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  • 1.
    Abbas, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Rigorous architectural reasoning for self-adaptive software systems2016In: Proceedings: First Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning abut Software Architectures, QRASA 2016 / [ed] Lisa O'Conner, IEEE, 2016, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing a software architecture requires architectural reasoning, i.e., activities that translate requirements to an architecture solution. Architectural reasoning is particularly challenging in the design of product-lines of self-adaptive systems, which involve variability both at development time and runtime. In previous work we developed an extended Architectural Reasoning Framework (eARF) to address this challenge. However, evaluation of the eARF showed that the framework lacked support for rigorous reasoning, ensuring that the design complies to the requirements. In this paper, we introduce an analytical framework that enhances eARF with such support. The framework defines a set of artifacts and a series of activities. Artifacts include templates to specify domain quality attribute scenarios, concrete models, and properties. The activities support architects with transforming requirement scenarios to architecture models that comply to required properties. Our focus in this paper is on architectural reasoning support for a single product instance. We illustrate the benefits of the approach by applying it to an example client-server system, and outline challenges for future work. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    ASPLe: a methodology to develop self-adaptive software systems with systematic reuseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More than two decades of research have demonstrated an increasing need for software systems to be self-adaptive. Self-adaptation is required to deal with runtime dynamics which are difficult to predict before deployment. A vast body of knowledge to develop Self-Adaptive Software Systems (SASS) has been established. We, however, discovered a lack of process support to develop self-adaptive systems with reuse. To that end, we propose a domain-engineering based methodology, Autonomic Software Product Lines engineering (ASPLe), which provides step-by-step guidelines for developing families of SASS with systematic reuse. The evaluation results from a case study show positive effects on quality and reuse for self-adaptive systems designed using the ASPLe compared to state-of-the-art engineering practices.

  • 3.
    Abbas, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Knowledge evolution in autonomic software product lines2011In: SPLC '11 Proceedings of the 15th International Software Product Line Conference, Volume 2, New York, NY, USA: ACM Press, 2011, p. 36:1-36:8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe ongoing work in knowledge evolution management for autonomic software product lines. We explore how an autonomic product line may benefit from new knowledge originating from different source activities and artifacts at run time. The motivation for sharing run-time knowledge is that products may self-optimize at run time and thus improve quality faster compared to traditional software product line evolution. We propose two mechanisms that support knowledge evolution in product lines: online learning and knowledge sharing. We describe two basic scenarios for runtime knowledge evolution that involves these mechanisms. We evaluate online learning and knowledge sharing in a small product line setting that shows promising results.

  • 4.
    Abbas, Nadeem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Modeling Variability in Product Lines Using Domain Quality Attribute Scenarios2012In: Proceedings of the WICSA/ECSA 2012 Companion Volume, ACM Press, 2012, p. 135-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of variability is fundamental in software product lines and a successful implementation of a product line largely depends on how well domain requirements and their variability are specified, managed, and realized. While developing an educational software product line, we identified a lack of support to specify variability in quality concerns. To address this problem we propose an approach to model variability in quality concerns, which is an extension of quality attribute scenarios. In particular, we propose domain quality attribute scenarios, which extend standard quality attribute scenarios with additional information to support specification of variability and deriving product specific scenarios. We demonstrate the approach with scenarios for robustness and upgradability requirements in the educational software product line.

  • 5.
    Algabroun, Hatem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Maintenance 4.0 Framework using Self: Adaptive Software Architecture.2018In: Journal of Maintenance Engineering, Vol. 2, p. 280-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the recent advances of manufacturing technologies, referred to as Industry 4.0, maintenance approaches have to be developed to fulfill the new de-mands. The technological complexity associated to Industry 4.0 makes designing maintenance solutions particularly challenging. This paper proposes a novel maintenance framework leveraging principles from self-adaptation and software architecture. The framework was tested in an operational scenario where a bearing condition in an electrical motor needs to be managed, the results showed a proper operation. As a conclusion, the proposed framework could be used to develop maintenance systems for Industry 4.0.

  • 6.
    Algabroun, Hatem
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Al-Najjar, Basim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Computer Science Department, KU Leuven, Belgium..
    Maintenance 4.0 Framework Using Self-Adaptive Software Architecture2017In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Maintenance Engineering, IncoME-II 2017.The University of Manchester, UK, The University of Manchester, UK , 2017, , p. 299-309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the recent advances of manufacturing technologies, referred to as Industry 4.0, maintenance approaches have to be developed to fulfill the new de-mands. The technological complexity associated to Industry 4.0 makes designing maintenance solutions particularly challenging. This paper proposes a novel maintenance framework leveraging principles from self-adaptation and software architecture. The framework was tested in an operational scenario where a bearing condition in an electrical motor needs to be managed, the results showed a proper operation. As a conclusion, the proposed framework could be used to develop maintenance systems for Industry 4.0.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    de Lemos, Rogerio
    Malek, Sam
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Reflecting on self-adaptive software systems2009In: Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, 2009. SEAMS '09. ICSE Workshop on, 2009, Vol. 0, p. 38-47Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Jesper
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    de Lemos, Rogério
    Malek, Sam
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Modeling Dimensions of Self-Adaptive Software Systems2009In: Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems / [ed] Betty H.C. Cheng, Rogério de Lemos, Holger Giese, Paola Inverardi and Jeff Magee, Springer, 2009, Vol. 5525, p. 27-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bartosz, Michalek
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium .
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium .
    Towards a Solution for Change Impact Analysis of Software Product Line Products2011In: VARSA Workshop; Software Architecture (WICSA), 2011 9th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on, IEEE Communications Society, 2011, p. 290-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that some practitioners and researchers report successful stories on Software ProductLines (SPL) adaptation, the evolution of SPL remains challenging. In our research we study a specific aspect of SPL adaptation, namely on updating of deployed products. Our particular focus is on the correct execution of updates and minimal interruption of services during the updates. The update process has two stages. First, the products affected by the evolution must be identified. We call this stage SPL-wide change impact analysis. In the second stage, each of the affected products has to be updated. In our previous work we have addressed the second stage of the update process. In this paper we report on our early results of the first stage: change impact analysis. We discuss how existing variability models can be employed to support automated identification of the products that require an update. The discussion is illustrated with the examples from an educational SPL that we are developing at K.U. Leuven.

  • 10.
    Boucke, N.
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Schelftout, K.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Holvoet, T.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Applying the ATAM to an architecture for decentralized control of a transportation system2006In: Quality of Software Architectures, ISSN 0302-9743, Vol. 4214, p. 180-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For two years, we have been involved in a challenging project to develop a new architecture for an industrial transportation system. The motivating quality attributes to develop this innovative architecture were flexibility and openness. Taking these quality attributes into account, we proposed a decentralized architecture using multiagent systems (MASs). A MAS consists of multiple autonomous entities that coordinate with each other to achieve decentralized control. The typical advantages attributed to such decentralized architecture are flexibility and openness, the motivating quality attributes to apply MAS in this case. The Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM) was used to provide insights wether our architecture meets the expected flexibility and openness, and to identify tradeoffs with other quality attributes. Applying the ATAM proved to be a valuable experience. One of the main outcome of applying the ATAM was the identification of a tradeoff between flexibility and communication load that results from the use of a decentralized architecture

  • 11.
    Boucké, N.
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Composition of architectural models: Empirical analysis and language support2010In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 83, no 11, p. 2108-2127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing the architectural description (AD) of a complex software system and maintaining consistency among the different models is a demanding task. To understand the underlying problems, we analyse several non-trivial software architectures. The empirical study shows that a substantial amount of information of ADs is repeated, mainly by integrating information of different models in new models. Closer examination reveals that the absence of rigorously specified dependencies among models and the lack of support for automated composition of models are primary causes of management and consistency problems in software architecture. To tackle these problems, we introduce an approach in which compositions of models, together with relations among models, are explicitly supported in the ADL. We introduce these concepts formally and discuss a proof-of-concept instantiation of composition in xADL and its supporting tools. The approach is evaluated by comparing the original and revised ADs in an empirical study. The study indicates that our approach reduces the number of manually specified elements by 29%, and reduces the number of manual changes to elements for several realistic change scenarios by 52%.

  • 12.
    Boucké, Neils
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    View composition as a first-class concept in architectural descriptions2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our position is that architectural descriptions lackcomposition of views, preventing a proper separation of concerns.This position took shape from experiences with buildingseveral complex distributed software systems. Our claim is thatview composition should be a first-class entity in architecturaldescriptions. As a first step, we propose an extension of the conceptualmodel of IEEE Recommended Practice for ArchitecturalDescription of Software-Intensive Systems with view composition.

  • 13.
    Bures, Tomas
    et al.
    Charles University Prague, Czech Republic.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, The Netherlands.
    Berger, Christisian
    Gothenburg University.
    Biffl, Stefan
    Technical University Vienna, Austria.
    Daun, Marian
    Universität Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Gabor, Thomas
    LMU München, Germany.
    Garlan, David
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Gerostathopoulos, Ilias
    Charles University Prague, Czech Republic.
    Julien, Christine
    University of Texas, USA.
    Krikava, Filip
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Pronios, Nikos
    Innovate, UK.
    Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems - Towards a Research Agenda: Report on the First International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart CPS2015In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are large interconnected softwareintensivesystems that influence, by sensing and actuating, thephysical world. Examples are traffic management and power grids.One of the trends we observe is the need to endow such systemswith the “smart” capabilities, typically in the form of selfawarenessand self-adaptation, along with the traditional qualitiesof safety and dependability. These requirements combined withspecifics of the domain of smart CPS – such as large scale, the roleof end-users, uncertainty, and open-endedness – render traditionalsoftware engineering (SE) techniques not directly applicable; makingsystematic SE of smart CPS a challenging task. This paperreports on the results of the First International Workshop on SoftwareEngineering of Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS2015), where participants discussed characteristics, challenges andopportunities of SE for smart CPS, with the aim to outline anagenda for future research in this important area.

  • 14.
    Bures, Tomás
    et al.
    Charles University Prague, Czech Republic.
    Weyns, DannyLinnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.Klein, MarkSEI, Carnegie Mellon University, USA.Haber, Rodolfo ESpanish Council for Scientific Research, Spain.
    7th IEEE International Conference on  Software Engineering (ICSE), 2015 IEEE/ACM 3 (Volume:2 )2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical system (CPS) have been recognized as a top-priority in research and development. The innovations sought for CPS demand them to deal effectively with dynamicity of their environment, to be scalable, adaptive, tolerant to threats, etc. -- i.e. they have to be smart. Although approaches insoftware engineering (SE) exist that individually meet these demands, their synergy to address the challenges of smart CPS (sCPS) in a holistic manner remains an open challenge. The workshop focuses on software engineering challenges for sCPS. The goals are to increase the understanding of problems of SE for sCPS, study foundational principles for engineering sCPS, and identify promising SE solutions for sCPS. Based on these goals, the workshop aims to formulate a research agenda for SE of sCPS.

  • 15.
    Calinescu, Radu
    et al.
    University of York, UK.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Gerasimou, Simos
    University of York, UK.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Habli, Ibrahim
    University of York, UK.
    Kelly, Tim
    University of York, UK.
    Engineering Trustworthy Self-Adaptive Software with Dynamic Assurance Cases2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 1039-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on concepts drawn from control theory, self-adaptive software handles environmental and internal uncertainties by dynamically adjusting its architecture and parameters in response to events such as workload changes and component failures. Self-adaptive software is increasingly expected to meet strict functional and non-functional requirements in applications from areas as diverse as manufacturing, healthcare and finance. To address this need, we introduce a methodology for the systematic ENgineering of TRUstworthy Self-adaptive sofTware (ENTRUST). ENTRUST uses a combination of (1) design-time and runtime modelling and verification, and (2) industry-adopted assurance processes to develop trustworthy self-adaptive software and assurance cases arguing the suitability of the software for its intended application. To evaluate the effectiveness of our methodology, we present a tool-supported instance of ENTRUST and its use to develop proof-of-concept self-adaptive software for embedded and service-based systems from the oceanic monitoring and e-finance domains, respectively. The experimental results show that ENTRUST can be used to engineer self-adaptive software systems in different application domains and to generate dynamic assurance cases for these systems.

  • 16.
    Caporuscio, Mauro
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    IoT-enabled Physical Telerehabilitation Platform2017In: Proccedings of the International Workshop on Engineering IoT Systems: Architectures, Services, Applications, and Platforms, IEEE, 2017, p. 112-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical telerehabilitation services over the Internet allow physiotherapists to engage in remote consultation with patients at their homes, improving the quality of care and reducing costs. Traditional visual approaches, such as webcams and videophones, are limited in terms of precision of assessment and support for assistance with exercises. In this paper, we present a Physical Telerehabilitation System (PTS) that enhances video interaction with IoT technology to monitor the position of the body of patients in space and provide smart data to physiotherapists and users. We give an overview of the architecture of the PTS and evaluate (i) its usability based on a number of interviews and focus groups with stakeholders, and (ii) its technical efficiency based on a series of measurements. From this evaluation, we derive a number of challenges for further improvement of the PTS and outline a possible solution based on a microservices architecture.

  • 17. Cheng, Betty
    et al.
    Lemos, Rogério
    Giese, Holger
    Inverardi, Paola
    Magee, Jeff
    Andersson, Jesper
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering.
    Becker, Basil
    Bencomo, Nelly
    Brun, Yuriy
    Cukic, Bojan
    Serugendo, Marzo
    Dustdar, Schahram
    Finkelstein, Anthony
    Gacek, Cristina
    Geihs, Kurt
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Karsai, Gabor
    Kienle, Holger
    Kramer, Jeff
    Litoiu, Marin
    Malek, Sam
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Müller, Hausi
    Park, Sooyong
    Shaw, Mary
    Tichy, Matthias
    Tivoli, Massimo
    Weyns, Danny
    Whittle, Jon
    Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems: A Research Roadmap2009In: Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems / [ed] Betty H.C. Cheng, Rogério de Lemos, Holger Giese, Paola Inverardi and Jeff Magee, Springer, 2009, Vol. 5525, p. 1-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Choren, Ricardo
    et al.
    PUC-Rio, Brazil.
    Garcia, Alexandro
    PUC-Rio, Brazil.
    Lucena, Carlos
    PUC-Rio, Brazil.
    Griss, Martin
    Carnegie Melon West.
    Kung, David
    University of Texas at Arlington.
    Minsky, Naftaly
    Rutgers University.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    University of New Castle upon Tyne, UK.
    Castro, Jaelsson
    UFPE, Brazil.
    de Lemos, Rodgério
    University of Kent, UK.
    Weyns, Danny
    K.U. Leuven .
    Software engineering for large-scale multi-agent systems-SELMAS 2004: workshop report2004In: ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Claes, Rutger
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    A Decentralized Approach for Anticipatory Vehicle Routing Using Delegate Multiagent Systems2011In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 364-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced vehicle guidance systems use real-time traffic information to route traffic and to avoid congestion. Unfortunately, these systems can only react upon the presence of traffic jams and not to prevent the creation of unnecessary congestion. Anticipatory vehicle routing is promising in that respect, because this approach allows directing vehicle routing by accounting for traffic forecast information. This paper presents a decentralized approach for anticipatory vehicle routing that is particularly useful in large-scale dynamic environments. The approach is based on delegate multiagent systems, i.e., an environment-centric coordination mechanism that is, in part, inspired by ant behavior. Antlike agents explore the environment on behalf of vehicles and detect a congestion forecast, allowing vehicles to reroute. The approach is explained in depth and is evaluated by comparison with three alternative routing strategies. The experiments are done in simulation of a real-world traffic environment. The experiments indicate a considerable performance gain compared with the most advanced strategy under test, i.e., a traffic-message-channel-based routing strategy.

  • 20. de Lemos, Rogerio
    et al.
    Giese, Holger
    Müller, Hausi A.
    Shaw, Mary
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Litoiu, Marin
    Schmerl, Bradley
    Tamura, Gabriel
    Villegas, Norha M.
    Vogel, Thomas
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Baresi, Luciano
    Becker, Basil
    Bencomo, Nelly
    Brun, Yuriy
    Cukic, Bojan
    Desmarais, Ron
    Dustdar, Schahram
    Engels, Gregor
    Geihs, Kurt
    Goschka, Karl M.
    Gorla, Alessandra
    Grassi, Vincenzo
    Inverardi, Paola
    Karsai, Gabor
    Kramer, Jeff
    Lopes, Antonia
    Magee, Jeff
    Malek, Sam
    Mankovskii, Serge
    Mirandola, Raffaela
    Mylopoulos, John
    Nierstrasz, Oscar
    Pezze, Mauro
    Prehofer, Christian
    Schaefer, Wilhelm
    Schlichting, Rick
    Smith, Dennis B.
    Sousa, Joao Pedro
    Tahvildari, Ladan
    Wong, Kenny
    Wuttke, Jochen
    Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems: A Second Research Roadmap2013In: Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems II: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, October 24-29, 2010 Revised Selected and Invited Papers / [ed] Rogério de Lemos, Holger Giese, Hausi A. Müller, Mary Shaw, Springer, 2013, Vol. 7475, p. 1-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this roadmap paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art and identify research challenges when developing, deploying and managing self-adaptive software systems. Instead of dealing with a wide range of topics associated with the field, we focus on four essential topics of self-adaptation: design space for self-adaptive solutions, software engineering processes for self-adaptive systems, from centralized to decentralized control, and practical run-time verification & validation for self-adaptive systems. For each topic, we present an overview, suggest future directions, and focus on selected challenges. This paper complements and extends a previous roadmap on software engineering for self-adaptive systems published in 2009 covering a different set of topics, and reflecting in part on the previous paper. This roadmap is one of the many results of the Dagstuhl Seminar 10431 on Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems, which took place in October 2010.

  • 21. Dechesne, Francien
    et al.
    Hattori, Hattoriter Mors, AdriaanSuch, Jose MiguelWeyns, DannyLinnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.Dignum, Frank
    Advanced Agent Technology: Aamas Workshops 2011, Ample, Aose, Arms, Docmas, Itmas, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2-6, 2011. Revised Selected Papers2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Avgeriou, Paris
    Univ Groningen, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands.
    Mannisto, Tomi
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Variability in software architecture: State of the art2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 91, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Groningen ; The Netherlands.
    Avgeriou, ParisUniversity of Groningen, The Netherlands.Weyns, DannyLinnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.Becker, MartinFraunhofer IESE, Germany.
    WICSA/ECSA '12 Proceedings of the WICSA/ECSA 2012 Companion Volume2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variability is the ability of a software system or artifact to be adapted for specific contexts, in a preplanned manner. Many of today's software systems are built with variability in mind, e.g., product lines and families, self-adaptive systems, open platforms, or service-based systems that support dynamic runtime composition of web services. Variability is reflected in and facilitated through the software architecture. Also, as the software architecture is a reference point for many development activities and for achieving quality attributes, variability should be treated as a first-class and cross-cutting concern in software architecture. Therefore, the Second International Workshop on Variability in Software Architecture (VARSA 2012) aims at identifying critical challenges and progressing the state-of-the-art on variability in software architecture. VARSA 2012 is a follow-up of the First International Workshop on Variability in Software Architecture (VARSA 2011), held at WICSA 2011.

  • 24. Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    Avgeriou, Paris
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Männistö, Tomi
    Variability in software architecture: current practice and challenges2011In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 36, p. 30-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Männistö, Tomi
    Helsinki University, Finland.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Avgeriou, Paris
    Groningen University, The Netherlands.
    Variability in software architecture: the road ahead2014In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 33-34Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Variability in a software system is reflected in and facilitated through the architecture of that system. The Third International Workshop on Variability in Software Architecture (VARSA) was held in conjunction with the 11th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture 2014 in Sydney, Australia. Based on the findings from previous editions of VARSA, this edition aimed at exploring methods, technologies and tools to handle variability at the software architecture level. The workshop featured one industrial keynote talk, one academic keynote talk and five research paper presentations.

  • 26.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Empirical Research in Software Architecture How far have we come?2016In: 2016 13TH Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA), IEEE, 2016, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Empirical research helps gain well-founded insights about phenomena. Furthermore, empirical research creates evidence for the validity of research results. Objective: We aim at assessing the state-of-practice of empirical research in software architecture. Method: We conducted a comprehensive survey based on the systematic mapping method. We included all full technical research papers published at major software architecture conferences between 1999 and 2015. Results: 17% of papers report empirical work. The number of empirical studies in software architecture has started to increase in 2005. Looking at the number of papers, empirical studies are about equally frequently used to a) evaluate newly proposed approaches and b) to explore and describe phenomena to better understand software architecture practice. Case studies and experiments are the most frequently used empirical methods. Almost half of empirical studies involve human participants. The majority of these studies involve professionals rather than students. Conclusions: Our findings are meant to stimulate researchers in the community to think about their expectations and standards of empirical research. Our results indicate that software architecture has become a more mature domain with regards to applying empirical research. However, we also found issues in research practices that could be improved (e.g., when describing study objectives and acknowledging limitations).

  • 27.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    University of Groningen.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Avgeriou, Paris
    University of Groningen.
    Becker, Martin
    Fraunhofer Institute .
    Variability in software architecture: views and beyond2013In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Variability (the ability of a software system or software artifact to be adapted for use in a specific context) is reflected in and facilitated through the software architecture. The Second International Workshop on Variability in Software Architecture (VARSA) was held in conjunction with the Joint 10th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture & 6th European Conference on Software Architecture 2012 in Helsinki, Finland. The workshop aimed at exploring current and emerging methods, languages, notations, technologies and tools to model, implement, and manage variability in the software architecture. It featured one industrial talk, five research paper presentations, and three working group discussions. Working groups discussed topics that emerged during the workshop. This report summarizes the themes of the workshop and presents the results of the working group discussions.

  • 28.
    Galster, Matthias
    et al.
    Univ Canterbury.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Tofan, Dan
    Univ Groningen.
    Michalik, Bartosz
    Avgeriou, Paris
    Univ Groningen.
    Variability in Software Systems-A Systematic Literature Review2014In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 282-306Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Variability (i.e., the ability of software systems or artifacts to be adjusted for different contexts) became a key property of many systems. Objective: We analyze existing research on variability in software systems. We investigate variability handling in major software engineering phases (e.g., requirements engineering, architecting). Method: We performed a systematic literature review. A manual search covered 13 premium software engineering journals and 18 premium conferences, resulting in 15,430 papers searched and 196 papers considered for analysis. To improve reliability and to increase reproducibility, we complemented the manual search with a targeted automated search. Results: Software quality attributes have not received much attention in the context of variability. Variability is studied in all software engineering phases, but testing is underrepresented. Data to motivate the applicability of current approaches are often insufficient; research designs are vaguely described. Conclusions: Based on our findings we propose dimensions of variability in software engineering. This empirically grounded classification provides a step towards a unifying, integrated perspective of variability in software systems, spanning across disparate or loosely coupled research themes in the software engineering community. Finally, we provide recommendations to bridge the gap between research and practice and point to opportunities for future research.

  • 29.
    Gerasimou, Simos
    et al.
    University of York, UK.
    Calinescu, Radu
    University of York, UK.
    Shevtsov, Stepan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science. KU Leuven, Belgium.
    UNDERSEA: An Exemplar for EngineeringSelf-Adaptive Unmanned Underwater Vehicles2017In: 2017 IEEE/ACM 12th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS), IEEE, 2017, p. 83-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in embedded systems and underwater communications raised the autonomy levels in unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) from human-driven and scripted to adaptive and self-managing. UUVs can execute longer and more challenging missions, and include functionality that enables adaptation to unexpected oceanic or vehicle changes. As such, the simulated UUV exemplar UNDERSEA introduced in our paper facilitates the development, evaluation and comparison of self-adaptation solutions in a new and important application domain. UNDERSEA comes with predefined oceanic surveillance UUV missions, adaptation scenarios, and a reference controller implementation, all of which can easily be extended or replaced.

  • 30.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Calderón, Juan Felipe
    Pontificia Universidad de Chile, Chile.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Nussbaum Voehl, Miguel
    Pontificia Universidad de Chile, Chile.
    A Self-Adaptive Multi-Agent System Approach for Collaborative Mobile Learning2015In: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 158-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technologies have emerged as facilitators in the learning process, extending traditional classroom activities. However, engineering mobile learning applications for outdoor usage poses severe challenges. The requirements of these applications are challenging, as many different aspects need to be catered, such as resource access and sharing, communication between peers, group management, activity flow, etc. Robustness is particularly important for learning scenarios to guarantee undisturbed and smooth user experiences, pushing the technological aspects in the background. Despite significant research in the field of mobile learning, very few efforts have focused on collaborative mobile learning requirements from a software engineering perspective. This paper focuses on aspects of the software architecture, aiming to address the challenges related to resource sharing in collaborative mobile learning activities. This includes elements such as autonomy for personal interactive learning, richness for large group collaborative learning (indoor and outdoor), as well as robustness of the learning system. Additionally, we present self-adaptation as a solution to mitigate risks of resource unavailability and organization failures that arise from environment and system dynamism. Our evaluation provides indications regarding the system correctness with respect to resource sharing and collaboration concerns, and offers qualitative evidence of self-adaptation benefits for collaborative mobile learning applications.

  • 31.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Enhancing Software Qualities in Multi-Agent Systems using Self-Adaptation2012In: Proceedings of European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems EUMAS 2012, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, 2012, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering multi-agent systems (MAS) is known to be a complex task. One of the reasons lays in the complexity to combine multiple concerns that a MAS is expected to address, such as system functionality, coordination, robustness, etc. A well-recognized approach to manage system complexity is the use of self-adaptive (SA) mechanisms. Self-adaptation allows to adjust the system behavior in order to achieve certain software qualities (optimization, fault-tolerance, etc.). The key idea behind self-adaptation is complexity management through separation of concerns. In this paper we introduce SA-MAS, an architectural approach that integrates the functionalities provided by a MAS with software qualities oered by a SA solution. The paper presents a reference model for SA-MAS and applies it to a Mobile learning case, in which we deal with robustness properties. In addition, we apply formal verication techniques as an approach to guarantee the requirements of the SA-MAS application.

  • 32.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Guaranteeing Robustness in a Mobile Learning Application using Formally Verified MAPE Loops2013In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, New York: IEEE Press, 2013, , p. 10p. 83-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile learning applications support traditional indoor lectures with outdoor activities using mobile devices. An example scenario is a team of students that use triangulation techniques to learn properties of geometrical figures. In previous work, we developed an agent-based mobile learning application in which students use GPS-enabled phones to calculate distances between them. From practical experience, we learned that the required level of GPS accuracy is not always guaranteed, which undermines the use of the application. In this paper, we explain how we have extended the existing application with a selfadaptation layer, making the system robust to degrading GPS accuracy. The self-adaptive layer is conceived as a set of interacting MAPE loops (Monitor-Analysis-Plan-Execute), distributed over the phones. To guarantee the robustness requirements, we formally specify the self-adaptive behaviors using timed automata, and the required properties using timed computation tree logic. We use the Uppaal tool to model the self-adaptive system and verify the robustness requirements. Finally, we discuss how the formal design supported the implementation of the selfadaptive layer on top of the existing application.

  • 33.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Media Technology.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    MAPE-K Formal Templates to Rigorously Design Behaviors for Self-Adaptive Systems2015In: ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems, ISSN 1556-4665, E-ISSN 1556-4703, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing software systems that have to deal with dynamic operating conditions, such as changing availability of resources and faults that are dificult to predict, is complex. A promising approach to handle such dynamics is self-adaptation that can be realized by a MAPE-K feedback loop (Monitor-Analyze-Plan-Execute plus Knowledge). To provide evidence that the system goals are satisfied, given the changing conditions, the state of the art advocates the use of formal methods. However, little research has been done on consolidating design knowledge of self-adaptive systems. To support designers, this paper contributes with a set of formally specified MAPE-K templates that encode design expertise for a family of self-adaptive systems. The templates comprise: (1) behavior specification templates for modeling the different components of a MAPE-K feedback loop (based on networks of timed automata), and (2) property specification templates that support verification of the correctness of the adaptation behaviors (based on timed computation tree logic). To demonstrate the reusability of the formal templates, we performed four case studies in which final-year Masters students used the templates to design di↵erent self-adaptive systems.

  • 34.
    Gil de la Iglesia, Didac
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Media Technology.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    SA-MAS: Self-Adaptation to Enhance Software Qualities in Multi-Agent Systems2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 international conference on Autonomous agents and multi-agent systems (AAMAS 2013) / [ed] Ito, Jonker, Gini, Shehory, The International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS), 2013, , p. 2p. 1159-1160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering multi-agent systems (MAS) is known to be a complex task. One of the reasons lays in the complexity to combine multiple concerns that a MAS has to address, such as system functionality, coordination, robustness, etc. A well-recognized approach to manage system complexity is the use of self-adaptation (SA). Self-adaptation extends a system with support to monitor and adapt itself to realize a concern of interest (optimization, fault-tolerance, etc.). We present SA-MAS, an architectural approach that integrates MAS with SA. We present a reference model for SA-MAS and illustrate it with an excerpt from our research.

  • 35. Haesevoets, R.
    et al.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Joosen, W.
    A formal model for self-adaptive and self-healing organizations2009In: ICSE Workshop on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, 2009. SEAMS’09., 2009, p. 116-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-agent systems typically consist of autonomous entities, capable of adapting their behavior and interaction patterns in dynamic environments, making them an interesting approach for modeling self-adaptive systems. The interactions among agents, a key challenge in engineering multi-agent systems, are often structured and managed by means of organizations. In previous work we have built a prototype of an organization middleware, which encapsulates the management of dynamic organizations as a reusable service and offers organizations as first-class programming abstractions to application developers. To develop a mature middleware, we face two key challenges: realizing the integration of the middleware with the rest of the system in a disciplined way and assuring properties, such as self-adaptivity and self- healing, of services offered by the middleware. This paper presents a formal specification of an organization and management model for dynamic organizations, a first step in facing these challenges. Both models contribute to the integration of the middleware with the rest of the system. The organization model rigorously describes the main programming abstractions to which application developers have to conform, while the management model can be used to derive specific monitoring and control points required by the middleware to realize self-* properties. In addition, the management model offers a foundation to reason about self- * properties.

  • 36.
    Haesevoets, Robrecht
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Christiaens, Lieven
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Meulders, Fried
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Joosen, Wouter
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Hierarchical Organizations for Decentralized Traffic Monitoring2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of floating car data is an interesting method tomonitor traffic. Vehicles act as local traffic sensors anddata from individual vehicles is aggregated into higher-levelinformation. We propose a number of reusable organizationabstractions and a software architecture to support amulti-agent approach for floating car data. The abstractionsare based on the idea of hierarchical organizationswhich are used as units of data aggregation. In this approach,an agent is deployed on each vehicle. At the lowestlevel, nearby vehicle agents collaborate to aggregate individualtraffic data and distribute it to local clients such astraffic light controllers. At higher-levels, organizations arebuilt up from lower-level organizations and represent specificaggregation interests such as the total congestion levelin a specific area. This decentralized approach avoids thebottleneck of a centralized control center and makes the systemmore robust and scalable. A prototype was built, supportinga two-level organization structure, and is used in asimulated traffic environment as initial validation.1 Introduction

  • 37.
    Haesevoets, Robrecht
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Cruz Torres, Mario Henrique
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    Joosen, Wouter
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
    A middleware model in alloy for supply chain-wide agent interactions2011In: Agent-Oriented Software Engineering XI: 11th International Workshop, AOSE 2010, Toronto, Canada, May 10-11, 2010, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Danny Weynes & Marie-Pierre Gleizes, Berlin: Springer, 2011, Vol. 6788, p. 249p. 189-204Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To support the complex coordination activities involved in supply chain management, more and more companies have autonomous software agents acting on their behalf. Due to confidentiality concerns, such as hiding sensitive information from competitors, agents typically only have a local view on the supply chain. In many situations, however, companies would like to expand the view of their agents to share valuable information such as transportation tracking and service delays. Non of the participating companies, however, has enough knowledge or authority to realize such interactions in a controlled manner.

    In this paper, we present an organization middleware that offers a collaboration platform and enables agents to interact across the boundary of local interactions. Policies and laws enable companies to define the scope of interactions of their agents and the restrictions on their exposed information. Using Alloy, we formally define the relation between the interactions offered by the middleware, the exposed information and the provided policies and laws. This allows us to guarantee a number properties which are of particular interest to companies using the middleware.

  • 38.
    Haesevoets, Robrecht
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Architecture-Centric Support for Adaptive Service Collaborations2014In: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392, Vol. 23, no 1, p. Article ID: 2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s volatile business environments, collaboration between information systems, both within and across company borders, has become essential to success. An efficient supply chain, for example, requires the collaboration of distributed and heterogeneous systems of multiple companies. Developing such collaborative applications and building the supporting information systems poses several engineering challenges. A key challenge is to manage the ever growing design complexity. In this article, we argue that software architecture should play a more prominent role in the development of collaborative applications. This can help to better manage design complexity by modularizing collaborations and separating concerns. State of the art solutions, however, often lack proper abstractions for modeling collaborations at architectural level or do not reify these abstractions at detailed design and implementation level. Developers, on the other hand, rely on middleware, business process management, and Web services, techniques that mainly focus on low-level infrastructure. To address the problem of managing the design complexity of collaborative applications, we present Macodo. Macodo consists of three complementary parts: (1) a set of abstractions for modeling adaptive collaborations, (2) a set of architectural views, the main contribution of this article, that reify these abstractions at architectural level, and (3) a proof of concept middleware infrastructure that supports the architectural abstractions at design and implementation level. We evaluate the architectural views in a controlled experiment. Results show that the use of Macodo can reduce fault density and design complexity, and improve reuse and productivity. The main contributions of this article are illustrated in a supply chain management case.

  • 39.
    Haesevoets, Robrecht
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Joosen, Wouter
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Valckenaers, Paul
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Hierarchical Organizations and a Supporting Software Architecture for Floating Car Data2008In: Second IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops, 2008, p. 31-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of floating car data is an interesting method to monitor traffic. Vehicles act as local traffic sensors and data from individual vehicles is aggregated into higher-level information. We propose a number of reusable organization abstractions and a software architecture to support a multi-agent approach applied to floating car data. The abstractions are based on the idea of hierarchical organizations which are used as units of data aggregation. In this approach, an agent is deployed on each vehicle. At the lowest level, nearby, vehicle agents collaborate to aggregate individual traffic data and distribute it to local clients such as traffic light controllers. At higher-levels, organizations are built up from lower-level organizations and represent specific aggregation interests such as the total congestion level in a specific area. A prototype was built, supporting a two-level organization structure, and is used in a simulated traffic environment as initial validation.

  • 40.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Time management support for simulating multi-agent systems2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time management is essential when simulating multi-agent systems (MASs) as it allows consistent and repeatable simulation runs. So far, time management lacks explicit support to express the timing characteristics of a simulation at the level of activities within a MAS. Moreover, integrating a MAS into a simulation platform requires the developer to alter the design of a MAS. In this paper, we first propose semantic duration models to capture timing characteristics that reflect the semantics of MAS activities in an explicit model. Second, we describe a simulation platform prototype that supports semantic duration models and integrates time management into a MAS without requiring the developer to alter the design of a MAS. We employ aspect-oriented programming technology as it allows separation of concerns, a crucial software engineering requirement. We use the Packet World as a case to illustrate our approach

  • 41.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    et al.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Berbers, Y.
    Katholieke University Leuven.
    Extending time management support for multi-agent systems2005In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 3415, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time management is essential when simulating multi-agent systems (MASs) as it allows consistent and repeatable simulation runs. So far, time management lacks support to express the timing requirements of a simulation explicitly and at an abstraction level appropriate for MAS developers. Moreover, integrating time management into a MAS requires the developer to alter the design of the MAS. In this paper, we first propose semantic duration models to capture timing requirements that reflect the semantics of MAS activities in an explicit model. Second, we present a time management infrastructure that starts from a semantic duration model description to integrate all time management functionality into a MAS transparently, i.e. without requiring the developer to alter the design of the MAS. We use aspect-oriented programming technology as it allows separation of concerns, a crucial software engineering requirement. As a case, we apply our approach to the Packet-World.

  • 42. Helleboogh, Alexander
    et al.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    On the role of software architecture for simulating multi-agent systems2009In: Multi-agent systems: simulation and applications / [ed] Adelinde Uhrmacher ; Danny Weyns, Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Helleboogh, Alexander
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit of Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit of Leuven.
    Holvoet, Tom
    Katholieke Universiteit of Leuven.
    Boucké, Nelis
    Katholieke Universiteit of Leuven.
    On adls and tool support for documenting view-based architectural descriptions2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DistriNet is a research lab with +60 researchers. The general domain of expertise and innovation of DistriNet is the development of advanced open and distributed software applications. The research is application driven and is conducted in close collaboration with industry. One particular class of applications we target are decentralized systems that are characterized by a high degree of dynamism and change in either the problem or the system's environment. Example domains of interest are manufacturing control, supply chains, inland shipping, and traffic control.

    To document software architecture, we follow the approach of views and beyond (V&B). V&B is an approach for documenting software architecture by means of a set of relevant views and adding information that applies to more than one view. Views describe (parts of) the system from different perspectives, exposing different quality attributes that are of interest for particular stakeholders.

    In several projects in which we applied V&B, we experience that managing and maintaining a consistent architectural documentation is a tedious task, including maintaining the mapping between views, maintaining the related view packets within each view packet, updating context diagrams, maintaining consistency w.r.t. combined views, etc.

    While V&B offers a well-defined approach to organize architectural documentation,there is a lack of support in ADLs and associated tools for documenting softwarearchitectures that comprise several, interrelated views. Existing ADL tools (e.g. AADL,ArchStudio, AcmeStudio) offer several ways to organize architectural documentation, butdo not support views as first-class concepts of architectural documentation. From ourexperience, there is a gap between the state of the art on documenting softwarearchitectures and the state of the practice in ADL tool-support for documentingarchitecture.We advocate that developing ADLs and tool support specifically targeted at view-basedarchitectural descriptions is imperative. This can significantly increase the level ofcomfort for managing view-based architectural descriptions. As a first step, weinvestigate extending an existing ADL, i.e. xADL, with support for documenting anumber of relations among view packets of structural views. We integrated this extensionin ArchStudio, and used this extended tool for documenting the architectures of a trafficcontrol system as well as a digital newspaper publishing system. We experienced that thetool significantly improves consistency management. Another interesting benefit is that the tool enables an architect to generate composed views on the fly, which was founduseful in the interaction with stakeholders, particularly developers.Currently, we are expanding the scope of xADL and ArchStudio with support fordocumenting view packets and their relations across multiple views. From ourexperience, we put forward a number of challenges that are key to translating the existingbody of knowledge on views and relations into proper tool support. These challengesinclude (1) selecting a set of practical views and relations; (2) formally specifying theseviews and relations, and (3) designing a tool that provides an intuitive user interface,while hiding the complexity that lies beneath.

  • 44.
    Holvoet, Tom
    et al.
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Weyns, Danny
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Valckenaers, Paul
    Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
    Delegate mas patterns for large-scale distributed coordination and control applications2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    A Model Interpreter for Timed Automata2016In: Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation: Foundational Techniques, PT I, Springer, 2016, p. 243-258Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the model-centric approach to model-driven development, the models used are sufficiently detailed to be executed. Being able to execute the model directly, without any intermediate model-to-code translation, has a number of advantages. The model is always up-to-date and runtime updates of the model are possible. This paper presents a model interpreter for timed automata, a formalism often used for modeling and verification of real-time systems. The model interpreter supports real-time system features like simultaneous execution, system wide signals, a ticking clock, and time constraints. Many existing formal representations can be verified, and many existing DSMLs can be executed. It is the combination of being both verifiable and executable that makes our approach rather unique.

  • 46.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Case Study on Formal Verification of Self-Adaptive Behaviors in a Decentralized System2012In: Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science / [ed] Natallia Kokash and António Ravara, 2012, Vol. 91, no 91, p. 45-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation is a promising approach to manage the complexity of modern software systems. A self-adaptive system is able to adapt autonomously to internal dynamics and changing conditions in the environment to achieve particular quality goals. Our particular interest is in decentralized selfadaptive systems, in which central control of adaptation is not an option. One important challenge in self-adaptive systems, in particular those with decentralized control of adaptation, is to provide guarantees about the intended runtime qualities. In this paper, we present a case study in which we use model checking to verify behavioral properties of a decentralized self-adaptive system. Concretely, we contribute with a formalized architecture model of a decentralized traffic monitoring system and prove a number of self-adaptation properties for flexibility and robustness. To model the main processes in the system we use timed automata, and for the specification of the required properties we use timed computation tree logic. We use the Uppaal tool to specify the system and verify the flexibility and robustness properties.

  • 47.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Katholieke University Leuven, Belgium.
    ActivFORMS: A Runtime Environment for Architecture-Based Adaptation with Guarantees2017In: 2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE WORKSHOPS (ICSAW), IEEE, 2017, p. 278-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems are exposed to various types of uncertainties, such as dynamics in the available resources that are difficult to predict and goals that may change during operation. Self-adaptation equips a software system with a feedback loop that collects additional knowledge at runtime, monitors the system and adapts it when necessary to maintain its quality goals, regardless of uncertainties. One challenging problem of self-adaptation is to provide guarantees for the goals that are subject of adaptation. In this paper, we present the ActivFORMS runtime environment to realise self- adaptation with guarantees. With ActivFORMS designers model and verify a feedback loop. The verified models can directly be deployed on top of a virtual machine that executes the models to realise adaption. The approach avoids coding of the models, which is an error-prone task. The runtime environment visualises the executing models, the state of the goals, and it supports on the fly updates of the models and goals. We illustrate the approach with an adaptation scenario of an IoT building security example.

  • 48.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Linnaeus University.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    ActivFORMS: Active Formal Models for Self-adaptation2014In: Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, ACM Press, 2014, p. 125-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-adaptation enables a software system to deal autonomously with uncertainties, such as dynamic operating conditions that are difficult to predict or changing goals. A common approach to realize self-adaptation is with a MAPE-K feedback loop that consists of four adaptation components: Monitor, Analyze, Plan, and Execute. These components share Knowledge models of the managed system, its goals and environment. To provide guarantees of the adaptation goals, state of the art approaches propose using formal models of the knowledge. However, less attention is given to the formalization of the adaptation components themselves, which is important to provide guarantees of correctness of the adaptation behavior (e.g., does the execute component execute the plan correctly?). We propose Active FORmal Models for Self-adaptation (ActivFORMS) that uses an integrated formal model of the adaptation components and knowledge models. The formal model is directly executed by a virtual machine to realize adaptation, hence active model. The contributions of ActivFORMS are: (1) the approach assures that the adaptation goals that are verified offline are guaranteed at runtime, and (2) it supports dynamic adaptation of the active model to support changing goals. We show how we have applied ActivFORMS for a small-scale robotic system

  • 49.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science. Linnaeus University.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Computer Science.
    Assuring System Goals Under Uncertainty with Active Formal Models of Self-adaptation2014In: Companion Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering, ACM/IEEE , 2014, p. 604-605Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing software systems with uncertainties, such as incomplete knowledge about changing system goals, is challenging. One approach to handle uncertainties is self-adaptation, where a system consists of a managed system and a managing system that realizes a feedback loop. The promise of self-adaptation is to enable a system to adapt itself realizing the system goals, regarding uncertainties. To realize this promise it is critical to provide assurances for the self-adaptive behaviours. Several approaches have been proposed that exploit formal methods to provide these assurances. However, an integrated approach that combines: (1) seamless integration of offline and online verification (to deal with inherent limitations of verification), with (2) support for runtime evolution of the system (to deal with new or changing goals) is lacking. In this paper, we outline a new approach named Active FORmal Models of Self-adaptation (ActivFORMS) that aims to deal with these challenges. In ActivFORMS, the formal models of the managing system are directly deployed and executed to realize self-adaptation, guaranteeing the verified properties. Having the formal models readily available at runtime paves the way for: (1) incremental verification during system execution, and (2) runtime evolution of the self-adaptive system. Experiences with a robotic system show promising results.

  • 50.
    Iftikhar, Muhammad Usman
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Weyns, Danny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Computer Science, Physics and Mathematics.
    Formal Verification of Self-Adaptive Behaviors in Decentralized Systems with Uppaal: An Initial Study2012Report (Other academic)
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