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  • 1. Ala-Juusela, M.
    et al.
    Paiho, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Successful sustainable renovation business for single-family houses2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bonakdar, Farshid
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    The Implications of Climate Zones on the Cost-Optimal Level and Cost-Effectiveness of Building Envelope Energy Renovation and Space Heat Demand Reduction2017In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost-optimal level of energy performance for buildings shall be identified according to the European directive of 2010. The Swedish building stock needs comprehensive knowledge and an overall strategy for the cost-optimal level of renovation. This paper studies the contribution of Swedish climate zones to the cost-optimal level of renovation on a multi-story residential building in Sweden from the building owner perspective. The building space heat demand is simulated for four Swedish climate zones. The net present profit (NPP) method is defined and used in this study in order to analyze the cost-optimal level and the cost-effective renovation of building envelope components (e.g., attic floor, basement walls, exterior walls and windows). The implication of different discount rates is studied, as well. The results show that the optimum renovation of the building envelope offers 51% more energy savings for space heating when the building is in a northern climate zone compared to a southern zone. The study suggests that different renovation strategies for the building stock renovation need to be identified, separately, for each climate zone. The NPP analysis identifies the minimum required investment and maximum achievable energy savings that are needed to have a cost-effective renovation. The broad range of studied climate zones provides the opportunity to apply the obtained results to other climate zones by either interpolation or extrapolation of NPPs for the buildings with similar characteristics.

  • 3.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Implications of households building and car preferences for primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions2012In: ICAE 2012, 2012, p. 249-257Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Dornburg, Veronica
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Eggers, Thies
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Using biomass for climate change mitigation and oil use reduction2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 5671-5691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine how an increased use of biomass could efficiently meet Swedish energy policy goals of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and oil use. In particular, we examine the trade-offs inherent when biomass use is intended to pursue multiple objectives. We set up four scenarios in which up to 400 PJ/year of additional biomass is prioritised to reduce CO2 emissions, reduce oil use, simultaneously reduce both CO2 emission and oil use, or to produce ethanol to replace gasoline. Technologies analysed for using the biomass include the production of electricity, heat, and transport fuels, and also as construction materials and other products. We find that optimising biomass use for a single objective (either CO2 emission reduction or oil use reduction) results in high fulfilment of that single objective (17.4 Tg C/year and 350 PJ oil/year, respectively), at a monetary cost of 130–330 million €/year, but with low fulfilment of the other objective. A careful selection of biomass uses for combined benefits results in reductions of 12.6 Tg C/year and 230 PJ oil/year (72% and 67%, respectively, of the reductions achieved in the scenarios with single objectives), with a monetary benefit of 45 million €/year. Prioritising for ethanol production gives the lowest CO2 emissions reduction, intermediate oil use reduction, and the highest monetary cost.

  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, R
    Hoen, H.F.
    Jungmeier, G
    Karjalainen, T
    Klöhn, S
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Pohjola, J
    Solberg, B
    Spelter, H
    The role of wood material for greenhouse gas mitigation2006In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5-6, p. 1097-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an interdisciplinary perspective the role of wood as a carbon sink, as a multipurpose material, and as a renewable energy source for the net reduction of greenhouse gases is discussed. We synthesize aspects from engineering, natural and social sciences to better understand the role of wood substitution in CO2 mitigation.We also formulate some recommendations on filling knowledge gaps that could be useful for policy making regarding how wood substitution could be further expanded. There are sufficient wood resources to substantially increase the use of wood for material and energy purposes. However, a number of factors hinder a wider use of wood for energy and material purposes. Furthermore, an analysis of wood substitution is a very complex issue, since the substitution influencing factors are to be found along the entire wood supply chain and involve several industries, socio-economic and cultural aspects, traditions, price dynamics, and structural and technical change. To improve the knowledge about wood as a substitute for other resources and the implications, it would be helpful to better integrate research from different disciplines on the subject and to cover different scales from a project to an economy-wide level.

  • 6.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, Reinhard
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Framework conditions and market potentials for the diffusion of innovative small-scale wood pellet systems2003In: Bioenergy 2003, Proceedings: International Nordic Bioenergy Conference, 2-5 September, Jyväskylä, Finland, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 85% of all dwellings in the European Union are currently being heated by single-house systems. At the same time significant technological progress, cost reductions and increasing consumer awareness related to modern small-scale bioenergy systems (SSBS) have occurred in recent years. Taken together, SSBS could make a substantial contribution to the heat and electricity requirements in the not-too-distant future and, by substituting for less benign energy technologies and fuels, also to a more sustainable energy supply system. Despite the remarkably increased levels of comfort and reduced environmental impact offered by today´s SSBS, however, their widespread diffusion is still at its very beginning. Framework and market conditions and the overall merits of SSBS systems need to be properly understood by policy-makers for a suc-cessful promotion policy addressing these technologies. Technology diffusion models can help to better understand the diffusion dynamics and long-term market potentials, and the effectiveness of drivers and barriers that influence the adoption decision process. This paper first summarises recent technological, socio-economic and institutional trends relevant for SSBS adoption, and reflects on research results from other studies in this field regarding perceived image, comfort levels, reliability, and ways of use of modern small-scale bioenergy technologies in Europe. Second, it contains a limited compara-tive analysis of the direct and indirect external costs and benefits of modern bioenergy-based versus other heating technolo-gies at the small scale. Third, the usefulness of various economic diffusion modelling approaches is discussed, also with a perspective on studying modern SSBS in the light of data availability restrictions

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Småhusägares inställning till fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar: Report prepared for Swedish Association of Pellet Producers (PiR), Stockholm, Sweden (in Swedish)2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I Sveriges villabestånd finns det en stor potential att ersätta elvärme och oljepannor med fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar. Vi analyserade effekterna av det svenska investeringsbidraget för konvertering från oljepannor och direktverkande el med s.k. “adopter-centric” metodik och hur konverteringen till fjärrvärme, pelletspannor och värmepumpar varierade. Resultaten från enkätundersökningar, som genomfördes hos 1500 slumpvist utvalda husägare i Sverige i september 2004 och januari 2007, visade att över 80% inte avsåg att byta värmesystem. Det trots att ca 37% av de svenska villaägarna fortfarande har el- eller oljeuppvärmning. Det statliga investeringsbidraget var viktigt för konvertering från direktverkande el, men inte för konvertering från olja. Det beror på att de flesta husägarna redan har bytt ut sina oljepannor, medan få har konverterat bort direktverkande el. De som konverterar bort från oljepannor är eftersläntrare, medan de som konverterar bort från el är ”tidiga anammare”. Ekonomi och driftsäkerhet var de viktigaste faktorerna när husägare skall välja mellan olika värmesystem. Olika värmesystem upplevs ha olika fördelar och det påverkar spridningsmönstret för konverteringen till nya värmesystem. Installatörer och personliga kontakter angavs vara de viktigaste källorna för information om nya värmesystem.

  • 8.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Swedish Homewoners´ attitude towards water-based heating systems2008In: World Bioenergy 2008, 26-29 May, Jönköping, Sweden, Swedish Bioenergy Association , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 and 2007, we conducted questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected Swedish homeowners of detached houses to understand their attitude towards adopting an innovative heating system (IHS). The results showed that there was no substantial change in homeowners’ attitude towards IHSs. More than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents’ choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Installers were the most frequently consulted source of information on heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantages with respect to investment cost. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic.

  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Swedish house owners perception of pellet heating systems2006In: Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Pellets (Pellets 2006), 30 May-1 June, Jönköping, Sweden, Swedish Bioenergy Association , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the problems of global warming and security issues associated with the supply of fossil fuel use, bioenergy systems such as small-scale pellet heating systems (SSPHS) have been developed in Europe and elsewhere. In Sweden, SSPHS for the residential sector have been available on the market for about ten years, but the diffusion rate is rather slow. Research to analyse the diffusion of innovation is important, as this aspect determines the success of a technology. In this context, we recently carried out a questionnaire survey on Swedish house owners� perception of different heating systems. The sample consisted of about 1500 Swedish house owners selected through stratified random sampling. The results of the survey regarding pellet heating systems revealed that the annual cost of heating with the new heating system, functional reliability, investment cost, and in-door air quality are the four most important factors, in decreasing order of importance, in heating system choice. Environmental friendliness and low greenhouse gas emission are considered to be less important. Respondents consider SSPHS to be second to bedrock heat pumps in every aspect except for investment cost and therefore, such systems diffuse slowly in Sweden.

  • 10.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Madlener, R
    Energy systems in transition: perspectives for the diffusion of small-scale wood pellet heating technology2005In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 29, no 3/4, p. 327-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to environmental and supply security concerns associated with fossil fuels, promising small-scale wood heating systems with sizable market potentials have started to penetrate the residential heating market in Europe and elsewhere. Despite significant technological progress that led to cost reduction, increased levels of convenience, improved reliability and reduced environmental impact, the widespread diffusion of such systems will nonetheless take many years or even decades. Framework and market conditions, and especially drivers and barriers and the overall merits of such systems in comparison to alternative solutions, need to be properly understood by policy-makers and entrepreneurs for the successful promotion of these technologies. In this article we cover three important aspects related to small-scale wood pellet heating systems. First, we summarise recent technological, socio-economic and institutional trends. Second, results from a comparative analysis of the direct and indirect external costs and benefits of these technologies versus other heating technologies are reported. Third, the usefulness of various diffusion modelling approaches used in economics is discussed in the light of the technology scrutinised and existing data constraints.

  • 11.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintlig bebyggelse: Report prepared for the Swedish Energy Agency2010Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementing energy efficiency measures in existing Swedish building stock2008In: World Sustainable Energy Days 2008, 5-7 March 2008, Wels, Austria, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential for improving energy efficiency in the existing Swedish building stock. However, how successful the implementation of the efficiency measures will be, depends on economical and technical factors as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. In this paper we use Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to analyze various factors affecting implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish detached houses and apartment buildings. Results of recent Swedish household surveys concerning adoption of heating systems showed that majority of the respondents were satisfied with their heating systems and did not intend to install a new one. Economic aspects and functional reliability were important factors in the choice of heating systems, while installers/vendors were the most important sources of information on heating system. We discuss upcoming empirical studies on implementation of other energy efficiency measures, e.g. energy efficient windows and additional insulation, including that of heating systems, in detached houses and apartment buildings.

  • 13. Haavik, T.
    et al.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.1 Report on stakeholder interests: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2010Report (Other academic)
  • 14. Haavik, T.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Vanhoutteghem, L.
    Svendsen, S.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Renovation of single family houses: an emerging market2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Haavik, Trond
    et al.
    Segel As, Norway.
    Aabrekk, Synnøve
    Segel As, Norway.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Danish Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Tommerup, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Paiho, Satu
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Ala-Juusela, Mia
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Report on stakeholders interests, Deliverable D2.2 of the project Successful Sustainable Renovation Business for Single-Family Houses - SuccessFamilies.2011Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Haavik, Trond
    et al.
    Segel As, Norway.
    Tommerup, Henrik
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Svendsen, Svend
    Danish Technical University, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Paiho, Satu
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Ala-Juusela, Mia
    VTT, Espoo, Finland.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Aabrekk, Synnøve
    Segel As, Norway.
    Næsje, Peik
    Mlecnik, E.
    Cré, Johan
    Vrijders, Jeroen
    New business models for holistic renovation solutions of single family houses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single family houses represent the biggest potential for energy savings within residential buildingsin the Nordic countries. In earlier research project [1] it highlighted that there is a missing linkbetween the single family house owner and various segregated offers of single solutions forrenovation and/or energy efficiency installations. In the two international research projectsSuccessFamiles and One Stop Shop, establishment of new business models as pilots for bridgingthis gap are now being monitored.Two of the pilots as “one stop shops”, a retailer chain in Finland and a daughter company of aNorwegian manufacturer of insulation, are described and discussed.A key issue for any business model which offers an integrated service from analysis of the houseand recommendations for measures is the trustworthiness of the supplier.As a holistic energy efficient renovation project is a “new” and unknown service to single familyhouse owner and at same time a costly investment, it is important for the suppliers to findadequate ways of communicating through each phase of the buying process. There are variouschallenges in each of the phases which have to be solved differently.

  • 17.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Contractor Perceptions of Very Energy Efficient New Multi-Story Residential Buildings2014In: World Sustainable Building 2014 Barcelona Conference: Sustainable Buildings: Results ; Are We Moving as Quickly as We Should? It's Up to Us!, GBCe , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate design of policies and strategies which aim to promote a sustainable development of the built environment, a deeper understanding of factors influencing the decisions taken in construction projects is needed. This study investigates Swedish contractors’ perceptions of the new-build of very energy efficiency multi-storey residential buildings (e.g. passive houses). The results of interviews with twenty selected contracts managers disclose several perceived disadvantages and risks associated with such buildings which influence the interest to invest in high energy efficiency. These include several cost and market-related issues as well as issues relating to the performance of the buildings. Without market intervention it seems unlikely that very energy efficient multi-storey residential buildings will diffuse to any substantial degree within the Swedish construction industry.

  • 18.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Adoption of innovations in building construction: Hindrances and actor influence as perceived by Swedish architects2011In: Energy efficiency first: The foundation of a low-carbon society, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011, p. 1133-1140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of general hindrances to the diffusion of innovations in the construction sector may help to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. This study uses a web-based questionnaire to collect information on Swedish architects’ perceptions of hindrances to the adoption of innovations in building construction. The responding architects characterise the Swedish construction industry as having a low level of innovativeness. The most influential hindrances to innovativeness were perceived as the focus on project costs instead of life-cycle costs, the economic risks that innovations imply, the focus on traditional engineering models, the construction industry’s tendency to use proven materials and methods, and contractors’ inability to adjust processes. In terms of the involved actors, construction clients were perceived to have the greatest influence on innovativeness, and stronger cooperation between the architect and construction client was recognised as important to facilitate innovativeness.

  • 19.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Architects’ perception of the innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry2017In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 244-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to enhance the understanding of architects’ perceptions of the propensityto adopt innovations in building construction.

    Design/methodology/approach – Based on a theoretical underpinning of the multilevel perspective on socio-technical transitions, a web-based questionnaire (n = 412) was used to empirically investigate Swedish architects’ perceptions of innovativeness in the building construction industry. Specifically, the study looks at perceptions of the level of innovativeness (propensity to adopt innovations), relevant barriers to the adoption of innovations, the influence of different actors and ways of facilitating innovativeness.

    Findings – Architects perceive a low level of innovativeness in the Swedish building construction industry because of a number of barriers of varying relevance. These barriers belong to interwoven regulative,normative and cognitive rules (i.e. institutions) that guide actor behaviour, which contribute to the path dependency of the industry. The site-specific nature of building construction, promotional activities from suppliers and the level of competition in the industry is perceived as being of little relevance. The findings suggest that a number of interventions are necessary to facilitate innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry. To change the lock-in mechanisms of the established cognitive and normative rules, regulative rulesneed to change as well. According to architects, contractors and construction clients are the most influentialand therefore have the most power to change the rules associated with path dependency.

    Research limitations/implications – The focus on a single construction professional in Sweden necessitates a discussion on these perceptions from the standpoint of other actors.

    Practical implications – Architects perceive a need for change in the construction industry and suggestthat changed regulative rules can help overcome path dependency and facilitate innovativeness. Considering the strong interrelatedness of the lock-in mechanisms that guide the actors of the industry, policies may be needed to encourage and support the establishment for more sustainable development.

    Originality/value – A multilevel perspective is used to analyse the type of barriers to innovativeness that the architects perceive as relevant and how they contribute to the resistance to change and path dependency in the building construction sector.

  • 20.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Mittuniversitetet.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Mittuniversitetet.
    Perceptions and willingness of Swedish architects towards use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2010In: Forests for the future: Sustaining society and the environment / [ed] Parrotta, John A and Carr, Mary A., 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Mittuniversitetet.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Mittuniversitetet.
    Perceptions and willingness of Swedish private forest owners towards increasing forest productivity2010In: Forests for the future: Sustaining society and the environment / [ed] Parrotta, John A. and Carr, Mary A., 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Perceptions, attitudes and interest of Swedish architects towards the use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2011In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, p. 1013-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of wood frames from sustainable forestry instead of non-wood frames in multi-storey buildings can reduce primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in construction. However, construction actors might have different perceptions towards wood frames than towards steel and concrete frames. Such perceptions may influence the actors' decision to adopt wood frames. In this study we use a web-based questionnaire to assess Swedish architects' perceptions, attitudes and interest towards steel, concrete and wood frames in multi-storey buildings (n = 412). Results indicate that the responding architects find concrete the most suitable frame material in buildings of 3-8 storeys, mainly because of the performance of concrete with regards to the engineering aspects (e.g. stability and fire safety) that were considered important in the choice of frame material. Although wood is considered the least suitable frame material, the overall attitude towards, and interest in, using wood is positive and related to the perceived environmental benefits of wood. This may derive from an increased discussion of and information about the environmental impact of buildings. Wood may be perceived as new and innovative while not considered as adequately proven as steel and concrete with regards to engineering aspects.

  • 23.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Public perceptions and acceptance of intensive forestry in Sweden2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 196-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of intensive forestry on part of the forested area in Sweden increases the production of forest biomass and enables an increased use of such biomass to mitigate climate change. However, with increasing conflicting interests in forests and forestry, the success of such a strategy depends on the public acceptance. In this paper, the results of a mail survey show that although a majority of the general public in Sweden supports measures to increase forest growth, they oppose the use of intensive forestry practices such as the cultivation of exotic tree species, clones, and forest fertilization. The acceptance of such practices is mainly influenced by the perceptions of their environmental consequences. Public acceptance was highest for forest fertilization, whereas clone cultivation was the least accepted practice.

  • 24.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Swedish architects’ perceptions of hindrances to the adoption of wood frames and other innovations in multi-storey building construction2011In: SB11 Helsinki World Sustainable Building Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better understanding of general hindrances to the diffusion of innovations (new products,services, processes, systems, or concepts) in the construction sector may help improve thesustainability of buildings. Adoption of innovations such as multi-storey wood frames may e.g.reduce the primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions of building construction. This studyuses a web-based questionnaire to collect information on Swedish architects‟ perceptions ofhindrances to the adoption of innovations in building construction in general, and to the adoption ofmulti-storey wood frames in particular. Results show that the most influential hindrances to thegeneral adoption of innovations were perceived as the focus on project costs instead of life-cyclecosts, the economic risk adopting an innovation imply, the focus on traditional engineering models,the construction industry´s tendency to use proven materials and methods, and contractors‟inability to adjust processes. Concrete and steel were perceived as more advantageous than woodwith regards to several aspects influencing the innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry,but wood was perceived as better with regards to opportunities to support local industry. Thearchitects also had more positive perceptions of the performance of concrete and steel in multistoreybuildings, than of wood. While gender and size of company seem to have little influence,perceptions of innovativeness and frame materials vary with age and regions.

  • 25.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Swedish private forest owners’ perceptions and intentions with respect to adopting exotic tree species2013In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 132, no 3, p. 433-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish forest growth can be increased through intensive forestry practices, enabling an increased use of forest biomass for climate-change mitigation. However, the diffusion of such practices depends on the forest owners’ adoption of them. We study Swedish private forest owners’ perceptions and intentions with respect to increasing forest growth by adopting exotic tree species. The results of a mail-in questionnaire survey show that although a majority of forest owners desire increasing forest growth, most owners have only a basic understanding of exotic tree species and a smaller proportion is interested in adopting them. The intention to adopt exotics seems to depend on the perceived performance of the species with respect to the economic aspects of forest management rather than on environmental or recreational concerns. Whereas a knowledge gap among the private forest owners regarding how to increase forest growth is implied, forest owners with higher self-rated knowledge of forestry and exotics have stronger intentions to adopt such species.

  • 26.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    The perceptions of Swedish architects and structural engineers towards use of wood frames in multi-storey buildings2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Application of analytical hierarchy process for selecting an interior window blind2017In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 308-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Window blinds have a substantial role in shaping the energy consumption and improving thermal comfort and visual comfort. However, difficulties in selecting a window blind remain, due to existence of potential conflicts between visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. To overcome this problem, this study evaluates the performance of interior blinds, including venetian with slat of 0° and 45°, roller and double pleated blinds with respect to visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. Later, the Analytical hierarchy method (AHP) is used for selecting the best blind based on trade-off among the visual, thermal, energy and life cycle cost. In using AHP, visual comfort is determined as most important objective with a weight of 52%. The results show that venetian blind with slat of 0° drawn 100% is the trade-off blind. Accomplishing the sensitivity analysis on blinds’ global weight shows that venetian blind with slat of 0° drawn 100% remains the trade-off blind until the weight of energy and life cycle cost is below 37% and 57% respectively and the weight of visual comfort is above 4%. However, changing thermal comfort weight has no impact on ranking of the blinds. This study shows the capability of AHP in managing the conflicts.

  • 28.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Multivariate linear regression model for estimating average daylight illuminance2017In: Advanced Science Letters, ISSN 1936-6612, E-ISSN 1936-7317, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 6p. 6163-6167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Window design and the selection of glazing system have significant effect on daylight illuminance. Occupants’ productivity is highly dependent on daylight, as it associates with numerous health advantages. Hence conducting a systematic investigation considering the performance of various window designs and glazing systems is highly important at the early stage of design process. For this purpose, this study attempts to develop a multivariate linear regression model for estimating the average daylight illuminance. To perform the simulations, an office room prototype was modelled by COMFEN 5Beta software. The prototype is a hypothetical office room, as its size, HVAC system and envelopes construction are based on the common practice in construction in Sweden. Because average daylight illuminance is sensitive to window size, orientation, glazing system, design model and position, 544 simulations were performed based on thses variable to create an extensive dataset.  A multivariate linear regression model was developed based on 90% dataset, which was chosen randomly. The obtained R² value was exceeded 96%, which shows an excellent fit for the developed model. The interaction between variables was also studied. The remaining 10% of dataset was utilized for validating the developed model. The validity of the model was further compared with another multivariate linear regression model, developed based on 50% of the dataset.The results show the effectiveness of multivariate linear regression models in supporting architects and predicting average daylight illuminance in early stage of design analysis.

  • 29.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Multivariate linear regression model for estimating total energy consumption2017In: : The 3rd Asia conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association - ASim2016, Nov. 27-29, 2016, South Korea, International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2017, , p. 8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows as essential elements of buildings have a significant effect on total energy consumption, including heating and cooling demand in Sweden. A statistical reliable model for estimating the total energy consumption associated with various window designs and glazing systems helps architects and designers in the early stage of the design process. Most of the introduced models in literature utilized a mathematic sampling algorithm such as Monte Carlo to develop a simple linear regression model for estimating the total energy consumption. A simple linear regression model cannot describe the effect of different groups of a categorical variable. Hence this study considers four variables related to the window characteristics, including window size, design model, orientation, glazing system and develops a categorical multiple linear regression model for estimating the total energy consumption. 544 simulations were performed by COMFEN Beta5 software. The results were used as a database for developing a categorical multiple linear regression model. The accuracy of developed model was studied by the coefficient of determination, R- square value (R²). The obtained R² exceeded by 94%. Furthermore, the predicted total energy consumptions obtained by the developed regression model were compared with the simulated values by COMFEN software. Results show a strong linear relationship between predicted and simulated values.  Developed multivariate linear regression model can be utilized in early stage of design process for estimating the total energy consumption associated with various window designs and glazing systems.

  • 30.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    The most cost-effective energy solution in renovating a multi-family house2018In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018, The 9th International Cold Climate Conference Sustainable new and renovated buildings in cold climates Kiruna – Sweden 12-15, March 2018, Springer, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government aims to reduce total energy demand per heated building area by 50% until 2050.  A large number of residential buildings, built within the so-called “Million homes program” in Sweden, need major renovations, which offers an opportunity to implement energy efficiency measures and thereby, reduce total energy demand. The best way to encourage the implementation of a major renovation is to demonstrate a practical method which reduces energy demand and provides economic benefits. Hence, this study aims to determine the most cost-effective energy solution in renovating a multi-family residential building. Multiple energy renovation measures were simulated on a case study to reduce the space heating and domestic hot water by 50%.  The case study building was built within the “Million homes program” and is located in Växjö, Swedish climate zone 3. Design Builder software was used for analysing the pre-renovation energy performance of the building. The renovation measures comprised different insulation thicknesses of external walls, attic and ground floors, windows with different U-values, a mechanical ventilation with heat recovery system, and solar system for supporting space heating and domestic hot water. Later, a multi-objective optimization was accomplished for analysing every possible combination of renovation measures.  The most cost-effective energy solution was obtained by calculating the net present value in a lifetime of 30 and 50 years and discount rate of 1%, 3% and 5%. Comparing the implications of two different lifetimes on net present value with implications of three different discount rates on net present value shows that lifetime has more influence on net present value. Furthermore, the results show the capability of the multi-objective optimization method in analysing multiple renovation solution.

  • 31.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Johansson, P.
    Jönköping University.
    Increasing perceived control for enhancing subjective well-being in selecting windows and blinds: a conceptual framework2017In: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, ISSN 1745-2007, E-ISSN 1752-7589Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Expert competence for sustainable timber engineering: a master program in close cooperation between industry and academia2014In: WCTE 2014 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a legislative point of view it has been possible to build timber buildings with arbitrary number of storeys in Sweden during almost two decades. Several buildings up to eight storeys have been completed during that time, but the competence for planning and building such structures are limited to a handful of actors. This fact has been recognized by funders of research/education and an educational program for spreading the knowledge within the industry led by Linnaeus University is financed since about two years. Particularly interesting in the programme is that the courses are developed in cooperation between the industry and the academia. The courses are to fulfil needs with respect to knowledge, but also with respect to format so that the main target group, skilled engineers within the industry, can find the motivation to follow a course or lager parts of the program.

  • 33. Mahapatra, Krushna
    Diffusion of innovative domestic heating systems and multi-storey wood-framed buildings in Sweden2007Other (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Energy use and CO2 emission of new residential buildings built under specific requirements: The case of Växjö municipality, Sweden2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 152, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Växjö municipality sets specific energy related requirements beyond the Swedish building code (BBR) when selling land for the construction of new residential buildings. The requirement for Östra Lugnet residential area was that all buildings must be connected to the local district heating network and installation of heat pumps was prohibited in developer-built group/row houses. This paper (a) analyzed if the energy use of the buildings fulfilled the requirements of the BBR and that of Växjö municipality, and (b) compared the primary energy use and CO2 emission from operation of the district heated buildings with hypothetical scenarios where only air-source or bedrock heat pumps were installed. Results showed that a significant proportion of the group/row houses did not fulfil the specific energy use requirements of the BBR and that of Växjö municipality. There were large variations between predicted and actual energy use. Using a marginal accounting approach, houses with district heating were found to have the lowest carbon emission. From this perspective it seems appropriate for Växjö municipality to set the requirement that new residential buildings in Östra Lugnet be connected to the local district heating network.

  • 35.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Alm, Rickard
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Hallgren, Ramona
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Bischoff, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Tuglu, Nil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Kuai, Le
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Yang, Ye
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Umoru, Ibrahim
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    A behavioral change-based approach to energy efficiency in a manufacturing plant2018In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1103-1116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the realm of industrial energy efficiencystudies, very little research has been done to understandthe barriers and opportunities to influence behavior ofproduction workers and the corresponding energysavingpotentials. This paper analyzes a case study ofVolvo Construction Equipment AB in Braås, Sweden(VCE Braås), that has reduced its relative idle electricityuse by more than 10 percentage points during 2013–2016 by implementing a strategy of changing everydaybehavior of production workers. The results based oninterviews with actors involved in the energy efficiencyproject showed that a concrete goal, the employment ofa fulltime operational leader who earlier worked as aproduction worker at VCE Braås, and the involvementof both the leadership and employees in project managementwere key to the success of the project.

  • 36.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University.
    System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings2012In: COBEE 12, International Conference on Building Energy and Environment. Boulder, Colorado, USA, August 1-4, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is opportunity to implement energy efficiency measures in about one million existing apartments that are likely to be refurbished within the next 20 years. System analyses of installation of energy efficient windows, and increased insulation in attic and in exterior walls for an existing multi-story building showed that the primary energy savings for the measures depend on the energy supply system. Energy efficiency potential was higher with installation of efficient windows than improved attic insulation. Responses of 673 chairpersons of co-operative hosing associations to a mail-in survey in 2010 also showed that greater proportion of respondents perceived that energy efficient windows had advantages over insulation improvements. However, majority had no intention to implement such measures during next 10 years and economic factors guide their decisions. Lack of expertise to assess the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the most cited hindrances to energy efficiency investments.

  • 37.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Adoption of innovative heating systems – needs and attitudes of Swedish homeowners2010In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaire surveys of Swedish homeowners of detached houses were carried out in 2004 and 2007 to understand their needs and attitudes towards attributes of innovative heating systems (IHSs) comprised of a bedrock heat pump, district heating, or a wood pellet boiler. In each occasion 1,500 homeowners were randomly selected. The response rate was 42% in 2004 and 48% in 2007. Results showed that the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their existing heating system and did not intend to install new systems. Economic factors and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents’ choices of heating system, while environmental factors were of lower importance. Among the IHSs, respondents’ had the most favourable attitude towards bedrock heat pumps followed by district heating and pellet boilers. But, the attitude was more favourable towards electric boilers than for pellet boilers. The least favourable attitude was towards oil boilers. Between 2004 and 2007, there was a positive change in respondents’ attitude towards IHSs and electric boilers, and a negative change in attitude towards resistance heaters and oil boilers.

  • 38.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    An adopter-centric approach to analyze the diffusion patterns of innovative residential heating systems in Sweden2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 577-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation and diffusion of renewable energy technologies play a major role in mitigation of climate change. In Sweden replacing electric and oil heating systems with innovative heating systems such as district heating, heat pumps and wood pellet boilers in detached homes is a significant mitigation option. Using an adopter-centric approach we analyzed the influence of investment subsidy on conversion of resistance heaters and oil boilers, and the variation in diffusion pattern of district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers in Swedish detached homes. Results from questionnaire surveys of 1,500 randomly selected homeowners in September 2004 and January 2007 showed that more than 80% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Hence, about 37% of the homeowners still have electric and oil heating systems. The government investment subsidy was important for conversion from a resistance heater, but not from an oil boiler. This is because homeowners currently replacing their oil boilers are the laggards, while those replacing resistance heaters are the �early adopters�. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors for the homeowners when considering a new heating system. There is a variation in the perceived advantages associated with each of the innovative heating systems and therefore, the diffusion patterns of such systems vary. Installers and interpersonal sources were the most important communication channels for information on heating systems.

  • 39.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Cost-effectiveness of using wood frames in the production of multi-storey buildings in Sweden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production cost of buildings is a complex issue to analyze with high variation and several uncertainties. In this report we give an overview of the production cost effectiveness of a change from traditional concrete-framed building practice to wood-frame building practice. The frame material itself may not significantly influence the production cost, but there is potential for cost reduction in the activities associated with a change from concrete to wooden frames. From the review of existing studies it could not be concluded that the production cost of wood-framed buildings was lower than that of a concrete-framed building. However, with increased construction, the production cost of wood-framed buildings could be reduced due to the influence of “learning”.

  • 40.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Diffusion of energy-saving innovative heating systems in Sweden - a consumer survey approach2006In: Proceedings. ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings 2006, August 13-18, Pacific Grove, California (CD-ROM), 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, considerable energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved through the conversion of 500,000 detached houses from electricity-based heating systems to district heating, heat pumps or pellet boiler systems. House owners are central in the diffusion of innovative heating systems as they make the adoption decision. Hence, we carried out an empirical analysis of the factors affecting house owners� decisions to adopt a heating system. In June 2005 we sent out questionnaires to about 700 Swedish house owners residing in the city of Östersund, whose houses were originally built with resistance heaters. The results reveal that about 84% of the respondents had no plans to install a new heating system. Economic aspects, functional reliability and indoor air quality were the important factors in respondents� choice of a heating system. A district heating system has advantages with respect to functional reliability, indoor air quality, maintenance cost, system automation and time required for collection of information. A bedrock heat pump system has advantages with respect to annual cost of heating, indoor air quality, security of fuel supply, environmental benignity and market value of the house. A pellet heating system has an advantage with respect to investment cost.

  • 41.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Diffusion of innovative heating systems in detached homes in Sweden2008In: International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 343-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish homeowners' perception of Innovative Heating Systems (IHSs) was studied through a questionnaire survey. Most of the respondents were satisfied with their existing heating systems and were not planning to install a new one. They considered economic factors and functional reliability the most important factors in the choice of a heating system. Hence, economic policy instruments appear to be efficient in inducing homeowners to install an IHS. Installers were the most important source of information. The perceived advantages of pellet boilers were fewer than those of heat pumps and therefore, they were diffusing slower than heat pumps in Sweden.

  • 42.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Diffusion of innovative small-scale pellet heating systems in the residential sector in the context of oil and electricity-based systems2005In: Proceedings. 14th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy Industry and Climate Protection, Paris (France), 17-21 Oct 2005, Florence: ETA , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey of 1500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. Results revealed that most of the respondents are satisfied with their existing heating systems and have not planned to install new heating systems. Economic aspects and functional reliability are important factors in the respondents� choice of heating system while environmental factors are of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers are the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, they should be trained to inform the consumer comprehensively about different heating systems. Respondents perceive the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pumps are considered better than pellet boilers and therefore diffuse faster.

  • 43.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Energy renovation of single-family houses: importance of economic aspects and suggested policymeasures2013In: eceee 2013 Summer Study proceedings: Rethink, renew, restart, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2013, p. 529-536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, more than 80% of the single-family houses are more than 30 years old and majority of them need some renovation. This provides opportunities for implementation of energy efficiency measures, which depends on homeowners’ adoption-decision. Results from several surveys by us showed that more than 80% of the Swedish homeowners consider annual energy cost and investment cost to be the two most important factors in the choice of energy efficiency measures. They preferred investment subsidies and tax deduction on energy efficiency measures, but did not like energy and carbon taxes on energy use. We discuss marketing and policy measures to overcome various obstacles to energy renovation of detached houses. A marketing measure is to introduce one-stop-shop business models where a single actor offers all types of services, including financing, required to undertake energy renovations. A national goal for energy efficiency improvements in existing buildings coupled with a list of actions needed to achieve that goal and tailored incentives will help to establish a market for energy renovations. For an owner of detached house, the goal could be set by energy-certificate, and then one-stop-shop service would provide the plan and actions needed to reach the goal.

  • 44.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Full service energy efficient renovation business for Swedish single-family houses2011In: Proceedings of SB11 Helsinki World Sustainable Building Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 80% of the Swedish single-family houses were built prior to 1977 when energyefficiency was introduced in the national building code. These houses are more than 30-40 yearsold and need renovation. This provides a unique opportunity for large-scale implementation ofenergy efficiency measures. However, there is a lack of business model to introduce full serviceenergy efficiency renovation packages that include consulting, contract work, follow-up andfinancing. Under the Nordic project “Successful Sustainable Renovation Business for Single-FamilyHouses – SuccessFamilies”, we have conceptualized a new business model to offer such a fullservice package to the Swedish homeowners. The new business could be offered by existingconstruction/renovation companies in collaboration with energy auditors/building consultants andheating system retailers/installers. The business could be targeted to houses built during 1971-80as the primary energy efficiency potential is significant in this segment. Especially houses that areon sale could be targeted because people usually do indoor renovation when they buy a houseand therefore, they may be interested in energy efficient renovations. Banks may consider postrenovation value of the newly-bought house based on planned renovation package from anentrepreneur to provide increased mortgage finance for renovation. Other options to improveenergy efficient renovation of single family houses include tax subsidies, preferential loans andguarantee on energy or energy cost savings.

  • 45.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    General Conditions for Construction of Multi-storey Wooden Buildings in Western Europe2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The market penetration of multi-storey wooden buildings, and regulations, perceptions and promotion of such construction varies among Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, United Kingdom (UK) and Sweden. It seems that the wood construction system in Sweden is passing from a formative phase to growth phase, while in all other countries they are still in the formative phase. Conditions for market growth of multi-storey construction seem to be most favourable in Sweden followed by Ireland, UK, Germany and the Netherlands.

  • 46.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Historical development and homeowners’ perception of pellet boilers in Sweden2009In: 17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition – From Research to Industry and Markets, 29 June – 3 July, Hamburg, Germany, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden leads in use of wood pellets for space heating. The oil crises of the 1970s and the concern for climate change in the early 1990s contributed significantly to the market development. Installation of pellet boilers in detached houses has grown tremendously, but to further improve market demand an understanding of homeowners’ perception of such heating system vis-à-vis other heating systems is required. We conducted questionnaire surveys of 1500 randomly selected owners of detached houses in autumn 2004, spring 2007 and summer 2008. Respondents consistently gave high priority to economic aspects and functional reliability in their choice of a heating system, while environmental factors were given less importance. Therefore, internalizing the external costs in homeowners heating cost might be effective in influencing homeowners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Respondents thought that pellet boilers had the lowest investment cost, while district heating system was most functionally reliable. Heat pumps were considered best with respect to the annual cost of heating, environmental benignity, increased market value of the house, and low greenhouse gas emission.

  • 47.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Influencing Swedish homeowners to adopt district heating system2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 144-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation could be achieved by replacing resistance heaters with district heating system. In 2005, only about 8% of the Swedish detached houses had district heating system. The expansion of such systems largely depends on homeowners’ adoption decisions. And, to motivate homeowners to adopt district heating, it is essential to understand their decision-making process. In this context, in June 2005 we carried out a questionnaire survey of about 700 homeowners who lived in the city of Östersund in houses with resistance heaters (baseline survey). About 84% of the respondents did not intend to install a new heating system. Since then these homeowners were influenced by (a) an investment subsidy by the Swedish government to replace resistance heaters with district heating, a brine/water-based heat pump, or a biomass-based heating system and (b) a marketing campaign by the municipality-owned district heating company. This paper analyses how these two measures influenced about 78% of the homeowners to adopt the district heating system. For this purpose we carried out a follow-up survey of the same homeowners in December 2006 (resurvey). Results showed that the investment subsidy and the marketing campaign created a need among the homeowners to adopt a new heating system. The marketing campaign was successful in motivating them to adopt the district heating system. The marketing strategy by the district heating company corresponds to the results obtained in the baseline survey.

  • 48.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Innovative approaches to domestic heating: homeowners’ perceptions and factors influencing their choice of heating system2008In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners' perceptions of innovative heating systems, and those factors that influence their decision to adopt a new heating system. The systems studied were: district heating, heat pumps and pellet boilers. Results of two household surveys - one covering the whole of Sweden in autumn 2004 and the other in the city of Östersund in summer 2005 - revealed that approximately 80% of the survey respondents, particularly those with resistance heaters, did not intend to install an innovative heating system. Economic aspects, functional reliability and indoor air quality were found to be the most important factors influencing respondents' choice of a heating system. Survey respondents thought that a bedrock heat pump system has a number of advantages with respect to the annual cost of heating, security of fuel supply, environmental benignity, market value of the home and low greenhouse gas emission. A district heating system has advantages regarding functional reliability, system automation and time required to obtain information. A pellet boiler system has one main advantage: investment cost. Compared with homeowners having other types of heating systems, those with resistance heaters accorded more importance to investment cost due to the high cost of installing a water-based system for heat distribution within the home.

  • 49.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Multi-storey timber buildings – breaking industry path dependency2008In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish legal restriction on construction of multi-storey timber buildings was imposed in 1888 and repealed in 1994. The subsequent emergence of such a timber building system in Sweden is analysed in the context of the existing concrete-based construction system. The characteristics of the construction industry and its path dependency over the past century hamper the development of a timber building system. However, government policies and funding, the wood industry’s interest in an enhanced market for value-added wood products, and involvement of the wood research community has helped develop such a construction system. Investments in knowledge creation, incentives for the entry of new firms, and increased prefabrication may facilitate a transition from this formative phase to a growth phase in the diffusion of timber buildings.

     

  • 50.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Small-scale pellet heating systems from consumer perspective2006In: Proceedings. 2nd World Conference on Pellets, 30 May-1 June 2006, Jönköping, Sweden, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey of 1500 detached house owners was carried out in the autumn of 2004 to find out the factors influencing the adoption and diffusion of pellet heating systems in the Swedish residential sector. The results revealed that most of the respondents had no plans to install new heating systems as they were satisfied with their existing ones. Economic aspects and functional reliability were the most important factors in the respondents� choice of heating system while environmental factors were of less importance. Therefore, internalizing external costs, such as environmental costs, might be effective in influencing house owners to adopt environmentally benign heating systems. Installers were the most important source of information on heating systems. Hence, it is important that they could inform the consumers comprehensively and accurately about different heating systems. Respondents perceived the relative advantage of pellet boilers over oil or electricity-based heating systems, but bedrock heat pump system was ranked higher than pellet heating system in every aspect except for investment cost. Pellet heating system has advantage over district heating system with respect to investment cost and annual cost of heating. District heating system was considered as most functionally reliable and automatic.

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