh and the Female Offender2018In: Richard Marsh, Popular Fiction and Literary Culture, 1890-1915: Rereading the Fin De SieCle / [ed] Victoria Margree, Daniel Orrells, Minna Vuohelainen, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018, p. 45-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter ties Richard Marsh’s novel Mrs Musgrave – And Her Husband (1895) to the anxiety surrounding the degeneration debate. The chapter argues that novel provides a unique contribution to the debate surrounding hereditary criminality by simultaneously and deliberately validating and critiquing the racist and sexist matrix that arguably informed late-nineteenth-century British culture and society. Unlike much other late-nineteenth-century fiction, the novel employs a pattern where racial and sexual discourses are repeatedly set on course only to be derailed, and derailed only to be brought back on track again.

  • 45.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Parables for the paranoid: affect and the war gothic2013In: Continuum. Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, ISSN 1030-4312, E-ISSN 1469-3666, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 397-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a series of horror war films set during the US invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq with the help of the concept of affect as outlined by Eve Sedgwick and Brian Massumi. The films studied in this paper combine the zombie genre with the military invasion story so that monstrous affect is always produced against what is referred to as a super-political landscape. In analysing these films, the paper abandons the a priori expectation that the use of affect will produce a set of sane (non-paranoid), fostering and liberating possibilities. The general argument of the paper is instead that these films simultaneously induce interpretative paranoia and present the spectator with the possibility that the foundation for this paranoia is inherently unstable. Thus, the paper ultimately explores the usefulness of affect on material that appears to lend itself to the traditional deconstructive endeavour and discerns points of commonality between deconstruction and affect studies.

  • 46.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Please Kill Me: Euthanasia and the Imperial Gothic2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although separated by a century, Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1898) and the AMC television series The Walking Dead (2010-) both describe how Gothic forces transform Western subjects into contagious, abject and cannibalistic Others that need to be disposed of through ritualized violence: in Dracula with the stake through the heart, in The Walking Dead through the headshot. In both narratives, the killing of the Gothic Other is celebrated as a heroic confrontation between good and evil. In their readings of the Victorian gothic, Stephen D. Arata and Patrick Brantlinger have both argued that these absolute categories must be understood in relation to Empire where gothic Others such as Dracula represent Oriental invaders, set on vengeful, reverse colonisation of the Empire. Similarly, more recent scholarship by Kyle Bishop, Timothy Fox and Christian Thorne suggest that the modern Gothic also relies on an imperial dynamic and that the zombie often personifies the Middle Eastern terrorist or Asian imperial competitor. In this way, the killing of the transformed Gothic Other can be understood as encouraging a form of metaphorical imperial violence.

     

    While this reading of the Victorian and modern Gothic is fundamentally convincing, it should be noted that the violence perpetrated against the Gothic Other is sometimes seen as deeply tragic and needs to be understood as a form euthanasia rather than as heroic intervention. In Dracula, Arthur Holmwood reels when he has finally finished driving the stake through the heart of his undead fiancée Lucy. In The Walking Dead, survivor Morgan Jones shakes with tears and grief as he aims his hunting rifle on his now cannibalistic zombie wife who stumbles through the streets below. In fact, those infected by the Gothic Other often ask to be euthanized before the transformation is complete: “Please kill me”. Those who respond are seen as performing acts of terrible mercy rather than combating gothic evil.

     

    These sequences subtly complicate the imperial reading of these and other Gothic texts. Focusing on euthanasia in the Gothic, this paper discusses the different reasons why the border between the modern citizen and the Gothic Other is so porous and easily transgressed. If late nineteenth-century British imperialism argued that racial, social and cultural categories are absolute, the Gothic often introduce those same categories only to have them infect each other. In this way, the infectious and invasive nature of the gothic Other always allows a certain amount of metaphorical transculturation or counterculturation to occur. As Rick Grimes observes in The Walking Dead, “we are all infected”.

  • 47.
    Höglund, Johan
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Producing Empire: American Imperialism and Popular Culture2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Revenge of the Hulder: New Nordic (Post) Colonial Gothic2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Revenge of the Trolls: Norwegian (Post) Colonial Gothic2017In: Edda. Nordisk tidsskrift for litteraturforskning, ISSN 0013-0818, E-ISSN 1500-1989, Vol. 117, no 2, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies by Naum and Nordin, Fur, and Keskinen et al. suggest that the Nordic nations participated in the pan-European colonial project of the nineteenth century and that they also pursued an internal colonial project through the invasion of Sápmi. This realisation constitutes a vantage point from which Nordic culture can be revisited and re-examined as (post)colonial. With this in mind, the article examines how the Norwegian films Troll Hunter (2010) and Thale (2012) engage with the repressed history of Nordic colonialism. Like many other Gothic films that discuss colonial matters, they are ambivalent, concurrently supporting and disturbing the imperial notions that they bring to the surface. Particular attention is devoted to how the films situate modernity in relation to a metaphorical indigeneity that they imagine as both attractive and abject, and to how they visualize categories of gender and race in relation to this indigeneity.

  • 50.
    Höglund, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Richard Marsh’s The Joss: A Reversion (1901): Imperial Gothic2018In: The Gothic: A Reader / [ed] Simon Bacon, Bern: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2018, p. 17-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 73
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