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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effect of oil impregnation on water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility of thermally-modified European aspen and downy birch wood2017In: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional chemical wood preservatives have been banned or restricted in some applications due to human and animal toxicity and their adverse impact on the surrounding environment. New, low-environmental-impact wood treatments that still provide effective protection systems are needed to protect wood. Thermal modification of wood could reduce hygroscopicity, improve dimensional stability and enhance resistance to mold attack. The aim of this study was to investigate if these properties enhanced in thermally modified (TM) wood through treatments with oils. In this study, TM European aspen (Populus tremula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) wood were impregnated with three different types of oil: water-miscible commercial Elit Träskydd (Beckers oil with propiconazole and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate, IPBC), a pine tar formulation and 100% tung oil. The properties of oil-impregnated wood investigated were water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility. The treated wood, especially with pine tar and tung oil, showed an increase in water repellency and dimensional stability. However, Beckers oil which contains biocides like propiconazole and IPBC showed better protection against mold compared with pine tar and tung oil. To enhance the dimensional stability of the wood, pine tar and tung oil can be used, but these oil treatments did not significantly improve mold resistance rather sometimes enhanced the mold growth, whereas a significant anti-mold effect was observed on Beckers oil treated samples.

  • 2.
    Bergström, M
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Blom, Åsa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Uttorkning av vindfällda träd2007Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bergström, Mikael
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, Institutionen för industriella produktionssystem.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Differences in properties between Norway spruce (Picea abies) heartwood and sapwood. Part 1. Accelerated durability testing2007In: Proceedings of the Wood protection Conference: organized by the Forest Products Society, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Bergström, Mikael
    et al.
    Blom, Åsa
    Differences in properties between Norway spruce (Picea abies) heartwood and sapwood. Part 2. Vapour and Liquid permeability.2007In: Proceedings of the Wood protection Conference: organized by the Forest Products Society, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergström, Mikael
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Blom, Åsa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Durability and Moisture Dynamics of Norway spruce (Picea abies) heartwood and sapwood2005In: Proceedings of the Woodframe Housing Durability and Disaster Issues Conference: organized by the Forest Products Society, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Blom, Åsa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Svenskt barrvirke: Beständighet och fuktegenskaper ovan mark.2006Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Above Ground Durability of Swedish Softwood2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes aspects of durability of Swedish softwood in above ground applications. The thesis consists of a summary of nine papers, which all aim to explain the existing variation in above ground microbial durability and moisture sensitivity of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). The methods used were two field tests, one accelerated durability test, and three water permeability tests.

    The main conclusions made in the study were that Norway spruce sapwood is more susceptible to discolouring fungi than heartwood. With respect to Scots pine, the only important factor for its natural durability above ground was whether the samples consisted of heartwood or of sapwood. There was also no systematic variation between pine heartwood from different stand origins in above ground conditions. Origin had no influence on durability in practice for neither spruce nor pine. Furthermore, in contradiction with traditional thinking, annual ring width and density had no influence on durability in any of the tests.

    The material came from two different samplings. The ‘old’ material was sampled in the beginning of the 1980s and consisted of Scots pine and Norway spruce from three different origins: the north, the central area, and the south of Sweden. The material was subjected to different handling conditions and surface and end-grain treatments. The ‘old’ material was used in a large above ground field test, carried out between 1985 and 1994. Unfortunately, the spruce sapwood and heartwood was not separated in this field test.

    In the field trial with the ‘old’ material, the most important factor for the durability of Norway spruce was the samples’ surface- and end-grain treatment. It was also observed that untreated spruce showed better durability than samples that were painted but without proper end-grain treatment. Samples originating from one of the stands were more sensitive towards air-drying than samples from the other two, which was reflected in a higher average moisture content and mass loss for the untreated samples. With respect to Scots pine, the most important factor was whether the sample consisted of heartwood or of sapwood. The heartwood samples were durable irrespective of their previous treatment. The Scots pine sapwood samples, on the other hand, had a very fluctuating moisture content if they were not surface- and end-painted. This was also reflected in higher mass losses in these samples. Even when properly surface- and end grain treated, the sapwood samples did not perform as well as the heartwood samples.

    The ‘new’ material consisted of Scots pine taken from six different stands, and Norway spruce from five different stands, all from areas in southern Sweden. The sampling was performed in order to achieve a large variation in wood properties. Thus, logs from areas with different climate and growth conditions were collected. This material was used for laboratory tests, and also for the second field test, which was evaluated after a test period of two years.

    In the second field test untreated Scots pine and Norway spruce samples from the ‘new’ material were investigated. Effects of origin and different tree diameters were examined. Furthermore, Scots pine was separated to heartwood and sapwood, and Norway spruce to mature and juvenile wood. The Norway spruce samples were sawn with vertical or horizontal annual rings. For the Norway spruce in the second field test, vertical annual rings were shown to be very beneficial for avoiding crack formation, while samples with horizontal annual rings displayed a large number of cracks. Despite this, the larger number of cracks did not result in a higher moisture content or more fungal discoloration. Juvenile wood had a slightly higher average discolouring fungal growth grading than the other spruce samples. For Scots pine, the only factor of importance was whether the samples consisted of heartwood or of sapwood. Annual ring width, density and origin had no significant effect on either fungal growth or moisture uptake. This observation held for both Norway spruce samples and Scots pine samples.

    An accelerated test was run in order to investigate Norway spruce sapwood and heartwood with respect to their differences in durability towards discolouring fungi and moisture uptake. The Mycologg method was used to accelerate fungal growth during a number of forced moisture cycles. The results showed that sapwood was much more sensitive to discolouring fungi than heartwood. Sapwood also recorded a higher average moisture content than heartwood. The differences that were observed between the types of samples were not due to annual ring width, density or origin.

    It was observed that Norway spruce sapwood samples and heartwood samples showed differences in liquid water permeability. This observation was made especially evident in a droplet absorption test. Water droplets were absorbed much faster on the sapwood samples in comparison with the heartwood samples. This higher affinity to water suggested that a sapwood surface would reach a higher moisture content than a heartwood surface. This observation provides a major explanation of why the sapwood samples showed poorer durability towards discolouring fungi in the Mycologg trials.

  • 8. Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Beständighet hos svenskt barrvirke vid applikationer ovan mark2002Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Mycologg – a new accelerated test method for wood durability above ground.2005In: Wood Science and Technology, Vol. 39, p. 663-673Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) wood-panels exposed out of ground contact in Sweden for two years.2005In: Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, Vol. 64, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Elowson, Torbjörn
    Durability of Untreated Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Exposed Outdoors Above Ground for Nine Years.2004In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture dynamics and durability during weather exposure as affected by origin and production method were studied for nine years on 113 untreated spruce samples. The moisture content was measured on 67 occasions. The weight loss was determined for each sample at the end of the sampling period. The most important factors, affecting both moisture content and weight loss, were origin and drying technique. The samples originating from central Sweden had the best durability, followed by the southern stand, while the northern stand had the lowest durability in terms of weight loss. Airdrying had a negative impact on the performance of samples from all three stands, but to different degrees. Samples from the northern stand were most sensitive to airdrying, in terms of both weight loss and moisture content, followed by the southern stand, while the central stand was least sensitive. Why the samples from the northern stand were more sensitive to airdrying and showed the largest weight losses is unknown; it can only be suggested that the origin of the wood can be of importance for the durability.

  • 12.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Elowson, Torbjörn
    Mass loss and moisture dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) exposed outdoors above ground in Sweden.2005In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 183-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The durability of 566 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) samples was tested during a period of 9 years of exposure to weather in Sweden. The parameters investigated were heartwood/sapwood, origin, surface treatment, end-seal, storage and drying method, annual ring width and density. The weight was measured on 67 occasions during 9 years in order to assess the moisture content of the samples. The mass loss was determined for each sample at the end of the trial. Sapwood had a higher moisture uptake and a higher mass loss compared with heartwood. Even if sapwood was painted with an impermeable paint and then end-sealed, it still had higher average moisture content than heartwood. The results also demonstrated that sapwood was more sensitive to different handling conditions than heartwood. Sapwood was sensitive to air-drying and water storage, which was evident in the higher moisture uptake. In terms of mass loss, some differences were evident but they were not statistically significant due to the large standard deviation of the sapwood samples from water-stored logs. The only positive influence of water storage was on samples end-dipped in oil. One explanation could be that water storage led to increased permeability due to bacterial attack, which in turn enhanced the penetration of the oil. Heartwood had low and stable moisture dynamics during the test period, almost independent of treatment or handling conditions. No correlation with moisture uptake or mass loss was evident among annual ring width, origin or density.

  • 13.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Elowson, Torbjörn
    Moisture Dynamics in Coated Norway Spruce (Picea abies) During Outdoor Exposure Above Ground in Relation to Different Origins and Handling Conditions.2005In: Proceedings of the Woodframe Housing Durability and Disaster Issues Conference: organized by the Forest Products Society, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Schauerte, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Utomhuskonstruktioner i trä: Några erfarenheter från byggnation i trä av flerbostadshus2017Other (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Sivrikaya, Hüseyin
    Some factors influencing susceptibility to discoloring fungi and water uptake of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) 2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 139-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heartwood and sapwood from Scots pine (PS), Norway spruce (PA), and Oriental spruce (PO) were tested for susceptibility to discoloring fungi and water uptake. In addition, annual ring width and density were measured. The methods used were Mycologg for testing growth of fungi and a modified version of EN 927-5 to investigate water uptake. For pine, the heartwood showed a lower water uptake and no discoloring fungi growing in the tests. The heartwood had a significantly higher density and smaller annual ring width than the sapwood. In PA the heartwood had significantly lower discoloration than sapwood. The total water uptake in g/m2 was significantly higher in sapwood, but not the calculated moisture content. As for wood properties, the density was significantly higher in sapwood compared to heartwood, although there were no differences in annual ring width. Regarding PO, differences in water uptake could be seen between sapwood and heartwood although the densities were similar. These results show that susceptibility to discoloring fungi and water uptake is hard to correlate to a single inherent property when looking at different wood species.

  • 16.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Live storage and drying of storm-felled Norwayspruce (Picea abies, L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinussylvestris L.) trees2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 209-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Storm-felled trees left in the forest for a shorter or longer period, affect the quality of the logs. The change in quality ismainly because of attack of fungi and insects, which in turn depends on the moisture content (MC) of the sapwood. Thepurpose of this study was to receive more knowledge about drying of storm-felled trees by investigating how fast winterstorm-felled Norway spruce and Scots pine dried when left in the forest. Sixteen storm-felled spruces with part of the rootsstill in ground contact were selected from three stands and in addition to 10 pines from one of the stands. The trees wereexamined for MC in the sapwood until 21 months after the storm. This study indicates that wind-thrown trees with rootsstill connected to the soil can survive one summer without any value loss caused by draught, fungi and insects. The standconditions can be of importance as the storm-felled trees in the stand, with scattered windthrow, were in best condition afterone year, as they were shadowed by the trees still standing. Comparing spruces and pines with the stand with scatteredwindthrow, pines were more sensitive to drought and reached critical MC earlier.

  • 17.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Outdoor exposure of untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) wood samples2010In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 5, no 3-4, p. 204-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untreated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) samples were exposed above ground in a durability test for six years. The samples consisted of three pieces of wood, 22x95x500 mm, screwed together; two pieces lengthwise with a third piece overlapping. Weight was measured, to calculate moisture content (MC), and samples checked regularly for cracks and fungal growth. Parameters investigated were heartwood/sapwood (pine), annual ring orientation (spruce), stand site, annual ring width and density.

    Stand site, annual ring width or density had no influence on MC or fungal growth for neither pine nor spruce. Spruce samples with vertical annual rings had lesser amounts of cracks than samples with horizontal annual rings.

    Regarding pine sapwood samples, they showed high MC and large amount of rot fungi, while heartwood had lower MC and no rot. Most spruce samples were similar to pine heartwood, except from a few samples that had high MC and fungal growth. Those were all sawn from the outer part of the log. Therefore, it can be stated that spruce sawn from the inner part has almost the same properties as pine heartwood while spruce from the outer part of the log has properties similar to pine sapwood.

  • 18.
    Blom, Åsa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Bergström, Mikael
    Presence of longitudinal cracks in planks from storm-felled pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)2012In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 237-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the severe storm Gudrun in southern Sweden in 2005, a quantitative study was done in order to investigate the presence of lengthwise crack on planks taken from storm-felled trees in southern Sweden, compared to planks from standing trees not subjected to this storm (central Sweden). The main yield from each log was examined. In total, 1087 pine (Pinus sylvestris) planks and 3626 spruce (Picea abies) planks from the storm-struck area were investigated and compared to 1953 spruce and 2000 pine planks from trees outside the storm-struck area. The examination of cracks was done visually on dried planks. For pine, 51.7% of the planks from storm-felled trees had a total length longer than 0.5 m, compared to 7.3% for the reference material. As for spruce, 11.0% of the planks from storm-felled trees had a total crack length of more than 0.5 m, compared to the reference material where 2.2% had cracks longer than 0.5 m. The results show that the storm-felled trees had more longitudinal cracks than the reference material and that pine was more likely to develop storm-related cracks than spruce.

  • 19. Fransson, Jonas
    et al.
    Olsson, Axel
    Witten, Thomas
    Blom, Åsa
    Växjö University, Faculty of Mathematics/Science/Technology, School of Technology and Design.
    Sandberg, Dick (red)
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Svenska barr- och lövträd: - Andvändning och anatomi2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish softwoods and hardwoods – use and anatomy describe properties

    and macro- and microscopic structures for the most common species in

    Sweden. The softwood species described are pine, spruce and juniper. The

    hardwoods are birch, aspen, alder, beech, oak, ash and maple. The

    physical properties are placed in order of precedence between the different

    species, so that they easily can be compared with each other. Furthermore,

    some examples are given on uses for each species. The work is based on a

    literature survey of Swedish and international literature as well as on own

    studies of wood at a microscopic level. All the species (except aspen, alder

    and maple) are presented with our own pictures taken in a microscope.

    In the first part, the structures of the trees at a macroscopic level are

    described. Macroscopic structures that are described are for example rays,

    annual rings and vessels. This part also describes different cell types and

    the anatomy and chemistry of the cell. In the next part, a collection of

    facts about each species is included. A separation of soft- and hardwood is

    made, and the hardwoods are divided in diffuse-porous, semi-ring-porous

    and ring-porous species.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    NMR-measurements for determination of local moisture content of coated wood2013In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 601-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local increased moisture content (MC) in wood constructions may result in different kinds of mechanical and, especially, biological degrading problems. Therefore, it is of great importance to control the MC of the material. However, there is at present no appropriate method for determining local MC in wood without destroying the product itself. Nondestructive measurements of local MC in wood is significant for the possibility of, for instance, monitoring the in situ MC in wood constructions over time, and thereby predicting potential problems. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique has been shown to be valuable for the measurement of MC in wood. In this study, the possibility of utilizing this technique for local MC measurement in wood has been tested on wood samples exposed to water absorption for 72 h. The samples came from three different wood species treated with paint systems available on the market. In the wood samples an artificial “crack” had been created in the paint to introduce an area where the water could easily gain access to the wood. The results show the possibility of using the NMR technique for local MC measurements in wood. The measurement area, however, must be related to the properties of the material. In the case of wood, the measurement spot must be related to the early/latewood proportions. Further, a calibration of the NMR measurement must be made in relation to the expected density variations of the material.

  • 21.
    Johansson, Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Vessby, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Expert competence for sustainable timber engineering: a master program in close cooperation between industry and academia2014In: WCTE 2014 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a legislative point of view it has been possible to build timber buildings with arbitrary number of storeys in Sweden during almost two decades. Several buildings up to eight storeys have been completed during that time, but the competence for planning and building such structures are limited to a handful of actors. This fact has been recognized by funders of research/education and an educational program for spreading the knowledge within the industry led by Linnaeus University is financed since about two years. Particularly interesting in the programme is that the courses are developed in cooperation between the industry and the academia. The courses are to fulfil needs with respect to knowledge, but also with respect to format so that the main target group, skilled engineers within the industry, can find the motivation to follow a course or lager parts of the program.

  • 22.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Hanteringens inverkan på skogsbränslets barrandel och fukthalt: – en jämförande studie mellan grönrisskotning och traditionell brunrisskotning av grot2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har vi analyserat hur grotens barrandel påverkas av grönrisskotning jämfört med traditionell brunrisskotning. En hypotes har varit att den traditionella brunrisskotningen inte medför så stort barravfall som man tidigare trott. Om grönrisskotning skulle accepteras skulle det öppna möjligheter för nya tekniker, minskade kostnader, kortare ledtider samt ett större totalt uttag från den enskilda avverkningstrakten. Observera att även grönrisskotning ger ett torkat bränsle och inte skall förväxlas med färsk grot. Bestämning av fraktionsfördelning och fukthalt har genomförts i det material som levereras till den energiomvandlande industrin i anslutning till flisning av groten.

    Resultaten visar att grönrisskotning medför en kraftig avbarrning och innehåller betydligt mindre andel barr än färsk grot. Resultatet visar även att traditionellt brunrisskotad grot innehåller en hel del barr. I praktiken innebär det att grönrisskotad grot innehåller dubbelt så mycket barr (ca 8 % av grotens total torrmassa) som den traditionellt brunrisskotade (ca 4 % av grotens total torrmassa) vid leverans till den energiomvandlande industrin. Både grönrisskotning och brunrisskotning ger en tillfredsställande torkning och resultatet visar att det endast skiljer 5 procentenheter i medelfukthalt mellan grönrisskotad (36 %) för och brunrisskotad (31 %) grot.

    Det har även kunnat konstaterats att groten behöver ligga större delen av sommaren i små processorhögar för att uppnå den rekommenderade avbarrningen. All grot som skotas ihop tidigare än augusti månad är därmed att betrakta som mer eller mindre grönrisskotad. Slutsatsen blir att en stor del av den grot som idag levereras till den energiomvandlande industrin snarare är grönrisskotad än brunrisskotad och innehåller ca 5–10 % barr.

  • 23.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The influence of two different handling methods on the moisture content and composition of logging residuals2013In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 52, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most frequently used handling method in Sweden for the extraction of forest fuels is one in which logging residues are piled in harvester heaps to dry within the clear-cutting area before stacking into larger windrows. This handling method, however, requires multiple stages and the amount of handling involved results in a significant loss of biomass that could have been used for energy. This study compares two handling methods for the extraction of logging residues in stands dominated by Norway spruce. The traditional “dried-stacked” method was compared to the “fresh-stacked” method in which logging residues are collected simultaneously during normal logging operations and stacked in windrows at or near the roadside to dry. Determination of fraction composition and moisture content was carried out on the biomass provided to the energy-converting industry shortly after comminuting the logging residues. The results show that the fresh-stacked logging residues contained a higher amount of needles (8%), compared to 4% for the dried-stacked logging residues. However, the amount of needles was considered to be low in both handling methods. Both handling methods were proven to provide adequate drying with moisture content levels at approximately 36% for fresh-stacked and 31% for dried-stacked logging residues. These results indicate that weather and forest conditions have a greater impact on the moisture content than handling method. An acceptance of fresh-stacked logging residues, preferably connected to ash recycling, would afford the energy-converting industries the opportunity to use new technologies, reduce costs and extract a greater biomass total.

  • 24.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Azoulay, Michel
    Baudin, Anders
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Carlsson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Natural Sciences.
    Eliasson, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Kifetew, Girma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nilsson, Jonaz
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Nordvall, Hans-Olof
    Thörnqvist, Thomas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Utvändiga träfasader: Inverkan av materialval, konstruktion och ytbehandling på beständigheten hos fasader av gran och tall2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The external façade must give expression to a building through both design and colour, and it must also protect the insulating layers in the wall from external influences. These functions can be fulfilled by almost all materials. If wood is to be competitive in this context, the wood material, the façade design and the surface treatment system must be chosen and interact in such a way that the façade is given a long life with little need for maintenance. A wooden façade will then in a broad sense be both economically and aesthetically attractive for the user.

    This study illustrates the state of knowledge regarding the outdoor use of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) facings above ground. Specifically, it deals with the use of wooden facings with regard to the choice of material, façade design, surface treatment and recycling. The market demands wooden facing systems, and the requirements emphasized by the actors on the market, e.g. the builders, real estate administrators, architects, designers, frame suppliers, contractors and representatives for the single-family timber housing industry can be summed up as follows:

    • There must be a specified life-time and given time intervals for maintenance of the wooden facings. (Shall be similar to those of competitive materials)
    • The supplier of the facing system should shoulder the long-term responsibility for its maintenance.
    • Flexibility, the supplier shall be able to replace or renovate the facings when necessary.
    • Building requirements, the wooden facing materials must be able to interact with other, specially fire-classified, materials.
    • The facing system shall have an attractive appearance.

    The primary market for the new facing systems should be multi-family houses but not necessarily multi-family houses of wood. The focus shall lie in the flexibility of the facing system in architectural expression, and in relation to other materials and systems. New building is important, but the million program, renovation and additions (ROT) and greater energy efficiency are also important spheres.

    The Swedish market is small (currently ca. 70 000 m3 wood for façades), but it should nevertheless be given priority before the Nordic countries, and thereafter Switzerland, Austria and Germany. The literature describes more or less well-founded recommendations for prolonging the life of wooden facing materials and extending their maintenance intervals, although some of the recommendations are directly conflicting.

    Many details relating to materials choice, façade design and surface treatment are important for the durability of wooden facings. It is difficult to separate the most important factors, but without taking into consideration aspects such as costs, availability and other factors of a practical nature, the following key factors can be identified as important for an environmentally correct and durable façade of pinewood or spruce:

    Choice of material

    • The wood shall have a high proportion of heartwood, preferably exclusively heartwood
    • The wood shall have vertical annual rings.

    Handling from forest to the façade

    • The wood shall be handled so that it does not suffer mechanical damage or microbial attack, or become wet or soiled, i.e. a rapid and correct handling with good packaging.

    Design

    • The façade shall start at least 30 cm above the ground level.
    • The façade shall be ventilated so that moisture can rapidly dry out. Ventilation of the space behind the facing is an easy way of achieving this.
    • Water run-off – no horizontal surfaces.
    • Flexibility –both in the construction and in the architectural design. There is a demand for facing systems which can be simply “hung onto” existing buildings.

    Surface treatment

    • Sealed end-grain sections – sealing of the end-grain surface to prevent moisture absorption into the wood is decisive for the life-time of the wood material. Nailing can open up new end-grain surfaces and should thus be carried out carefully and only after due consideration.
    • Rounded edges – increase the covering ability of paint and reduce the risk of mechanical damage to the facing boards.
    • Choice of surface treatment – vital for the performance of the facings. The wooden facings shall be delivered as part of the complete maintenance package.

    Nowadays there are many types of surface treatment where nano-technology is used to create an added value in a surface compared with what the more traditional products can offer. Nano-based surface-treatment products are already on the market, and they are said to make the surfaces dirt- and water-repellent, to prevent the growth of algae, fungi and moss, to improve UV- and temperature-resistance and colour permanence, to improve scratch- and abrasion-resistance, and to have anti-graffiti qualities etc. However, most of these products are new and for some of them there are still question marks with regard to their long-term performance and technical life-time, as well as their serviceability and thereto related economy seen from a life-cycle perspective for the product or system for which the surface treatment constitutes only a part.

    A cost analysis carried out as a part of the study makes the assessment that the new nano-technology-based surface-treatment systems could lead at most to a reduction of 15 %. in maintenance costs. The assumption is then that the façade needs to be cleaned every fifth or seventh year when a traditional painting system is used.

    According to the Swedish Standard, recovered wood from a wooden façade is defined as tree fuel and is generally designated recycled wood or, when the material is in a disintegrated form, as recycled chips,

    There is a major problem in recovering energy from recycled wood when a part of the material has been treated in some way, e.g. impregnated with a wood-protection agent or surface-treated, or when it contains other design components of e.g. plastic or metal. Recycled chips are a very good fuel for energy recovery provided the plant has adequate flue-gas cleaning and the ash is handled in a correct manner. Contaminated ash constitutes a problem, since it is classified as dangerous waste and cannot therefore be returned to the forest. If the content of heavy metals is not too high, the ash can be used as a covering and filling material. Otherwise, the ash must be deposited as landfill. A better sorting of household waste and an overhaul of the regulations would mean that the cleaned recycled wood could be burned in conventional biofuel boilers and that the contaminated portion could be burned separately.

     

  • 25.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Influence of some wood characteristics on the variation of moisture content in outdoor exposed coated Norway spruce panels2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A field test of coated spruce was exposed outdoors during three years, measuring the influence of wood characteristics on the variation of moisture content in coated panels. Wood samples had following characteristics: fast-grown or slow-grown wood, heartwood or sapwood. Three different film-forming coatings were tested and all samples were exposed above ground on racks. The measured moisture contents were evaluated using the statistical method Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The moisture content of the coated samples was clearly influenced by wood characteristics; fast-grown wood had higher moisture content and higher moisture fluctuation than slow-grown wood in each respective coating system. The choice of coating system also affects the wood moisture content. The result indicates that in order to achieve low moisture content- excluding the effectiveness of coatings, wood characteristics should also be considered.

  • 26.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The impact of heartwood and sapwood on biological discoloration of a painted surface2016In: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood science and engineering - a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy. September 12-13, 2016, Riga, Latvia / [ed] Bruno Andersons, Arnis Kokorevics, Riga: Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, p. 137-142Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood material has advantages, it comes from a renewable source and it is easy to manage. But one disadvantage when used outdoors is biological discoloration of the material. Some impact on the discoloration is the presence of moisture and nutrients, necessary components for the microorganisms to grow and start a colonisation. Samples made of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) heartwood or sapwood coated with two different film forming paints was studied. The paints had a binder formula made of alkyd or acrylate. Additional parameters related to study the influence of moisture content on discoloration were high and low density material, with and without impregnation oil. Outdoor exposure was made during five years in the southern part of Sweden. The samples were hung with 45 degree inclination, facing south direction. Visual differences in biological surface discoloration were observed for samples within the same paint, which could be explained by differences in heartwood and sapwood.

  • 27.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    The influence of coating color, heartwood and sapwood, on moisture content and growth of microorganisms on the surface during outdoor exposure of Norway spruce boards2019In: Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, ISSN 1547-0091, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 819-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood contributes to the global transformation into a bio-based community. There are, however, challenges. The growth of mold, rot fungi, and algae on the coated surface is of major concern due to decreased aesthetic service life and shorter maintenance intervals. The colonization of a coated surface requires the presence of spores, nutrients, and a sufficient amount of water. This work studied the influence of using heartwood and sapwood on the moisture content (MC) and growth of microorganisms on the surface of coated Norway spruce boards [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. The results revealed a relationship of heartwood samples having a lower MC and a lower or equal degree of biological growth on the coated surface than sapwood samples. The relationship was valid through a range of densities (309–548 kg/m3) and two different coating systems based on either an alkyd or an acrylic resin. Furthermore, the choice of coating color (red compared to white) affected the MC as the red-colored samples had a lower MC, combined with no growth of microorganisms.

  • 28.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Utomhusexponering av ytbehandlat trä: Undersökning av trämaterialets påverkan på beständigheten hos en målad granpanel2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Niklewski, Jonas
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effect of wood density and cracks on the moisture content of coated Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)2019In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 160-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A protective coating is often used on the cladding of wooden facades to limit the absorption of moisture. Low wood moisture content (MC) is essential to obtain satisfactory durability performance. Wood density is known to influence the water sorption and crack formation of uncoated wood. However, the effect of density on the aforementioned behaviors of coated spruce is not yet fully understood. Six-years of data on the crack formation and the MC variation of outdoor exposed panels are analyzed in this article. The outdoor test was complemented by a subsequent laboratory experiment, wherein the MC variation was monitored at different depths on the board during artificial water spraying. The aim of this research was to increase the knowledge about how wood density and aging affect the water sorption of coated spruce through the crack formation. The results indicated that wood density had an impact on the overall sorption behavior of coated spruce. Low-density spruce contributed to faster water absorption and desorption processes than coated samples with higher density. However, the observed correlation to density was limited to a condition with an intact coating. High-density characteristics contributed to more crack formation, and the density–sorption relationship reversed with a cracked coating. A cracked coating caused a strong local increase in the MC of the wood at the location of the cracks. Weather-exposed replicates without cracks had a higher MC in the core of the board compared with the value beneath the coating. The higher MC is probably due to the water sorption of the uncoated backside of the panel. Such an occurrence raised awareness for future studies to account for multidimensional sorption behavior from all sides of the panel. The local difference in MC also raises awareness for future studies to investigate local MC variations (as opposed to the global average of the panel) in research on the durability of coated wood.

  • 30.
    Sjökvist, Tinh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Wålinder, Magnus E.P.
    Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Blom, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Liquid sorption characterisation of Norway spruce heartwood and sapwood using a muiticycle Wilhelmy plate metho2018In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multicycle Wilhelmy plate method was applied to study the water and octane sorption behaviour of small Norway spruce veneers. Dry heart- and sapwood samples of varying density were investigated. The results showed a correlation between the porosity and the sorption of octane for all samples, i.e. a higher wood porosity resulted in higher octane sorption. However, no difference in octane sorption was found between heart- and sapwood samples of similar density. The water sorption behaviour was difficult to interpret, probably due to the influence of surface-active wood extractives. It is suggested that the presence of such extractives, particularly in the sapwood samples, increases the sorption of water due to a significant decrease in its apparent surface tension. Hence, the results indicate that the liquid water sorption of spruce heart- and sapwood is strongly influenced by variations in the extractives content rather than by the micromorphology.

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