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  • 1.
    Rask, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result: - experiences and impact on health-related quality of life2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate experiences of receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result and its impact on women’s health-related quality of life as well as to investigate women’s awareness of human papillomavirus.

     

    Methods: In total, 176 women and 20 healthcare professionals participated. Data were collected through individual interviews (I, II) and a questionnaire (IV) including the instrument Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). For the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the FACIT-CD, and for evaluation of its linguistic validity and reliability, cognitive debriefing interviews and a questionnaire consisting of the Swedish instrument FACIT-CD was used. Data were analysed by content analysis (I, II) and by using statistical analysis (III, IV), while one part (III) was analysed according to FACIT translation methodology.  

     

    Results: Women receiving notification of an abnormal Pap smear result have good overall HRQoL; they become anxious but not depressed. Reasons for anxiety were mainly that women misinterpreted the result as cancer, which could lead to lower attendance for further investigation, treatment and follow-up. To cope with the anxiety, women sought emotional support and information. They primarily used the Internet for information but also turned to healthcare professionals for information needs. Moreover, women had low awareness of HPV, its sexually transmitted nature, and its relationship to abnormal Pap smear results and cervical cancer. An awareness of HPV as a sexually transmitted infection did not lead to higher level of anxiety or more depression symptoms or worse HRQoL, compared to not being aware. Finally, the Swedish FACIT-CD is equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid and exhibited good internal consistency reliability.

     

    Conclusion: Women have low awareness of HPV and abnormal Pap smear results, whereupon they misinterpret their test result as cancer. It is of importance that women understand their test result, in order to minimise anxiety as well as to maintain high attendance for investigation, treatment and follow-up of abnormalities.

  • 2.
    Rask, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindell, G.
    Karolinska Institutet;Kalmar County Hospital.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linköping University.
    Women with abnormal Pap smear result: a qualitative study of Swedish healthcare professionals' experiences2016In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 980-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Papanicolaou (Pap) smear can be used to detect pre-cancerous cellular changes, so that they can be treated before they develop into cervical cancer. When the results of a Pap smear test are abnormal, women need further investigation, treatment and follow-up. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are in a position to care for these women with abnormalities. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of HCPs in caring for women with abnormal Pap smear results. In total, 20 HCPs from two counties in south-eastern Sweden participated in individual interviews, based on two open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. The results showed that HCPs experienced that abnormal Pap smear results created anxiety in women, who often sought information from the Internet as a way to cope. Furthermore, the HCPs thought that it was a problem that women chose not to attend investigation, treatment and follow-ups. However, information about the seriousness of abnormal Pap smear results causes women to participate. It is a challenge for HCPs to inform in a reassuring manner. Finally, HCPs should collaborate with women to meet their information needs and to also provide support regarding finding and filtering reliable information on the Internet.

  • 3.
    Rask, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ludwig, Neil
    FACITtrans, USA.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    The Swedish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD): linguistic validity and reliability of the Swedish version2017In: BMC Women's Health, ISSN 1472-6874, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-10, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition, which has been shown to create anxiety in women. To be able to investigate these women’s health-related quality of life, a disease-specific instrument is required. There does not seem to be a Swedish version of an instrument to screen for this specific disease. Therefore, this study aims to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy – Cervical Dysplasia (FACIT-CD) into a Swedish context and evaluate its linguistic validity and reliability.

    Methods

    The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) translation methodology was used, which consists of several steps including pilot testing of the FACIT-CD instrument through cognitive debriefing interviews. Ten women diagnosed with cervical dysplasia participated in the cognitive debriefing interviews. The internal consistency reliability of the Swedish FACIT-CD was estimated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Homogeneity of the items was evaluated by corrected item-total correlations. The sample consists of 34 women who were diagnosed with cervical dysplasia.

    Results

    The translation and cross-cultural adaptation went smoothly without any problems for the majority of the items. The cognitive debriefing interviews indicated that the Swedish FACIT-CD consists of relevant items, is easy to understand and complete, and has unambiguous and comprehensive response categories. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation resulted in a Swedish FACIT-CD, which is conceptually and semantically equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid. The total scale of the Swedish FACIT-CD exhibited good internal consistency reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.84, and all of the subscales exhibited acceptable value between 0.71 and 0.81 except the Relationships subscale, which had a value of 0.67. Finally, all but four items exceeded the acceptable level for the corrected item-total correlations of ≥ 0.20.

    Conclusions

    The Swedish FACIT-CD is conceptually and semantically equivalent to the English version and linguistically valid; further, it exhibits good internal consistency reliability.

  • 4.
    Rask, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindell, Gunnel
    Karolinska Institutet ; Kalmar County Hospital.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Women's experiences of abnormal Pap smear results: a qualitative study2017In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 12, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To describe women’s experiences of abnormal Pap smear result.

    Methods

    Ten women were recruited from a women’s health clinic. Qualitative interviews based on six open-ended questions were conducted, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by content analysis.

    Results

    The women believed that their abnormal Pap smear result was indicative of having cancer. This created anxiety in the women, which resulted in the need for emotional support and information. Testing positive with human papillomavirus (HPV) also meant consequences for the relatives as well as concerns about the sexually transmitted nature of the virus. Finally, the women had a need to be treated with respect by the healthcare professionals in order to reduce feelings of being abused.

    Conclusions

    In general, women have a low level of awareness of HPV and its relation to abnormal Pap smear results. Women who receive abnormal Pap smear results need oral information, based on the individual women’s situation, and delivered at the time the women receive the test result. It is also essential that a good emotional contact be established between the women and the healthcare professionals.

  • 5.
    Rask, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindell, Gunnel
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Women's experiences of an abnormal Pap smear result: a qualitative study2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Rask, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Notification of an abnormal Pap smear: an intervention study2019In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 1-7, article id e12969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess whether notification of an abnormal Pap smear result via a phone call, delivered by a trained healthcare provider, has an effect on women's HRQoL, coping and awareness of HPV. For this intervention study, women were consecutively recruited from a women's health clinic in Sweden. Women in the intervention group (n = 113) were notified of their Pap smear result via a phone call by a trained healthcare provider, while those in the comparison group (n = 122) were notified via a standard letter. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The results found no significant differences between the groups for HRQoL. However, 42.5% ofwomen in the intervention group versus 48.3% in the comparison group reported anxiety. Women in the intervention group were more satisfied with the manner in which they were notified of their abnormal result than those in the comparison group (92.0% vs. 67.2%; p < 0.001), more aware of HPV (71% vs. 50%; p = 0.001), and called healthcare services less often (10.6% vs. 18.0%; p = 0.113), no significance. In conclusion, notification of an abnormal Pap smear result via a phone call does not increase women's HRQoL or reduce their anxiety.

  • 7.
    Rask, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swahnberg, Katarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Swedish women's awareness of human papillomavirus, and health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression after a notification of an abnormal Pap smear result : a cross-sectional study2019In: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 0959-8278, E-ISSN 1473-5709, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess (a) women's awareness of the human papillomavirus (HPV), (b) women's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and levels of anxiety and depression symptoms, and (c) to compare the outcomes between women who are aware of the sexually transmitted nature of the HPV infection and women who are not. Swedish women who have been notified of an abnormal Pap smear result completed a questionnaire. This questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, items on awareness of HPV, and how to cope with the Pap smear result and the instruments: the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, χ-tests, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact test. In total, 122 women participated. The women reported a median (quartile 1-quartile 3) score of 87.6 on the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Cervical Dysplasia (81.8-107.0), compatible with a good HRQoL. The median (quartile 1-quartile 3) scores on HADS-anxiety and HADS-depression were 7.0 (4.0-10.0) and 3.0 (1.0-5.3), respectively; however, 48.4% of the women reported anxiety (compared with 20% in a normal population). There were no statistically significant differences in the median scores in any of the scales, including the prevalence of distress between the subgroups. Women with abnormal Pap smear results have a good HRQoL; they can become anxious, but not depressed. Awareness of HPV as a sexually transmitted infection is low, but being aware does not impact on women's HRQoL or on anxiety and depression.

1 - 7 of 7
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  • nn-NO
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